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TPM

TPM Mantenimiento Productivo Total


TPM, el Mantenimiento Productivo Total, una estrategia indispensable para participar en el mercado global del siglo 21
Temario Propuesto:
1. Antecedentes. Los primeros asomos de la actividad de mantenimiento y su evolución hasta llegar a la filosofía del TPM o Mantenimiento Productivo Total.
2. Definición De TPM O MPT, Procedimientos Para Instalar Esta Disciplina Con Éxito, La Atmósfera Positiva Generada Por El Sistema, Las Nuevas Formas De Liderazgo Y Nuevos Conceptos
De Mando Y Autoridad. ¿Cuál Es La Base De Nuestra Actividad?

3. Capacitación y Entrenamiento
Surge Kaizén

Auto-Descubrimiento Creativo Lógico

Tema y Contenido

Consolidando lo aprendido

La Lección de Un Punto

4. Seis Principales Causas Crónicas De Pérdidas.


Existen, Según La Definición Tradicional En El TPM, Seis Principales Causas Crónicas De Pérdidas.

La confiabilidad del equipo, definiciones tradicionales

Confiabilidad original

Confiabilidad operativa u operacional

Deterioro y Restauración

Condiciones óptimas de operación

Defectos menores del equipo


Análisis de la Causa Raíz
Diagrama de Causas

Ajustes de Equipo y Pérdidas Aisladas o Esporádicas

Tomando acción contra descomposturas

Principios básicos para lograr cero descomposturas.

Mejorando los tiempos de preparación y ajuste (SMED). Esta es una disciplina de Manufactura Esbelta que se combina muy bien con TPM

Actividades De Preparación Internas Y Externas


Los Problemas Menores y Sus Costos Mayores
5. Beneficios Directos En La Calidad Del Producto
Y Sus Consecuencias:
Mejoramiento De Las Condiciones De Trabajo Y Por Ende Aumento De La Productividad Individual Y De Conjunto. El Logro De Condiciones Más Seguras En El Área De Trabajo.

6. Cómo Determinar Si Una Planta Está Lista Para Implementar el TPM


7. Procedimiento Para Una Implementación Exitosa
TPM
TPM es “Total Productive Maintenance”, traducido literalmente “Mantenimiento Productivo Total”.
Mantenimiento – Porque tiene como objetivo el buen funcionamiento sostenido de los equipos.
Productivo – Porque persigue la alta productividad a través de la disponibilidad de los equipos (alto OEE)
Total – Porque implica a todo el personal, no sólo a Mantenimiento.

Objetivos
El objetivo general del TPM es aumentar el OEE (Eficiencia global de los medios de producción), especialmente mediante la eliminación de
averías (y el sostenimiento de las condiciones mejoradas)
Objetivos asociados:
• Reducción de los costes de mantenimiento
• Incremento de la productividad
• MTBF (Mean Time Between Faliures) (Frecuencia de averías)
• MTTR (Mean Time to Repair) (Capacidad de reacción ante averías)
• Reducción de Reprocesos
• Reducción de Chatarras
• Mejora de la Motivación del personal
Participantes en el desarrollo del TPM:
Dirección (como promotor del proyecto)
Producción (como parte activa y responsable de la fiabilidad de los equipos)
Ingeniería (como responsable de la estandarización)
Mantenimiento (en sus tareas adicionales de formar al personal y ser formado para adquirir nuevas
competencias)
Preparación de la implantación de TPM
• Implantar el TPM implica generalmente un cambio de mentalidad en la organización.
• Tradicionalmente las funciones de “Producción” y “Mantenimiento” están desligadas.
• Sólo en caso de incidencias muy sencillas y personal con experiencia cabe esperar una
intervención propia de Mantenimiento realizada por personal ajeno a Mantenimiento.
Aún así el límite entre Mantenimiento y Producción puede no estar del todo claro en
estos casos, y puede dar lugar a conflictos.
• Para conseguir el cambio de mentalidad que supone el TPM es importante partir de:
1.un conocimiento suficiente de la metodología del TPM
2.una experiencia que ayude a afianzar la nueva forma de proceder
• Puede ser conveniente trabajar previamente en la implantación de las 5S (lo cual en sí
implica también formación y estandarización). Esto tendrá dos ventajas importantes para
el TPM:
• ◦Se lleva a cabo una limpieza integral de los equipos con la intención de sacar los problemas a la
superficie.
• ◦Se definen estándares de orden y limpieza. Y además se pone en marcha un plan de auditorías
que pretende identificar y corregir desviaciones del estándar.
Preparación de la implantación de TPM
• Existen estadísticas, como las proporcionadas por la VDMA (Asociación Alemana de Fabricantes de
Maquinaria) en 2001, que señalan la suciedad como causa origen principal de las averías:
• 1.Suciedad (40%) – filtros sucios en motores eléctricos y bombas hidráulicas, virutas de mecanizado, etc.
• 2.Fallos humanos (33%) – falta de formación, falta de motivación, instrucciones inadecuadas, etc.
• 3. Desgaste/Rotura de herramientas (25%)
• Estos datos reafirman la conveniencia de implantar las 5S. Si bien es conveniente contemplar las 5S no como
un fin en sí, sino como una base sólida para la implantación posterior de otros sistemas que pueden
contribuir a un cambio profundo de la organización.
• En cualquier caso, si se tiene éxito con las 5S hay mucho ganado con respecto al TPM.
• El TPM implica la participación de TODOS, pero no a todos le cambia la vida como al operario. En niveles
avanzados del TPM, el operario se vuelve responsable de la disponibilidad de los medios de producción. Esto
quiere decir que se espera de él:
• - que realice operaciones básicas de mantenimiento preventivo
• - que sea capaz de resolver averías sencillas en los equipos (mantenimiento correctivo básico)
• - que lleve a cabo una continua inspección de los equipos para predecir futuros problemas (apoyo al mantenimiento
predictivo)
• Se espera por tanto que el operario lleve a cabo funciones adicionales a las propias de la producción. Esto
tiene sentido por la habilidad que le confiere el contacto continuo con las máquinas; y por otra parte por
que realmente “es capaz de hacerlo”:
• Podemos considerar que, en la mayoría de los casos, más de la mitad de las operaciones que habitualmente
realiza el personal de Mantenimiento puede realizarlas el propio operario. Algunas de ellas sin ni siquiera
formación adicional, otras requieren formación y a veces también herramientas específicas.
• Luego el papel de Mantenimiento es importante a la hora de definir qué tipo de operaciones son trasladables al personal de
Producción y en qué condiciones. Finalizado esto, ¿qué cabe esperar del Departamento de Mantenimiento? ¿Es prescindible? No.
La idea es aprovechar la capacidad extra obtenida para especializar al personal de Mantenimiento, de modo que se pueda reducir
la dependencia de personal exterior. Es decir, de modo que haya un mayor conocimiento interno de los equipos.
• Las etapas del TPM pueden variar según se desglosen o agrupen. En cualquier caso deben pasar por las siguientes fases:
• 1ª: Limpieza integral de los equipos.
• Al igual que en las 5S, esta limpieza integral pretende sobre todo sacar los problemas a la superficie, de modo que puedan
resolverse.
• La idea es dejar los equipos en condiciones óptimas de funcionamiento. Posteriormente se trabajará en cómo mantener las
mejoras conseguidas.

• 2ª: Medidas preventivas para el sostenimiento de las condiciones de limpieza.


• Esta etapa vendría a coincidir con la conclusión de las 5S: Sostener.
• A partir de este momento, y hasta el final, la colaboración de los supervisores o líderes de equipo es fundamental.
• 3ª: Estandarización.
• Se definen cuáles van a ser las tareas básicas de mantenimiento a realizar periódicamente. También se inicia un registro continuo
de desviaciones.
• 4ª: Asunción de responsabilidad del operario sobre la disponibilidad de sus equipos.
• Formación del personal para las actividades de automantenimiento, inspección y mantenimiento correctivo limitado. El operario
asume la responsabilidad sobre la disponibilidad de sus equipos.
• 5ª: Automantenimiento.
• Implantación completa del automantenimiento, inspección y mantenimiento correctivo limitado.
¿Qué cabe esperar del TPM?
• El TPM implementado con éxito conlleva importantes beneficios en forma de incremento de productividad y reducción de costes de mantenimiento. Si
bien a corto plazo implica:
•Formación
•Tiempo (las primeras fases del TPM implican paros prolongados para la intervención conjunta de Producción y Mantenimiento)
•Medios (Herramientas, estándares…) para las nuevas competencias del personal de Producción.
• Factores clave para el éxito:
•Compromiso de la Dirección.
•Definir objetivos medibles a revisar con determinada frecuencia.
•Definir “coordinadores TPM” que velen por su correcta implementación.
•Asegurar que los registros continuos de incidencias tienen respuesta en un continuo apoyo al personal. Sólo así cobran sentido.
• Puede no se clave pero sí muy conveniente comenzar la andadura con talleres piloto (áreas no excesivamente complejas y en las que el impacto sea
significativo).
• Algunas herramientas:
• Identificación de niveles de TPM alcanzados.
• Tiene sentido identificar el nivel de TPM alcanzado en las instalaciones para poder hacer un fácil control visual del alcance que el TPM está teniendo en las instalaciones.
• Esto implica aplicar también un sistema de evaluación (o auditoría) que nos ayude a reconocer el nivel de TPM alcanzado.
• Las “tarjetas TPM”
• Existen diversos tipos de “tarjetas TPM”.
• Se utilizan para identificar las anomalías directamente en la máquina. Otras tarjetas tienen copias que pasan a Mantenimiento y/o al Coordinador del
Programa TPM para coordinar las reparaciones.
• Existen diferentes metodologías y modelos para la implantación del TPM.
• El TPM abarca indicadores y herramientas importantes tales como el OEE, ciclo PDCA, SMED, 5S, 5-WHY…que pueden hacerlo muy complejo.
• No es posible proveer información suficiente en una ficha para acometer la implantación del TPM, pero sí para tener una idea inicial que anime a dar un
siguiente paso.
Dificultades para implementar TPM en Pymes
• El Mantenimiento Total Productivo (TPM) es un sistema de gestión integrada que para su implementación en nuestra industria requiere de un cambio profundo. Esto demanda la
alineación de acciones, recursos económicos, soporte y capacitación. Las dificultades para implementar TPM en Pymes y fue el tema que desarrolló el especialista Iván Rius a lo
largo de una entrevista con Cualitar, en la que destacó la importancia de este método de gestión en los tiempos actuales.
En primer lugar, Rius destacó la falta de conocimiento de la herramienta: “Creo que a nivel Pyme el desconocimiento es muy profundo, en particular en Córdoba. Hay prejuicios
como que el TPM no es para el tamaño de la empresa. Y hoy ya no alcanza con tener un nicho de mercado o haber heredado una empresa en funcionamiento, hay que ser muy
eficientes”.

Durante su paso por la industria automotriz y sus experiencias en proyectos TPM, Rius se encontró con una cierta resistencia a implementar sistemas de gestión integrada que
ataquen las causas profundas de los problemas de las organizaciones. “Ese tipo de sistema nos obliga a interrelacionarnos, a tener que trabajar en equipo, hace que conversen
distintos departamentos. Y ese mismo ejercicio va llevando a que las personas empiecen a descubrir conflictos, a sacarlos a la luz, a tratarlos en lugar de ocultarlos. En las
industrias que desconocen estos sistemas el conflicto es algo tapado. Cada área tapa sus errores y muchas veces tienen objetivos contrapuestos. Son todos compartimientos
estancos que a lo sumo se juntan una vez con la alta Dirección pero no exponen los conflictos reales”, expresa.
• Enseñanza y capacitación

Los problemas de falta de conocimiento parten desde el mismo ámbito académico, donde el TPM se enseña como un capítulo dentro de una materia de mantenimiento. “Y está
muy lejos de ser mantenimiento, es un sistema integral de gestión”, enfatiza nuevamente el especialista.
Si un ingeniero industrial está completamente empapado en TPM, continúa, puede lograr esa interrelación necesaria entre los distintos departamentos de la empresa. Así se logra
que cada área se enfoque en los problemas reales y soluciones pertinentes.

• Quiebre de cultura
• Según Rius, cuesta tanto implementar el cambio porque el TPM ataca causas profundas y hoy se tiende a la búsqueda de resultados inmediatos lo que siempre tienta a llamar a
un tercero que repare nuestros equipos. Así, “nos perdemos la enseñanza en nuestros operadores, el abrir y conocer el equipo por dentro, el que vengan todas las áreas de
apoyo, el que la gerencia misma participe y haga un quiebre de cultura porque se pone un overol. Ese es el cambio”, sostiene.
Otro punto a tener en cuenta es la cuestión económica. “Si buscás resultados inmediatos no busques TPM. Empezás a implementar TPM, tus pérdidas aumentan. Tus costos
aumentan ya que estás invirtiendo y eso puedeser un inconveniente para algunos. La resistencia es cultural y económica. Las área de soporte están obligadas a ser parte de ese
proceso”, advierte el ingeniero Rius.

• TPM en Pymes
• Entre las características de la cultura argentina no puede ignorarse una cuota de indisciplina y desorden. Es por eso que para el entrevistado la implementación exitosa de TPM
requiere de un paso previo: la incorporación de base de las 5S (Clasificación, Orden, Limpieza, Normalización y Mantener la disciplina).
Para el final dejamos esta inquietud ¿por qué llevar el TPM a las Pymes? Rius da una respuesta concluyente: “Creo que las empresas de punta conocen las herramientas de TPM,
muchas las aplican, el tema es que tienen que llegar fundamentalmente a las Pymes. Ahí es donde la falta de difusión, la falta de conocimiento de nuestros ingenieros, hacen que
no se implemente. Si realmente supieran el cambio cultural que provocan las implementarían, aunque sea despacio, modelo gerencial primero y despliegue paso a paso después
al ritmo de las posibilidades”. Con un entorno cada vez más agresivo, “vamos a tener que ir hacia esos cambios o hacia pérdida de competitividad y desaparición de empresas”,
cerró el especialista.
From the Origins of Maintenance to The Total Productive Maintenance Concept
• Background
• The first manifestations of the maintenance activity and their evolution until arriving at the philosophy of TPM or Total Productive Maintenance.
• At the beginning of industrial activity, maintenance was considered a necessary evil. Companies did not give much importance to it. It was not considered an
integral part of the productive process and management support was at a minimum. Only corrective maintenance was practiced, frequently with the
minimum of resources possible. After awhile, the equipment was degraded, losing a high percentage of the original potential. Sometimes very ingenious
repairs were made.
• Other repairs were very badly done with patches, counterbalances, improvised spare parts, moorings of wire or cord, poles and other devices. This was
common in the industrial atmosphere of the first decades of the 20th century. This was the trend especially in some Latin American and other under-
developed countries, due to the economic limitations and helped by their creativity. Great admiration was given to the “maestro” who found a way to replace
such-and-such piece by something more resistant to breakage (although perhaps eliminating the original safety intention). This creativity, in many cases, also
compromised the original design features and characteristics.
• The postwar period after the middle of the 1940’s, brought a new atmosphere of greater competition associated with the industrial revolution. Corrective or
Rupture Maintenance takes better control, now using original replacements, although almost always productive time is lost whenever the need arises to make
a repair. A disadvantage of this concept of maintenance as a minimum defect is overlooked until it becomes a major/high-cost breakdown; when the minimum
defect could have been repaired at a much smaller cost.
• With losses in mind, a new idea of "Preventative" (later simplified to Preventive) Maintenance (PM) starts in the 1950’s. Based on the lifespan of the parts and
components, as well as the recommendations of some equipment manufacturers, it contributes to reduce productivity losses. In 1963, this technique comes
to America, and Ford Motor Company becomes one of the first companies to implement PM. Preventive Maintenance has the advantage of reducing failure-
stoppages of equipment. Its disadvantages are that it is more expensive in terms of so many replaced parts that could have lasted more months and even
years, and the countless labor used in inspecting equipment to prevent failure. However, there is no doubt that PM was an important advancement.
• A transition stage develops a new perspective which later becomes TPM. This transitory stage was called Productive Maintenance. It was centered on an
increase of the responsibilities of the once undervalued Maintenance Department.
From the Origins of Maintenance to The Total Productive Maintenance Concept
• Background
• The first manifestations of the maintenance activity and their evolution until arriving at the philosophy of TPM or Total Productive Maintenance.
• At the beginning of industrial activity, maintenance was considered a necessary evil. Companies did not give much importance to it. It was not considered an
integral part of the productive process and management support was at a minimum. Only corrective maintenance was practiced, frequently with the
minimum of resources possible. After awhile, the equipment was degraded, losing a high percentage of the original potential. Sometimes very ingenious
repairs were made.
• Other repairs were very badly done with patches, counterbalances, improvised spare parts, moorings of wire or cord, poles and other devices. This was
common in the industrial atmosphere of the first decades of the 20th century. This was the trend especially in some Latin American and other under-
developed countries, due to the economic limitations and helped by their creativity. Great admiration was given to the “maestro” who found a way to replace
such-and-such piece by something more resistant to breakage (although perhaps eliminating the original safety intention). This creativity, in many cases, also
compromised the original design features and characteristics.
• The postwar period after the middle of the 1940’s, brought a new atmosphere of greater competition associated with the industrial revolution. Corrective or
Rupture Maintenance takes better control, now using original replacements, although almost always productive time is lost whenever the need arises to make
a repair. A disadvantage of this concept of maintenance as a minimum defect is overlooked until it becomes a major/high-cost breakdown; when the minimum
defect could have been repaired at a much smaller cost.
• With losses in mind, a new idea of "Preventative" (later simplified to Preventive) Maintenance (PM) starts in the 1950’s. Based on the lifespan of the parts and
components, as well as the recommendations of some equipment manufacturers, it contributes to reduce productivity losses. In 1963, this technique comes
to America, and Ford Motor Company becomes one of the first companies to implement PM. Preventive Maintenance has the advantage of reducing failure-
stoppages of equipment. Its disadvantages are that it is more expensive in terms of so many replaced parts that could have lasted more months and even
years, and the countless labor used in inspecting equipment to prevent failure. However, there is no doubt that PM was an important advancement.
• A transition stage develops a new perspective which later becomes TPM. This transitory stage was called Productive Maintenance. It was centered on an
increase of the responsibilities of the once undervalued Maintenance Department.
How To Determine If A Plant Is Ready To
Implement TPM
• Some very important factors will allow for us to determine if a plant or company is ready to implement TPM. Let us see what they are and in that way we will be able to contribute.
• Remember that it is a process that has to receive authentic support on the part of the high management. This means if there is not a great interest of the owner or president of the company, we will not be able to do
it.
• In many cases, maintenance or manufacturing people are very enthusiastic for the advantages that they know can be achieved through TPM, however they are not able to communicate their enthusiasm to the leaders
or owners of their companies. Sure, because it is required "to sell" the idea and we are not always very expert in that area, it will be helpful that the manager reads this article and some books on this subject.
• Quite frequently, it is difficult to accept the drastic changes that should be made in the company management, especially if the company has been working well. Here it will be necessary that the managers become
aware of the urgent necessity of being more competitive to be able to remain in the market. TPM, (as well as the other disciplines of Lean Manufacturing), offers them exactly that, maintaining their company in a
world-class competitive level. The cost reduction in the operation is evident. It is no secret that the Japanese miracle was founded exactly on the efficiency, disciplines, quality and vision of the Toyota Production
System.
• The managers of the 21st century need to be aware of this reality and get ready to subsist amid the fierce worldwide competition. Even in cases where there isn't an apparent competitor, integrating programs of this
type can represent a better profit margin and, therefore, the capacity to maneuver and grow in the future.
• Two competition areas in which manufacturers are involved: We compete for the market of our products and in recent times we compete in the labor market to get and conserve the best people. How to make sure of
having the best people? There are only two ways: train them so that their knowledge is at the best possible level and show them that we respect them. They are an important part of the organization. We should pay
them a fair - competitive wage.
• Additionally, the personnel's loyalty also is a result of the work atmosphere. It is necessary to create a leadership environment where the voices of all are equally listened to and each one is recognized as a valuable
element of the organization, despite their position, age, sex, race or academic backgrounds. It is the responsibility of the supervision and management levels to establish better communication to find out all about their
personnel's capacities, abilities, ideas and expectations, and to offer the necessary support to take advantage of that valuable energy. This atmosphere of leadership is also a necessary ingredient for a good
implementation of TPM and Lean Manufacturing.
• Finally and of not smaller importance, is the vision of the company:
• Are there projects for growth in the coming years?
• Is the company in search of constant opportunities of serving its clients better and of constantly increasing its clientele and its participation in the market?
• Is the company flexible to make changes in its products if the market demands them?
• •Does an atmosphere of constant improvement exist?
• When a company is at least in an evolution process toward the suitable conditions, good possibilities of a successful implementation exist. If not, it is necessary to begin by creating these conditions before thinking of
bringing new philosophies and disciplines.
• The worst thing that we can do is to begin a project that we are not sure will have a complete success. We would be sending the Wrong Message.
Procedure For A Successful TPM Implementation Pilot Project
• One of the aspects that we should take care of in the implementation is that all the participants in each project receive the information about the advantages that this change will clearly represent for each one of them.
Only then will a positive motivation be developed toward the project.

• It is advisable that the first project integrates people that we know that are positive and want to cooperate. It is also convenient that it is a machine or system with high visibility that is in a place where the whole personnel
of the plant notices it.

• Certainly it will be very good to start first with those machines that the managers of each area consider critical. Especially if it is a machine that has recently been having more problems than usual.

• The Pilot Group

• It is important to have in the pilot group well-selected people who are interested in innovation. We will wake up the interest of the operators, assistants, supervisors, etc. Previous to the event, we will share with them that
we are beginning a very important event for the organization, as it really is. We will also tell them that TPM will allow them to make their work easier, safer and more efficient, which is also true. We will tell them that in the
new system, the most important thing is their opinions, points of view and active participation, and that those who decide to participate will receive training that will allow them to have a bigger decision role. After sharing
this information with them, we should ask them if it would interest them to have the opportunity to participate. Only if their response is affirmative should we consider inviting them to the pilot group workshop. If we know
how to handle this motivation process, they will surely be desirous of beginning their participation.

• The TPM Distinctive

• In coordination with the managers, it is convenient to define what the distinctive color of TPM will be in the plant. EXXON for example chose a beige color instead of the traditional gray on the machines; while Toyota has
started using white everywhere. NASSCO adopted a brilliant blue that contrasts notably with the multicolored neglected machines of the past. Each plant should choose its color. Starting from the implementation, the
machine will be painted in that color. As the operator takes charge of its continuous maintenance and cleaning, the machine will keep shining like new for many years. We have even provided operators with spray cans to
touch up any scratches to the machine.

• The Communication

• Spread Of TPM

• The clean and "like new" aspect of the equipment and the area will soon begin to identify in advance the sensation of the new culture. The morale of the people who work in the area is contagious. The coordinator begins to
receive people's petitions for their equipment to be “TPM-ed”. Therefore it is so important that the first implementation project on the pilot equipment be a success in everyway:

• Success in terms of bringing the equipment to achieve its maximum capacity and productivity.

• » Success in the new proud attitude of ownership from the operator.

• » Success in the achievement of reliability and good maintainability, which will translate into net earnings for the whole organization.

• Let us remember that everybody wants to be part of success. There will be workers, supervisors and managers of the same and other areas who will be spontaneously applying the process and gradually the TPM will
become a component of the new image of the company.

• Remember, it should be developed in a controlled form to make the program a consistent success and done one piece of equipment at a time. Only with smaller equipment can we take more than one piece at the same
time.

• If the company has big economic resources, two or more coordinators can be empowered. That way, the implementation process naturally accelerates. An ambitious plan can contemplate about twenty-five to thirty annual
projects per coordinator. Let us remember that after the first project, the coordinator, besides being on top of the current and following project, should continue a constant communication with the operators and
supervisors of the equipment already implemented. The implementation stage is only the beginning of a never-ending process of surveillance and reinforcement of the new standards, paying attention to new improvement
opportunities.
More Keys To The Success In The TPM Implementation
There are some concepts, recommendations and general guidelines that in my experience have contributed to achieve successful implementations.

Before anything else, it is indispensable that the top management of the company supports the program without hesitation. I have seen very enthusiastic people in
Manufacturing, Maintenance, and Plant Engineering trying to make a plan work without the support of the high management, and they simply could not succeed.

How "To Sell" The Idea To Top Management?

There is an "old wave" of managers, who in spite of having a poor preparation and old strategies, were able to establish successful businesses. They are sometimes difficult
to sell new ideas. These people believe that there is no reason to change. Today, we are finding that those businesses are either about to shut down or are changing hands
to more conscientious executives who are aware of the changing conditions of the market.

Bringing TPM to the new generation of executives is simpler than we could imagine. The reasoning is simple. We cannot face today's competition with the skills of the past.
Even if we have had very good experience through the previous decades, the conditions today are drastically different. Products that in the past had profit margins of up to
90% of their wholesale price, today fight to stay in margins within 15 or 20%. This is a result of the Global competition.

We see whole industries that have been materially "swept" by the foreign competition. Such is the case of the television factories, that in 1970 had more than 50 plants and
brands in the USA. Today not one exists. Taiwan, China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, other Asian countries and other parts of the world have captured the whole market. The
same has happened with the photographic, steel, watches and clothing manufacturing industries. How did they achieve it? By following logical precepts as:
•High Quality
•Lower Costs
•Effective Guarantees
•Maximized Efficiency
•New Strategies
•Listening to the Customer
This is the panorama we should observe and analyze with our managers. The attitude should not be fatalistic but very realistic. Today, when the company is still
running, is the time to take action. A few months or years later, it will be too late.

If we are overwhelmed by the idea that competition is a problem, we will never be able to really see it as the brilliant opportunity that it really is. The American
automotive industry is a clear example of a late wake up call, but they finally woke up; otherwise that industry would be a simple memory. Today they reach a
smaller participation of the world market compared to what they had in the 50’s of last century. At least it has stayed alive.
More Keys To The Success In The TPM Implementation

They are in the process of a cultural change toward Lean Manufacturing and only when they have achieved it, will they be
able to re-conquering part of the lost market. The German supremacy in optic instruments is already a thing of the past.
And what can we say of the proud Swiss watch-making industry? These have suffered the impact of the change. It is not the
competition that defeated them, but their incompetence to face and measure up to it.

Arrogance, or in certain cases the lack of humility, can make us lose the real sight of the true proportion of the impact that
our competitors can have.

There is a story from when the Japanese began the production of the Orient and Citizen watches. In a few years they
conquered the market never to lose it. The story says that a Swiss tool company sent the Japanese manufacturers an
assortment of miniature sample drill bits and thread cutters to be used in watch-making. The Swiss company made these
tools with “unique materials” and the great experience of more than 600 years of the Swiss watch-making industry. They
assured the Japanese that there were none finer, more precise or harder tools in the world. As the story goes, a few days
later they received the package in return mail, with no comments. The Swiss tool manufacturers ordered a meticulous
inspection of the returned tools by their laboratory metallurgist, only to learn that all the pieces had a perfect hole drilled
through the center lengthwise. Obviously, the Japanese sent the message that they had far better tools than the Swiss.
Truth or fiction, we don't know, but what is true is that the final score favors the Asians about 1000-0.
More Keys To The Success In The TPM Implementation
Wide Promotion
Publicity is indispensable to our process. It is not only a momentary need when implementing, but also permanent while
sustaining. It is necessary to use all the means within our reach, and then we will get great cooperation of the whole
organization. We all want to be part of the success.
Follow-Up
It is very critical to keep giving our implemented projects a constant follow-up and keep continuity of communication with all
the people involved. If this is not done, the great effort can be lost.
"Benchmarking" Exchange and Comparison
A concept that has been difficult to accept among the Western industries is the exchange of experiences and problems and
the comparison of results and solutions. In Japan it is most common to see people from other plants, especially from the
competition, visiting the plants, even taking pictures and videos, and asking questions or giving advice to their colleagues.
This activity favors the advancement and we all should cultivate it. The NUMMI plant of Fremont, California is a very
interesting example of this attitude. In 1992 the plant that belonged to General Motors was closed. Constant losses, a
demoralized labor force and other factors had marked the GM decision to close it.
Toyota rises to the rescue: A proposal from Toyota that nobody could reject came like rain in the desert. They took a group of
workers, supervisors and engineers of GM to Nagoya Japan, the world plant #1 of the automotive industry. They received
training for some months and returned accompanied by a like number of Japanese to establish the "New United Motor
Manufacturing, Inc." (NUMMI), which is a combined managerial venture between Toyota and GM.
Only 7 years later they could see the results. It became the #2 automotive plant in the world. In remarkable coexistence, they
not only share the plant, but the technology. Even engines and other components especially developed for that purpose are
shared, as well as the Lean Manufacturing disciplines of the Toyota Production System. This plant assembles Toyota and GM
cars. A situation that for some conservative managers is simply unthinkable. Benchmarking, Exchange and Comparison are
put to work to the two makers' benefit.
More Keys To The Success In The TPM Implementation

As the father of the Japanese Miracle, William Edwards Deming, American Statistician and Genius, once said: "The problem is
that the losers try to blame everything on the circumstances, without realizing that it is the system that has to change."
Indeed, a system that worked marvelously has now suffered for many years. Today, it faces a sudden and quick aging.

When we face a problem, we should not feel the need to justify ourselves, blaming it on external conditions, but discover the
opportunity to create a new more efficient way of doing things. And the way to achieve it is combining the intelligence,
talent and creativity of all our human resources that, until now, have been underestimated and minimized.

The TPM and the other disciplines of the Lean Manufacturing System create that kind of leadership environment to make it
possible. People from all the levels of the organization are constantly encouraged to participate in the Continuous
Improvement process because they know their ideas will be taken into account.

If we all understand this reality, the higher management will give us the necessary support. A good TPM program is an
excellent foundation for a good Lean Manufacturing implementation. The results will soon be evident, and big benefits will
be felt from the beginning. Among others an improved morale among the personnel, better disposition toward more
productivity, higher level of loyalty, and a leadership atmosphere that will reach all the areas of the organization.