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Andragogia - Presentation Transcript

1. Es la ciencia y el arte que siendo parte de la Antropologa y estando inmersa en la educacin permanente, se desarrolla a travs de una praxis fundamentada en los principios de participacin y horizontalidad; cuyo proceso, al ser orientado con caractersticas sinrgicas por el facilitador del aprendizaje, permite incrementar: Andragoga Del griego andrs, hombre, varn, y de gogos, guiar o conducir o el pensamiento o la autogestin o la calidad de vida o la creatividad del participante adulto Con el propsito de: proporcionarle una oportunidad para que logre su autorealizacin. Felipe Garcs, dice que el concepto de andragoga no es adecuado por que slo hace alusin a los varones, y propone el concepto de Antropogoga, en tanto esta palabra recurre al griego (, ) 'antropos', que alude a la humanidad y no slo al varn. 2. Eduard C. Linderman fue el primer norteamericano en introducir este trmino en dos de sus libros. Identifica desde un enfoque sistmico un esquema con lo que el supone son las claves del aprendizaje de los adultos. Un poco de Historia En el campo de la educacin continua, la andragoga ha tenido gran influencia en las dcadas de los 80 y 90, principalmente en los entornos relacionados con la educacin abierta y a distancia, integrando las aportaciones de la Psicologa y la Pedagoga. Alexander Kapp, maestro alemn utiliz el trmino andragoga por primera ocasin en 1833 al referirse a la escuela de Platn. Malcolm Knowles (19131997), es considerado como el padre de educacin de adultos. Introdujo la teora de andragoga como el arte y la ciencia de ayudar a adultos a aprender. En su obra La Prctica Moderna de Educacin de Adultos: Andragoga contra Pedagoga de 1970, present su Modelo Andraggico. o Los adultos se motivan a aprender cuando tiene necesidades. o La orientacin para aprender se centra en la vida. o Tienen necesidad de autodirigirse profundamente. o Las diferencias individuales se incrementan con la edad. La horizontalidad es donde el facilitador y el estudiante tienen caractersticas cualitativas similares (adultez y experiencia) pero la diferencia la ponen las caractersticas cuantitativas (diferente desarrollo de la conducta observable). Lo anterior, conjuntamente con un ambiente de aprendizaje adecuado, determinan lo que podra llamarse una buena praxis andraggica. Principios Se debe tener en cuenta que la Andragoga se basa en dos principios, participacin y horizontalidad a saber: Participacin La Andragoga proporciona la oportunidad para que el adulto decida qu aprender. La participacin es que el estudiante no es un mero receptor, sino que es capaz de interactuar con sus compaeros, intercambiando experiencias que ayuden a la mejor asimilacin del conocimiento. Horizontalidad El proceso de educacin de adultos debe ser orientado por el Facilitador del aprendizaje, con el fin de Objetivos Generales de la Educacin de Adultos En definitiva, en el contexto andraggico, el rol del instructor pasa a ser necesariamente Facilitador , creando o recreando las condiciones del aprendizaje, de tal manera que el participante , individual o colectivamente, pueda sistematizar la experiencia , resolviendo algn problema o simplemente mejorando los procesos y los procedimientos. Incrementar el pensamiento, la autogestin, el mejoramiento de sus prcticas laborales para una calidad de vida digna y de creatividad del participante adulto para que logre su autorrealizacin. Caractersticas de los Adultos Lo fundamental en la Andragoga es el conocimiento de los sujetos como destinatarios y participantes en los procesos educativos: 1.- Estn conscientes, en general, de sus necesidades de capacitacin * Gradualmente han internalizado que los conocimientos y/o los aprendizajes adquiridos, deben actualizarse, por lo que saben muy bien qu aprenden y para qu deben aprenderlo. * Tienen tiempo limitado para estudiar al tener que balancear las demandas de la familia, el trabajo, el entretenimiento y la educacin * Tienen necesidad psicolgica de ser autodirigidos. El aprendizaje de adultos tiene siempre una implicacin personal que deriva en el desarrollo del autoconcepto, juicios personales y autoeficacia. 2.- El auto concepto * El aprender para un adulto es significativo, pues le entrega un valor agregado a su existencia. Caractersticas de los Adultos 3.- La experiencia * La experiencia acumulada sirve como recurso de aprendizaje y como referente para relacionar aprendizajes nuevos. Por lo tanto, lo pertinente son situaciones reales para analizarlas y vivirlas de acuerdo con su proyecto personal de vida y las experiencias acumuladas. * En algunos casos viejos paradigmas, se pueden convertir en fuente de resistencia interna del individuo. Dadas estas circunstancias, un requisito bsico para el aprendizaje es el desaprendizaje, para luego dar paso al reaprendizaje. As, desarrollan modelos de conducta en situaciones dadas que le facilitan su adaptacin a circunstancias particulares en las que puedan encontrarse en un momento determinado. 4.- La prontitud en aprender Los adultos se disponen a aprender lo que necesitan saber o poder hacer para cumplir su papel en la sociedad. Caractersticas de los Adultos La orientacin de los adultos para el aprendizaje tiende a la bsqueda de la solucin a los problemas que se le presentan en la vida real, en el da a da; con una perspectiva de buscar la inmediatez para la aplicacin de los conocimientos adquiridos 5.- La inmediatez del aprendizaje La motivacin de los adultos para aprender generalmente es interna; lo que puede hacer el relator facilitador es animarlos a aprender, orientar su aprendizaje y crear las condiciones que promuevan lo que ya existe en los adultos. 6.- Motivacin El aprendizaje adulto se fomenta mediante conductas y actividades de capacitacin, en las que se demuestre respeto, confianza y preocupacin por el que aprende. Fuentes de conocimientos heterogneas, a veces contradictorias. Necesita alternancia y variabilidad por su relativa capacidad de un esfuerzo intelectual prolongado. Forman grupos heterogneos en: edad, intereses, motivaciones, experiencia y aspiraciones. El inters general gira en torno al ascenso laboral, al bienestar, a ser reconocidos y a la autoestima. Los objetivos deben ser claros y concretos, elegidos y valorizados. Los logros y xitos sern deseados intensamente o con ansiedad. Existe preocupacin por el fracaso. Probables susceptibilidad e inseguridad ante las crticas. Mayor concentracin en clases, lo cual favorece el aprovechamiento del tiempo en clases. Posee mecanismos de compensacin para superar las deficiencias y los recursos de la experiencia. Factores

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Condicionantes Del Aprendizaje De Adultos A menudo arrastra el peso de experiencias de aprendizaje frustrantes que le convencen de que no es capaz de adquirir conocimientos nuevos. Contextos Del Aprendizaje Aprender implica mantener relaciones funcionales, en que cada participante puede convertirse en un recurso para el otro y este intercambio proporciona una transaccin dinmica del conocimiento. Importancia del Grupo El aprendizaje adulto no es un fenmeno aislado, sino una experiencia en interaccin con otros sujetos. El conocimiento no es solo cuestin de pensamiento, sino de relaciones que esas personas mantienen Es necesario considerar espacios distintos a los cotidianos para poder mirar de manera diferente los fenmenos. Importancia del Espacio Gran parte de la formacin se realiza en los sitios de trabajo o en lugares donde puedan asociarse positivamente, ya sea en locales de reuniones, en aulas de postgrados. Mtodos De Trabajo Leyes de la Andragoga Caldern (1998): Se recuerda con mayor claridad y por un espacio mayor de tiempo lo que se ha repetido y ejercitado, sobre todo vinculado con la solucin de una actividad prctica, pues ello eleva el nivel de motivacin de las personas. Por ello los mtodos que se seleccionen para ejecutar los programas de estudio, deben asegurar la participacin activa de los estudiantes. Existen investigaciones que demuestran que se memoriza: 90 % de lo que se hace, 70 % de lo que se habla, 50 % de lo visto y odo, 30 % de lo visto, 20 % de lo odo y 10 % de lo ledo. Las experiencias asociadas con resultados satisfactorios son mejor comprendidos y memorizados que los asociados a un fracaso. No se aprende mejor si constantemente se demuestra la incapacidad de los individuos. Por eso los objetivos deben formularse acorde con las posibilidades de cumplirlos y que permitan a travs de ellos manifestar potencialidades y desarrollar capacidades. Los adultos se resisten a aprender en situaciones que creen que ponen en duda su competencia. 1 Ejercitacin 2 Efecto Si bien en nuestras vida diaria el error es motivo de condena, en los sistemas de calidad , el error es oportunidad de mejora o mejor dicho, para las empresas o instituciones, y principalmente para las personas es fuente de aprendizaje. Por eso se debe ir incorporando el error como elemento constitutivo del mtodo. La primera experiencia una impresin ms fuerte e imborrable que las sucesivas es importante enfocar los contenidos desde ese ngulo. En esta ley tiene su origen la mxima de que es ms fcil ensear que borrar lo aprendido. Todo aprendizaje debe asociarse a vivencias que provoquen un impacto emocional puesto que ensean ms y mejor. Las experiencias rutinarias y montonas hacen que decaiga el inters y con ello se entorpece el aprendizaje. Los conocimientos aprendidos y las capacidades desarrolladas son mejor recordadas y consolidadas si est asociadas a las actividades que posteriormente realizarn los adultos durante el ejercicio de su profesin. 3 Primaca 4 Intensidad 5 Utilidad 6 Error : oportunidad de mejora Mtodos De Trabajo Leyes de la Andragoga Caldern (1998): Capacitacin En Base A Competencias En El Adulto Kraft (1995) Competencias a desarrollar A ) Aprender a conocer Desarrollar habilidades, destrezas, hbitos, actitudes y valores que le permitan al adulto adquirir las herramientas de la comprensin como medio para entender el mundo que lo rodea, comunicarse con los dems y valorar la importancia del conocimiento y la investigacin. b) Aprender a aprender Desarrollar habilidades, destrezas, hbitos, actitudes y valores que le permitan adquirir o crear mtodos, procedimientos y tcnicas de estudio y aprendizaje para que puedan seleccionar y procesar informacin eficientemente, comprender la estructura y el significado del conocimiento a fin de que lo pueda discutir, negociar y aplicar. c) Aprender a hacer De esta manera puede desarrollar sus capacidades de innovar, crear estrategias, medios y herramientas que le dan la posibilidad de combinar los conocimientos tericos y prcticos con el comportamiento socio cultural, desarrollar aptitudes para el trabajo en grupo, la capacidad de iniciativa y de asumir riesgos. En este caso se habla de las habilidades para el desarrollo de la integridad fsica, intelectual, afectiva y social; teniendo en cuenta las relaciones que establece con todo el entorno; tanto laboral como en la sociedad; y tica del sujeto en su calidad de adulto, de trabajador, como miembro de una familia, de estudiante, como ciudadano. d) Aprender a ser Diferencias Entre Pedagoga Y Andragoga El acto pedaggico, es esencialmente formativo, pues el nio y el joven reciben los contenidos que el sistema educativo les impone y obliga a aprender siendo muy limitadas sus posibilidades de cuestionar. En cambio, el acto andraggico centra su accin sobre el sujeto adulto. Tiene carcter propositivo, ya que el adulto es consciente y responsable de sus actos y frente a los contenidos propuestos, tiende a deliberar y cuestionarlos contrastndolos con sus experiencias y conocimientos anteriores. El nio requiere orientacin, depende de los adultos. tiene escasa experiencia previa, por lo que prcticamente todo posee para l un carcter novedoso, su capacidad de asombro, si es bien canalizada, constituye una de las ms poderosas motivaciones para aprender. Los conocimientos y experiencias previas, tienen una importancia capital puesto que cuando se presentan determinados contenidos o acciones, pueden ser aceptados, bloqueados o rechazados por el adulto. Pedagoga Andragoga En el proceso de enseanza-aprendizaje, el educador es un agente responsable de disciplinar, guiar y orientar al nio, favoreciendo el desarrollo progresivo de su autonoma personal. En este enfoque el educador es el facilitador de un proceso liberador que se basa en el intercambio de experiencias entre adultos y que tiene como propsito central: ofrecer al adulto oportunidades de elaborar soluciones, liberadas del elevado costo del error. El nio necesita y busca activamente certezas en todos los mbitos, la variedad de sus intereses es mucho ms amplia que la de la mayora de los adultos. Adems, en esta etapa del ciclo vital, el tiempo perdido siempre parece recuperable, por lo que no existe urgencia en relacin a la aplicacin de lo que se aprende. El adulto tiene una visin de la vida clara y una percepcin de la escasez temporal, por lo que tiende a buscar contenidos prcticos, especficos y de utilidad inmediata. Es selectivo (de un modo no necesariamente consciente) centrndose en todo aquello que s cree poder dominar, descartando posibilidades de acuerdo a sus capacidades, intereses y limitaciones. No quiere perder su tiempo. Diferencias Entre Pedagoga Y Andragoga Pedagoga Andragoga

Andragogia vs Pedagogia - Presentation Transcript


1. Seccin 12 y 13 2. o Pedagoga: Enseanza Aprendizaje. o La pedagoga es ms antigua. o Pedagoga: Ciencia que se ocupa de la educacin y la enseanza, ciencia de dirigir a los nios. o Estudio del fenmeno educativo en sus mltiples facetas y dimensiones, en sus manifiestas de tiempo y espacio; y en sus complejas relaciones de causa y efecto de los dems hechos de la vida humana. o Es por tanto una ciencia de carcter psicosocial que tiene por objeto el estudio de la educacin con el fin de conocerla, analizarla y perfeccionarla.

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Andragoga: Orientacin Aprendizaje. La Andragoga nace en el siglo XIX. Andragoga: Es un proceso por medio del cual las sociedades transmitan a sus nuevos miembros, a travs de instituciones docentes, una serie de conocimientos, lineamientos y directrices que les sirve como normas e instrumentos de desempeo en sus vidas diarias Hoy en da se considera como la disciplina que se ocupa de la educacin y el aprendizaje del adulto. En mi opinin, la pedagoga es una habilidad necesaria que debe poseer todo docente, ya que es con sta con la que logra transmitir sus conocimientos, de una manera efectiva a sus estudiantes. La pedagoga, es un trampoln, que acerca al docente a los nios y jvenes que sean sus estudiantes. Es tambin, una forma de manifestacin de la personalidad del docente, y pienso que slo hace buen ejercicio de la pedagoga quien quiere bien comunicarse, quien quiere entrar en la vida del nio o joven, que como docente atiende. La pedagoga, es un excelente instrumento para el buen desarrollo del proceso de enseanzaaprendizaje. Seccin: 13 Concepto de Pedagoga: Ciencia que estudia los procesos educativos del nio y adolecente. Este saber se ha caracterizado por su interdisciplinaridad, ya que, es terica y practica. Terica en la medida que caracteriza la cultura, identifica problemas y necesidades culturales que pueden ser solucionadas con cambios por la va educativa y estudia la experiencia educativa. Y prctica, porque parte de su saber, se constituye en la prctica educativa. Concepto de Andragoga: es la disciplina educativa que trata de comprender al adulto, ocupando todos los componentes humanos, es decir en lo psicolgico, biolgico y social. Tambin se dice que es la formacin de los hombres. Seccin: 13 Concepto de pedagoga y andragoga La Pedagoga: el termino pedagoga es notoriamente definido en un diccionario, libro o por cualquier estudiante como la ciencia o el arte de ensear a los nios y jvenes; procediendo etimolgicamente del griego (paido: nio, joven y agogia: conduccin), en este sentido creo que ha existido y hasta cierto punto todava existe una falta de sintona entre el significado etimolgico y el que esta inmerso en la realidad actual. La pedagoga histricamente ha sido una ciencia que ha magnificado y ha tomado como principal recurso de aprendizaje al docente sin tomar en cuenta al nio y al joven como un importante elemento en el aporte de ideas, as como tambin ha mantenido una hegemona con respecto a la toma de decisiones, mostrando un aprendizaje memorstico de modelos cientficos, polticos, culturales, sociales del pasado, ocasionando muchas veces el desinters por parte de los estudiantes hacia estos modelos que no se relacionan con la realidad de un mundo dinmico, complejo y siempre cambiante lo que aleja la posibilidad de un verdadero aprendizaje significativo. A pesar de todos esos aspectos si se quieren negativos; este modelo tiene quizs sus razones del Por qu? Aplicar estas relaciones y metodologa, ya que es bastante cierto que el nio es un individuo que no nace con una identidad definida, sino que la formando a lo largo de su desarrollo integral y por lo tanto esta abierto y propenso a muchas influencias, incluyendo las negativas las cuales podran hacer de l un individuo intil y pobre no desde el punto de vista econmico sino principalmente mental y humano, por ello creo q se ha aplicado este modelo para que sea capaz de conducir al nio y al joven hacia camino positivo El problema de todo lo expuesto anteriormente sobre el modelo pedaggico es que se esta haciendo de una manera arbitraria, soberbia, ignorante e inadecuada que en ocasiones por su afn de llevar al nio y al joven hacia un camino que le proporcione un total desarrollo, contradictoriamente lo pudiera acercar aun destino prefabricado por la sociedad donde va a tomar el papel de ser dominado. La Andragoga: La andragoga es un proceso de orientacin-aprendizaje que se realiza en los adultos, lo cual va en coherencia con su origen etimolgico (andro: hombre, adulto y agogia: conduccin).En este proceso la experiencia del adulto funge como principal recurso de aprendizaje, vinculndose todo esto con una comunicacin horizontal, bi-direccional con respecto a la toma de decisiones. Los cambios culturales, polticos, sociales de las sociedades donde se desenvuelve el hombre inciden sobre l de una manera que lo obliga a la aplicacin inmediata de todos sus conocimientos, es decir; lo que aprendo hoy, lo aplico hoy; adems del hecho de que el adulto es una persona que posee una identidad ya constituida lo que incide en el proceso mismo de autodirigirse y de autoaprendizaje ya que el adulto en la andragoga es orientado evidencindose esto bajo la figura de facilitador participante que all funciona. En todo el proceso de lectura e investigacin sobre estos temas me llamo mucho la atencin una frase de un gran estudioso del tema de la andragoga como lo es el Dr. Malcolm S.Knowles que dice:yo no digo que la pedagoga es para los nios y la andragoga para los adultos, ya que en algunos momentos los principios pedaggicos son reales para los adultos y en otras situaciones algunos principios andraggicos son reales para los nios. Es bueno reflexionar sobre esto verdad?.pinsenlo!!!

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UNIVERSIDAD DE CARABOBO FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACIN PEDAGOGA CURRICULUM SECCIN 13 Elaborado por : Simn A. Arias L. C.I. 19.011.145

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PEDAGOGA Se puede definir, desde mi perspectiva, como el arte de ensear o como una disciplina o parte de la educacin la cual va dirigida primordialmente hacia los nios y jvenes. Es un proceso de enseanza aprendizaje, en donde se le da al nio o al joven las herramientas y conocimientos para que as pueda aplicarlas en un futuro e irlas desarrollando, dentro de un contexto psicolgico y social. Se hace de manera progresiva y por lo general, en la actualidad, la pedagoga se encuentra dentro de la educacin formal. Va ligada, etimolgicamente a la conduccin, o al guiar al nio o joven en el aprendizaje y formacin de criterios y bases slidas con las cuales pueda enfrentar al mundo que lo rodea. ANDRAGOGA Es el proceso de aprendizaje, el cual a diferencia de la pedagoga va dedicado a personas adultas, caracterizndose por ser, en vez de un proceso de enseanza aprendizaje, una actividad que va enfocada hacia la orientacin aprendizaje del adulto. La andragoga, por lo general se da por la necesidad del adulto aprehender y formarse de manera inmediata para la realizacin de labores o la necesidad de conocer para resolver problemas de manera inmediata; con la presencia de un facilitador el cual pondr a la disponibilidad del estudiante las diversas herramientas para que este pueda ser orientado y as lograr el aprendizaje inmediato. Se basa en experiencias pasadas en el adulto para as aplicar esos conocimientos en la vida cotidiana. Concepto Propio de Pedagoga Pedagoga proviene del griego "paideigogos" que significa el que lleva y trae a los nios del colegio. Es el arte y ciencia de ensear y sus mtodos estn dirigidos a nios. Adems sta se encuentra involucrada con los fenmenos sociales y mas estrechamente con los humanistas. Concepto Propio de Andragoga Proviene del griego "andrs" que significa hombre y "gogos" que significa guiar llevar y conducir. Es la ciencia de la educacin dirigida a adultos, teniendo como principios fundamentales la participacin y horizontalidad durante su praxis.

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CUADRO COMPARATIVO PEDAGOGIA ANDRAGOGIA 1. Esta dirigida a nios. 1. Est dirigida a adultos. 2. Siempre va a estar jerarquizada 2. Uno de sus principios es la por el esquema de alumno-docente. horizontalidad durante clases. 3. Es un fenmeno social y especifica- 3. Se busca la autorrealizacin mente humano. de la persona. 4. Crea, inculca y ensea valores 4. Ya poseen experiencias sobre que ayuden a desarrollar conocimientos. sobre conocimientos previos 5. La pedagoga da herramientas 5. Para los adultos su conviccin para que los nios se interesen en el de aprender es de acuerdo con sus aprendizaje. necesidades.

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Diferencia entre pedagoga y Andragoga Pedagoga Ciencia que estudia el ensear a los nios. Andragoga Ciencia que estudia el ensear a los adultos. El objeto de estudio de la Pedagoga est conformada por nios en edades comprendidas entre los 4 aos y los 12 aos y adolescentes desde los 13 aos hasta el final de esa etapa vital a los dieciocho 18 aos de edad. El objeto de estudio de la Andragoga esta conformada con adultos a partir de los 18 aos de edad y no tiene lmite. Puesto q sus objetos de estudios son deferente esto nos permiten establecer deferencias.

Jos Reyes 18748369 Seccin 13 10. CUADRO COMPARATIVO PEDAGOGA ANDRAGOGA *Enseanza del nio *Educacin del nio en la etapa bsica *Metodologa Pedaggica: mtodos didcticos para llevar a la prctica el proceso de enseanza del nio y el adolecente *Etapa de formacin y desarrollo *Disponen de mas tiempo para dedicarse al aprendizaje *Es esencialmente formativo *Enseanza del adulto *Educacin de las personas adultas hasta su madurez *Metodologa Andraggica: forma de planificar, administrar y dirigir la praxis educativa a los

adultos *Poseen experiencia y necesitan contarla con lo nuevo *Requieren equilibrar sus responsabilidades sociales en las demandas de aprendizaje *Tiene carcter propositivo

Formacin de adultos - Presentation Transcript


1. 2. Formador ocupacional Nuria Lumbreras Prez 2009 03 APRENDIZAJE ADULTOS MDULO 2: LA PROGRAMACIN DEL PROCESO DE ENSEANZA-APRENDIZAJE o Objetivo general del mdulo : Aplicar las tcnicas y habilidades de programacin didctica en el diseo de un proceso de enseanza-aprendizaje. o Comprender las caractersticas de la formacin de adultos o Identificar los objetivos en el proceso de enseanza y aprendizaje o Definir contenidos, mtodos, recursos didcticos y el aula en el proceso de enseanza y aprendizaje La programacin es un proceso que establece las pautas de actuacin de un proyecto de enseanza-aprendizaje (ya sea un mdulo, curso o sesin de clase). Programar : Dar unidad y sentido a cada una de las variables que se contemplan en la labor educativa (objetivos, contenidos, recursos) Qu considero imprescindible que aprendan mis alumnos? Cules son los intereses y necesidades de mis alumnos? De qu forma quiero que lo aprendan? Qu tiempo y materiales necesito para llevar a cabo mi programa? Cmo evaluar los resultados? La programacin debe ser dinmica (revisin y evolucin), flexible, creativa, prospectiva, sistemtica, integradora y funcional LA FORMACIN DE ADULTOS o Actitudes del adulto/a respecto al aprendizaje o Experiencia vital, valores, creencias, conocimientos. o Resistencia al cambio: crticos y reacios a lo nuevo. o Inters: Conviccin, exigencia, abandono o Carcter voluntario y autnomo: esfuerzo y empeo o Motivacin: conectar con sus necesidades o Responsabilidad: Participacin o Ritmo de aprendizaje: ms tiempo para aprender. o Miedo al fracaso, al ridculo y falta de confianza, autoestima o Pragmatismo: aplicacin prctica. Curiosidad limitada. o Impaciencia, ansiedad: falta de tiempo y economa del esfuerzo. o Verificacin y evaluacin del aprendizaje de forma continuada 5. o La Andragoga (del griego andrs, hombre, varn, y de ago, guiar o conducir) o "La Andragoga es una de las ciencias de la Educacin que tiene por finalidad facilitar los procesos de aprendizaje en el adulto a lo largo de toda su vida. Manuel Castro Pereira o Los adultos aprenden de manera diferente que la gente joven, pero lo ms importante es que las razones para aprender en los adultos son diferentes que en los nios o jvenes. MOTIVACIONES EN EL APRENDIZAJE ADULTO Motivacin -> Necesidad Detectar las razones que tienen los alumnos para aprender, condicionar los objetivos, contenidos y metodologa que se usen. La motivacin basada en evitar algo es menos efectiva que la motivacin basada en conseguir algo. Alexander Kjerulf Motivacin Intrnseca Motivacin Extrnseca Positiva (conseguir) Negativa (evitar) Castigo Recompensa Retos, control, cooperacin, Reconocimiento, Felicidad, confianza x x DESMOTIVACIONES EN EL APRENDIZAJE ADULTO Motivos que frenan el aprendizaje y que en ocasiones pueden llevar al abandono. Autoestima, miedo al ridculo, al fracaso Estilos de aprendizaje: Reflexivo, Terico, Activo, Pragmtico Falta de tiempo, incompatibilidad de horarios Exceso de trabajo, fatiga, cansancio Imposicin, castigo o premio Experiencias formativas anteriores negativas Falta de confianza en el aprendizaje, en la formacin Arrogancia, creer que lo sabemos todo Falta de participacin, de implicacin Entorno poco estimulante, ambiente no agradable METODOLOGA Y ENSEANZA EFECTIVA DE ADULTOS o Participacin activa y democrtica en el aprendizaje o Aplicaciones prcticas de lo aprendido. o Autoevaluacin, evaluacin del grupo. o Ritmo de aprendizaje adaptado a los alumnos o Evolucin psicolgica y social: Orientacin y consulta o Partir de la experiencia propia de los alumnos o Aprender de la experiencia, aprender haciendo. o La enseanza debe seguir un orden, estructuracin o Dilogo, equipo de trabajo, grupo de estudio. o Participacin en la metodologa que se va a utilizar en la clase. o Aplicacin de innovaciones tecnolgicas: aprender descubriendo o La gente aprende ms cuando se divierte Alex Kjerulf 9.

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BIBLIOGRAFA Andragoga: el aprendizaje de los adultos Holton, Elwood f. y Knowles, Malcolm s. y Swanson, Richard 2001 La edad adulta, una nueva etapa para educarse Maria Luisa De Natale - 2003 La educacin de personas adultas: reto de nuestro tiempo Emilio Lpez-Barajas Zayas, Mara Luisa Sarrate Capdevila, 2002 Pedagoga de la motivacin: cmo despertar el deseo de aprender Brigitte Prot, 2005

El Aprendizaje de Adultos - Presentation Transcript


1. 2. APRENDIZAJE DE LOS ADULTOS ADULTOS o Los a dult os son personas autnomas, independientes, autorreguladores y capaces de aprender a aprender. o Aprenden mejor cuando perciben que los conocimientos adquiridos contribuyen a su propio desarrollo, a su mejor desempeo profesional. o Tienen diferentes ideas relacionadas con lo que considera importante aprender. 3. o Forman grupos heterogneos en edades, experiencias, niveles educativos, background. o Cuentan con una cantidad de experiencias que les sirven para realizar nuevos aprendizajes. o Aceptan con mayor dificultad la informacin que contradice sus creencias o modelos mentales. o Los adultos se motivan internamente. 4. KNOWLES 1960 SPECK 1996 ROGERS 1969 CROSS 1981 REPRESENTANTES 5. MALCOLM KNOWLES PADRE DE LA ANDRAGOGIA Estudia el aprendizaje de los adultos . Se basa en una concepcin humanstica de que los adultos son autnomos y dirigen su aprendizaje. Concibe el rol del docente como mediador de dicho aprendizaje. 6. KNOWLES POR QU APRENDER? DIRECCION DE SU APRENDIZAJE CANTIDAD Y VARIEDAD DE EXPERIENCIAS APRENDIZAJE RELACIONADO A SITUACIONES REALES MOTIVACIN INTRIN/EXTRINS. 7. CARL ROGERS APRENDER HACIENDO APRENDIZAJE SIGNIFICATIVO 8. CARL ROGERS APRENDIZAJE COGNOSCITIVO APRENDIZAJE EXPERIMENTAL 9. APRENDIZAJE EXPERIMENTAL (SIGNIFICATIVO) o Los alumnos participan activamente en el proceso de aprendizaje y tiene el control sobre su naturaleza y direccin. o Cuando se puede aplicar directamente a la solucin de problemas o a la prctica social o personal. o La autoevaluacin es el metodo principal para lograr progreso o xito. 10. CONTENIDOS NO ARBITRARIO Ideas se relacionan con aspecto existente relevante de la estructura cognoscitiva del alumno SUSTANCIAL No al pie de la letra: La nueva informacin no se incorpora de manera literal Estructura Cognoscitiva Imagen, smbolo, concepto, proposicin Se asocian Se almacenan APRENDIZAJE SIGNIFICATIVO 11. La nueva informacin se almacena s in interactuar con conocimientos pre- existentes y se incorpora la estructura cognitiva de manera literal y arbitraria .Por ejemplo el aprendizaje de frmulas en F sica . APRENDIZAJE COGNOSCITIVO 12. Nueva informacin Estructura cognitiva Arbitraria Literal Almacena Incorpora APRENDIZAJE COGNOSCITIVO 13. PATRICIA CROSS APRENDER DURANTE TODA LA VIDA A. PERSONAL A. CIRCUNSTANCIAL 14. CROSS P E R S O N A L C I R C U N S T A N C I A L Tiempo estudio Volunt/Obligat Horarios Etapas desarrollo Edades 15. APLICACIN DIRECTA DEL CONOCIMIENTO BRUCE SPECK TRANSFERENCIA 16. BRUCE SPECK Los adultos aprenden cuando c onsider an que las metas y los objetivos propuestos son realistas e importantes para ellos, es decir son relevantes a nivel personal y profesional 17. CARACTERISTICAS APRENDIZAJE DE LOS ADULTOS 18. METAS Y OBJETIVOS REALISTAS Viables Alcanzables Para que el adulto sea capaz de trabajar en forma motivada. Pertinentes 19. AUTOAPRENDIZAJE Es el proceso al que se somete un individuo, con el fin de aprender alguna cuestin terica o tcnica, con la conciencia de que deber lograrlo poniendo su mximo empeo en ello y de que lo har por sus propios medios, en tiempos que l decida. (Aurelio Sandoval) 20. o Los adultos que cuentan con diferentes niveles de desempeo y experiencias trabajan juntos en pequeos grupos por un objetivo comn . o Comparten autoridad y aceptan la responsabilidad de los integrantes del grupo y de sus acciones. o Sus integrantes asumen un rol activo en su propio aprendizaje. TRABAJO COLABORATIVO 21. RETROALIMENTACION PERMANENTE Es una herramienta para el refuerzo de conductas positivas ya que su utilizacin para corregir va a depender de la actitud con la cual la formulemos. Esta consiste en sealarle a los alumnos que si bien su aprendizaje no es el que esperamos, no todo lo que ha hecho est mal, sino explicarle con empata que esperamos algo ms de l o de ella, dedicndole el tiempo suficiente para sealarle los aspectos positivos de lo que ha realizado y tambin aquello que realmente sabemos que puede hacer. 22. ELEVACION DE SU AUTOESTIMA Tener confianza en uno mismo nos conduce a aprender con mayor facilidad y a aumentar el inters por la adquisicin de nuevos conocimientos y habilidades. Se requiere impulsar a actuar y perseguir los objetivos que cada persona se propone. La elevacin de la ao}utoestima contribuye a la aceptacin y aprecio hacia uno mismo , valorando los logros alcanzados durante el proceso dec aprendizaje. Una buena autoestima tiene gran importancia en el proceso de aprendizaje. 23. TRANSFERENCIA CONOCIMIENTOS Aplicabilidad del conocimiento A los adultos les motiva conocer que el conocimiento adquirido tiene un aplicacin inmediata tanto en en el campo personal como profesional.

24. ROL DEL DOCENTE Trabajo Colaborativo Orientador, Mediador Propicia Autoaprendizaje Objetivos de aprendizaje requerimientos participantes Aprendizaje activo

Desarrollo organizacional, cambio organizacional, eficiencia organizacional e inteligencia organizacional. Parte II

No existe una sola organizacin en el planeta donde los Clientes son los mismos, los productos y servicios siguen siendo los mismos que se comercializaban tiempo atrs, y la tecnologa de procesamiento de los mismos se ha mantenido inalterable en el tiempo. Esto obliga a las empresas a tomar dos decisiones importantes en materia de personal; la primera de ellas se vincula con la rotacin del personal que obliga a iniciar un nuevo proceso de reclutamiento y seleccin de personal. La segunda de ellas hace necesario que la organizacin capacite a sus participantes organizacionales. Es decir, los miembros organizacionales deben necesariamente aprender. Deben aprender los nuevos individuos que se incorporan a la empresa y los que all permanecen deben aprender nuevas concepciones y prcticas. Para reducir la vulnerabilidad de la organizacin respecto de sus participantes, los grupos y distintas unidades de la empresa deben aprender y, finalmente tambin debe aprender la organizacin (Eric Gaynor Butterfield; Congreso de Desarrollo Organizacional, Buenos Aires 2001). Knowledge Management resulta ser en alguna medida una efectiva prctica para que el conocimiento a nivel individual y grupal se transforme en un conocimiento organizacional. Sachiko Nonaka & Nobuko Takeuchi (The knowledge-creating company; New York: Oxford University Press 1995) nos ilustran como las empresas japonesas crean lo que ellos han denominado las dinmicas de la innovacin. Por otro lado los desarrollos en cuanto a los procesos de aprendizaje virtuales (como es el caso de Virtual learning: A revolutionary approach to building a highly skilled workforce; Roger Schank; New York: McGraw-Hill 1997) destacan que hoy en da el entrenamiento a travs del mtodo de ensear a travs del habla son parte de la historia y del pasado. Las personas han de aprender como consecuencia de hacer y, segn Roger Schank, el aprendizaje virtual muestra como se puede repensar de manera radical respecto de cmo desarrollar un nuevo programa de entrenamiento para el personal en la organizacin.

Distintos trabajos de campo muestran que en gran medida las organizaciones, empresas y corporaciones dentro de las distintas culturas latinoamericanas an privilegian el mtodo tradicional, lo que produce resultados, pero de tipo limitado. Es por ello que ponemos a disposicin de los lectores interesados, distintos materiales relacionados con la capacitacin, el entrenamiento, y los procesos de aprendizaje dentro de las empresas. Las empresas que no se embarquen en estos nuevos desarrollos pueden estar desaprovechando oportunidades que se presentan en el mercado y la posibilidad de obtener ventajas competitivas que algn otro empresario visionario puede estar queriendo adoptar e implantar. Roger Schank hace las siguientes observaciones en la seccin titulada: Companies that get new people productive faster will become more profitable. The ability to train people at their home office locations via a three-hour computer simulation is enormously appealing for many reasons, not the least of which is turnover. Nothing frustrates organization leaders more than spending a lot of money flying people all over the place, getting them trained only to see them leave a short time later, and then repeating the process. Schank sugiere que en muy poco tiempo las empresas PYMES han de estar en condiciones de contar con software de entrenamiento virtual a un costo muy bajo relativamente (entre 500 y 1.000 dlares). Debido a su particular enfoque pragmtico el autor concluye que el aprendizaje en el trabajo (on the job learning) no va a desaparecer en el siglo venidero; pero de todas maneras ha de tener que co-existir con el aprendizaje virtual. En relacin con la capacidad de innovar de las organizaciones Sachiko Nonaka & Nobuko Takeuchi (The knowledge-creating company; New York: Oxford University Press 1995) hacen algunas sugerencias que tanto los altos directivos como tambin los empresarios y lderes organizacionales, no deben descuidar: To become knowledge-creating companies, managers in the East and West need to build and manage multiple conversions, spirals, and syntheses, and not be content simple to carry out a unidimensional boeing match. The key lies in multiple transformations across multiple dimensions, or what we will call hypertransformations. In order to cope with the uncertainty Japanese companies are turning themselves into knowledge-creating companies on a global scale. They will emerge stronger from the current recession, since the seeds for continuous innovation have already been sewn. Japanese companies have taught us that innovation can be achieved by continuously

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Ph. D. (abd) - Presidente The Organization Development Institute International, Latinamerica (Board member de The Organization Development Institute- Worldwide)