Está en la página 1de 4

Ramírez(Naranjo(José(Pablo(

(

Mecánica(y(Fluidos (

UAM$I& MECANICA&Y&FLUIDOS & TAREA&#3 &

Problemas

1.$&(2&puntos) Un(cuarto( tiene(las(dimensiones(10( ft(X(12( ft(X(14( ft.(Una(mosca(que( parte(de(un(rincón(termina(en(el(de(enfrente.( (

a)& Determine& el& vector& de& desplazamiento& en& un& marco& con& ejes& coordenados& paralelos&a&los&bordes&del&cuarto .( (

Desde(mi(forma(de(ver(el(problema(la(mosca(se(puede(desplazar(a(cualquiera(de(las(7(

esquinas(restantes(de(la(habitación,(“enfrente”(depende(hacia(donde(sea(la(dirección( que(este(mirando(la(mosca.(Entonces(si(el(marco(de(referencia(se(puede(situar(paralelo( a(los(bordes(del(cuarto,(lo(puedo(situar(sobre(los(ejes(de(cuarto,(entonces,(el(vector(de(

posición(inicial(de(la(mosca,(corresponde(al((0,0,0),(en(tanto(que(el(vector(de(posición(

final( corresponde( a( la( coordenada( de( cada( esquina,( entonces( en( todos( los( casos( el( vector(desplazamiento(corresponde(al(vector(de(posición(en(cada(esquina.(

 

ˆ

ˆ

1. Si(se(mueve(a(la(esquina((10,0,0)(es(vector(desplazamiento(es( 10î + 0

j

+ 0 k (

 

ˆ

ˆ

2. Si(se(mueve(a(la(esquina((10,12,0)(es(vector(desplazamiento(es( 10î +12

j

+ 0 k (

 

ˆ

ˆ

3. Si(se(mueve(a(la(esquina((0,12,0)(es(vector(desplazamiento(es( 0î +12

j

+ 0 k (

 

ˆ

ˆ

4. Si(se(mueve(a(la(esquina((10,0,14)(es(vector(desplazamiento(es( 10î + 0

j

+14 k (

ˆ

ˆ

5. Si(se(mueve(a(la(esquina((0,12,14)(es(vector(desplazamiento(es( 0î +12

j

+14 k (

 

ˆ

ˆ

6. Si(se(mueve(a(la(esquina((0,0,14)(es(vector(desplazamiento(es( 0î + 0

j

+14 k (

 

ˆ

ˆ

7. Si(se(mueve(a(la(esquina((10,12,14)(es(vector(desplazamiento(es( 10î +12

j

+14 k (

b)&¿Qué&magnitud&tiene&el&desplazamiento?&Para(las(7(esquina s. (

ˆ ˆ

1. 10î + 0 j + 0 k

ˆ

= 10 2 + 0 2 + 0 2 = ˆ = = 0 2
= 10 2 + 0 2 + 0 2 =
ˆ
=
= 0 2 +12 2 + 0 2 =
ˆ
=
ˆ
=
=
0 2 + 0 2 +14 2 =
ˆ
=

10 2 = 10 ft

(

2. 10î

3.

4. +14 k

+12 j + 0 k

ˆ

ˆ

10 2 +12 2 + 0 2 = 15.6 ft (

0î +12

j

ˆ

10î + 0 j

ˆ

0î

0î

+12 j

ˆ

ˆ

+ 0 k

12 2 = 12 ft (

10 2 + 0 2 +14 2 = 17.2 ft

(

(

0 2 +12 2 +14 2 = 18.4 ft

5. +14 k

ˆ

6. + 0 j +14 k

14 2 = 14 ft (

7. 10î +12 j +14 k

10 2 +12 2 +14 2 = 21 ft (

c)& ¿Podría& la& longitud& de& la& trayectoria& recorrida& por& la&mosca& ser&menor& que& esta&distancia ?&¿Mayor&que&ella?&¿Igual&a&ella?&&

La(trayectoria(puede(ser(mayor,(depende(del(camino(que(la(mosca(tome(para(llegar(a(

su(destino,(si(toma(un(camino(largo(si(trayectoria(será(mayor(que(su(desplazamiento,(

Ramírez(Naranjo(José(Pablo(

(

Mecánica(y(Fluidos (

también(puede(ser(la(trayectoria(igual( al(desplazamiento,(si(la(mosca(se(traslada(por(el( vector(desplazamiento,(pero(lo(que(no(puede( ser(es(que(la( trayectoria( y(la(distancia( sean(menores. (

d)&Si&la&mosca&no&vuela&sino&que&camina,&¿qué&longitud&tendrá&la&trayectoria&más&

corta&que&puede&seguir?&

Dado(que(las(moscas(pueden(caminar(por(las(paredes,(casi(todas(las(trayectorias(son( las( mínimas( que( la( mosca( recorrería( si( caminar,( excepto( cuando( se( desplaza( a( la((

esquina((10,12,14),(ahí(la(trayectoria(mas(corta(sería.(

10 2 + 12 2 + 14 = 29.6 ft (suponiendo(que(la(mosca(part e(de(la(esquina((0,0,0) ( 2 + 12 2 + 14 = 29.6 ft (suponiendo(que(la(mosca(part e(de(la(esquina((0,0,0) (

2.$& (2& puntos) Conduce( usted( en( la( carretera( interestatal( 10( de( San( Antonio( a(

Houston(la(mitad(del(tiempo(a(35.0(mi/h((=(56.3(km/h)(y(la(otra(mitad(a(55.0(mi/h((=(

88.5(km/h).(En(el(viaje(de(regreso(recorre(la(mitad(de(la(distancia(a (35.0(mi/h(y(la(otra(

mitad(a(55.0(mi/h.(¿Cuál(es(su(rapidez(promedio(

a)(de(San(Antonio(a(Houston? ( (

v 1 = 35.0 mi d 1 = h t 2 v 2 = 55.0
v 1 = 35.0 mi
d 1
=
h
t
2
v 2 = 55.0 mi
d 2
=
h
t
2

d 1 = 35.0 mi # t ( = 17.5 tmi

&

h

%

$ 2 '

h

d 2 = 55.0 mi # t ( = 27.5 tmi

&

h

%

$ 2 '

h

(

Note(que(la(horas(denominador(se(cancelan(con(las(unidades(de(tiempo(t.(

v

= d 1 + d 2

t

v =

17.5 tmi + 27.5 tmi

h

h

t

v =

# 17.5 mi + 27.5 mi &

%

(

'

$

t

h

h

= 45 mi

t h (

b)(de(Houston(a(San(Antonio? (

d

1

2

d 2

2

v =

= 35 mi t d 1 = 70 mi

h t

= 55 mi t d 2 = 110 mi

h

h

h t

70 mi t + 110 mi

h

h t

t

v =

&

t % 70 mi + 110 mi (

h '

#

$

h

= 180 mi

(

t h

c)( ¿

durante(todo(el(viaje?(

45 mi + 180 mi

h

h

2

= 112.5 mi h (

Ramírez(Naranjo(José(Pablo(

(

Mecánica(y(Fluidos (

3.$& (2&puntos) En(la(figura(1(se(muestra(la(posición(en(función(del(tiempo(para(cierta( partícula( que( se(mueve( a(lo(largo( del( eje( x.( Encuentre(la( velocidad( promedio( en(los( siguientes(intervalos(de(tiempo.(A)(0(a(2(s,(b)(0(a(4(s,(c)(2(s(a(4(s,(d)(4(s(a(7(s,(e)(0(a(8(s. (

a)( v prom

b)( v prom

= 10 0 m

2

= 5 0 m

= 5 m

s (

= 2.5 m

(

2 s

c)( v prom = 5 10

2

= 2.5 m

s

(

d)( v prom

= 5 5

= 3.33 m

3 s (

e)( v prom = 0 0

8

= 0 m

s

(

s ( e ) ( v prom = 0 − 0 8 = 0 m s

Figura 1

(

4.- (2&puntos) Una(partícula(se(mueve(a(lo(largo(del(eje(x(de(acuerdo(con(la(ecuación(x( =(2.00(+(3.00(t((t 2 ,(donde(x(esta(en(metros(y(t(en(segundos.(En(t(=(3.00(s,(encuentre( (

a)&la&posición&de&la&partícula&

x ( t ) = 2.00 + 3.00 t t 2

x ( 3.00) = 2.00 + 3.00(3.00) (3.00) 2 = 2.00 m

si t = 3.00 s

(

b)&su&velocidad&y&

D t x ( t ) = D t 2.00 + 3.00 t t 2 )

(

v (t ) = D t 2.00 + 3.00 D t t D t t 2 v ( t ) = 3.00 2 t

v ( 3.00) = 3.00 2(3.00) = 3.00 m

s

&

Ramírez(Naranjo(José(Pablo(

(

Mecánica(y(Fluidos (

c)&su&aceleración&

D t v ( t ) = D t (3.00 2 t )

a( t ) = D t 3.00 2 D t t

a( t ) = 2 m

2

s

&

Preguntas& &

5.$&(1&punto) ( Si(la(velocidad(promedio(de(un(objeto(es(cero(en(cierto(intervalo(de( tiempo, ( ¿Qué(puede(decir(acerca(del(desplazamiento(del(objeto(durante(dicho(

intervalo?(

Implicaría( que( la( partícula( volvió( a l( punto( de( partida,( por( t anto( sus( vectores( de( posición(final(e(inicial(serían(iguales,(entonces,(el(desplazamiento(es(cero,(y(el(cociente( velocidad(promedio(es(cero.(

6.$&(1&punto) (¿ La(velocidad(instantánea(de(un(objeto(en(un(instante(de(tiempo(alguna( vez(es( mayor(en(magnitud(que( la(velocidad(promedio(en(un(intervalo(de(tiempo(que( contenga(al(instante?(¿alguna(vez(es(menor? (

Si(puede(ser(mayor(o(menor,(todo(depende(de(la(trayectoria(que(realice(el(objeto.(