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In this class we will talk about question words and how we can use Los “questions words” son las palabras específicas que se deben
them with the verb to be in the present tense. colocar al inicio de la frase pregunta en inglés. Cuando se utilizan
En esta clase vamos a hablar de los “questions words” y de estos no se responde con las respuestas cortas si o no (Yes, I am
como podemos usarlos correctamente con los verbos “to be” por ejemplo) Se responde con una oración completa ( S+V+C).
Question words are those words that may go in the beginning of a
question. When we use question words we do not use a yes or no
Ejemplo :
What’s your name?
I’m David Taylor. (The answer is a sentence)
With no question word:
Are you Maria?
No, I’m not (The answer is a yes/no because there isn’t a question word)
Question words are used to gather specific information. The following table shows the meaning of the question words in
Table # 1 Question words en ingles (verb to be
How old Edad
How Como
English Spanish

How + adjetivo Descripciones

Where Donde

Why Por que How come Como asi

Who Quien
Table # 2 (Question structure of the verb to be
in the present simple with QW’s)
What / (time) Que / Cual (a que hora)
Question Word Verb (to be) Subject Complement

Which Que / Cual

What is (your) name? [no complement]

How long Por cuanto tiempo / para

How old are you? [no complement]

Where is Juan from?

How often Con que frecuencia

Who is (the) present for?

Whose De quien

How many/much Cuantos

In questions with the verb to be, only the question words can go in the beginning. Nothing may go in front of
the question words in full questions.
¿ De donde eres? -> Lo lógico seria : From where are you? (INCORRECTO)
Recuerden que si algo va en su idioma antes del QW entonces lo mandamos al final en el
Correcto: Where are you from? (QW goes first)
Typical questions with the above properties: libros?)
What is this for? (¿Para que es esto?) What is the movie about? (¿De que se trata la
Who are the books for ? (¿Para quien son los película?)
Preguntas importantes con sus respuestas para aprender:
Where are you from? – I’m from Australia quien y va antes del sustantivo)
What‘s (what + is) your address? – It’s 876 Snow How old is Marcus? – He’s twenty years old.
Road. Why are you sad? – Because I am sick.
What’s your nationality? – I’m Peruvian. How are you? – I’m fine, thank you.
Whose pencil is this? – It is my pencil (Whose = de
Present simple – USES and Structure
Present Simple USES – (¿Cuándo utilizamos el “present simple”?)
Do you know when to use the present simple ***Para aprender inglés ustedes tienen que
tense? If you answer this question clearly then you dejar de ver la gramática como una formula o
are relating it to a context or situation. This means estructura. Necesitan saber en que situaciones
that you can USE the tense more naturally and this usarla ya que esto es el objetivo final. De nada
will help your fluency. If you have problems then it sirve saber las reglas gramaticales sin saber
is important to discuss the uses of the present cuáles son sus usos comunicativos. Veamos
simple tense in detail. entonces en que contextos usamos el “present
We use the present simple in the following situations:
1) General truths and current information. (Hechos e Información actual)
 When we want to talk about something that is always true then we can use the present simple. Let’s
look at these examples:
- Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.
- Peru is in South America.
- Two plus two equals four.
 These actions are always true. The information does not vary. We can also use the present simple
for current information. The verb to be is very useful to express these situations.
- I am thirty one years old.
- My brother is a Dentist
- Sheila has three children.
2) Routines and habits
Whenever you want to express something that you usually do please remember to use the present
simple. We use this tense to express actions that form part of a routine.
- Miguel gets up at about 6:00am. (This happens constantly)
- Pedro doesn’t have breakfast. (It is not part of his routine)
- I smoke about ten cigarrttes a day. (It is a habit)
We can use the Adverbs of Frequency to help up emphasis a routine. (IR A LECCION 13 BASICO)
- How often do you go dancing? – I sometimes go dancing.

Structure: They aren’t brothers They don’t live together

Verb to be Other verbs Are they single? Do they play guitar?

She is my friend She works for IBM Is he your friend? Does he study English?

They are married They live in Miami Can you find the differences between the first and
I’m a teacher I play tennis
second column? Why do we use the auxiliaries do,
does, don’t and doesn’t in the second column?
Pedro isn’t sad Pedro doesn’t like playing
When do we use them?

We use the auxiliaries with the verbs that are NOT to be in the present simples in NEGATIVE and

 The verb TO BE
The verb to be denotes a state or a condition and it does not denote an action.
The verb to be DOES NOT use auxiliaries. Look at the examples:
(+) I am always happy – He/she/it is at the bank – We/you/they are married
(-) I am not French – He/she/it is not sad – We/you/they are not single.
(?) Am I sick doctor? – Is he/she/it in the kitchen? – Are we/you/they Brazilian?
 Other verbs
These include ALL the verbs that are NOT the verb to be
(+) I /we/you/they play tennis – He/she/it plays tennis
(-)I /we/you/they don’t play tennis – He/she/it doesn’t play tennis
(?) Do I /we/you/they play tennis – Does he/she/it play tennis
Common mistakes:
- I am play tennis (incorrect) ————- I play tennis (correct)
DO NOT use the verb to be with other verbs together.
- Pablo isn’t study English(incorrect) ————- Pablo doesn’t study English (correct)
When we use other verbs (study), to form the negative, we have to use the auxiliary “doesn’t”
- You live in Bogota? (incorrect) ————-Do you live in Bogota?(correct)
Use the auxiliaries in questions with other verbs.
- She doesn’t plays (incorrect) ————- She doesn’t play (correct)
When we use the auxiliaries, the verb NEVER goes in the “s” form. It always uses the simple form.
The structure of the negative structure is formed by adding the auxiliaries do or does plus the negation not
Do + not —> don’t
Does + not —> doesn’t
These auxiliaries are used TO HELP you. When you use the auxiliary the verb is always in its simple.
In positive we had 2 conjugations for every verb (not to be)
- play/plays , work/works, study/studies, watch/watches, etc…
The conjugation is simple: HE / SHE / IT —- with the “s” form and I / WE / YOU / THEY —- simple form
My brother works for IBM.
My parents live in Paris.
He / she / it + doesn’t + verb (simple form)
I / We / You / They + don’t + verb (simple form)

Question form
The question structure is formed by following the following structure
Question word + [do / does + SUBJECT + Verb (simple form)] + Complement
We use the auxiliaries do and does in the question form and they have to agree with the subject
The conjugation is the following:
Does —–> he/she/it
Do ———-> I/we/you/they
The verb ALWAYS stays in the simple form (not with the “s” form)
Short Answers
Las respuestas cortas son con los auxiliares do y does con la forma positiva y don´t y doesn’t con la forma
negativa. La respuesta corta se refiere a cuando responde solo si o no.
Do you study English for free in InglesTotal? ———-> Yes, I do
Yes, (I, you, we, you, they) do. ———— No, ( (I, you, we, you, they) don’t.
Yes, (he,she,it does)————————- No, (he,she,it )doesn’t

The Present Continuous or present progressive tense

 Structure: S + verb to be (AM/IS/ARE) + -ing form of a verb+ Complement.
 Use: To describe actions that are happening at the moment (NOW).
La estructura consta del uso del verbo mas el gerundio. se usa para describir acciones que suceden
en el momento. Se usa para explicar lo que uno esta haciendo ahora.
I) The positive form of the present continuous. - Students forget to use the verb to be
- Remember to use the Subject (this can be a Example:
subject pronoun or a noun - plus (+) the verb to be a) My father working (INCORRECT) —> My
in the present tense (am/is/are) and complement father IS working. (Correct)
(optional). - Sometimes students do not use the -ing form.
The following is the table of the positive form of the b) Robert is play with my sister (INCORRECT) —>
present continuous / progressive. Robert is playING with my sister. (CORRECT)
Common mistakes:
II) The negative form of the present continuous -Some students place the negative first.
The negative form is used by adding “not” after the REMEMBER TO USE THE S+V+C !!!
verb to be in the present tense form. You may use a) Not working my father (INCORRECT) —> My
contractions. father isn’t (is + not) working (CORRECT)
Common mistakes: - Students use the don’t/doesn’t to do the negative:
b) She doesn’t playing (INCORRECT) —> She
isn’t playing (CORRECT)
III) The question form of the present
We have to put the verb to be + the subject + -ing
form + the complement.
Are you watching TV?
Remember that we can use the Question
words before the structure:
Examples: Common mistakes:
- What are you doing? Answer: I am studying - Students do not change the order of the verb to
English with my virtual teacher. be with the subject:
- Where is Pedro going? Answer: He is going to a) He is working? (INCORRECT) —> Is he
the shopping mall. working? (CORRECT)
- Students use do or does in questions:
b) Do you studying? (INCORRECT) —> Are you
studying? (CORRECT)
The Simple Past Tense (with the verb to be)
Similar to the Present simple tense, The simple past is divided in two main parts. The form with the “to be” and
with “other verbs”
Quiero que quede claro que esta regla que vamos a aprender a continuación es solo para las conjugaciones
del verbo ser y estar. Si utilizan otros verbos llevará otra forma.
Let’s remember the Simple Present Tense with the verb to be

It is quite simple. We DO NOT use auxiliaries (do, does, don’t and doesn’t) To form the negative we just add the “not” and for
questions we just switch the SUBJECT and the VERB TO BE.
We do EXACTLY THE SAME with the Past Simple tense: PLEASE LOOK AT THE FIGURE:
In present tense we used: Am / Is / Are
NOW IN PAST TENSE WE USE ONLY 2 I/He / she / it — was (Positive) Wasn’t (Negative)
CONJUGATIONS! >>> WAS & WERE we / you / They— were (Positive) Weren’t (Negative)
Short Answers

Look at the next table. This is how we answer yes/no questions

The Simple past tense en INGLES

I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + VERB (PAST FORM) + Complement

aprender es a formar esta conjugación. Esto depende si es REGULAR o IRREGULAR verb.
The verb in the past simple form can be REGULAR or IRREGULAR
 Regular Verbs:
To from the irregular from we need to add “ed” to the infinitive form.
For example:
to watch -> watched | to talk -> talked | to wash -> washed


1) Maria played soccer last week.
2) Pedro and Juan watched TV yesterday
3) We studied for the test but we all failed.
4) They talked on the phone for two hours last night.
 Irregular verbs
The past forms of the irregular forms DO NOT end in “-ed”. They have different forms and we need to learn
them gradually. Here is a list to begin with: (FIGURA 3)

1) We went to the movies last weekend

2) They were hungry and ate the whole chicken.
3) She went to the mall and spent a lot of money.
4) Diego got up very late.
5) I came home early yesterday.

The past simple tense (NEGATIVE FORM)

To form the past simple in the positive we need to conjugate the verb to the past form. This past form may be in the regular
and irregular form.
Regular : verbs that end in -ed
- worked / studied / finished / stayed / liked / watched / worked / lived etc…
Irregular: verb change form
- ate / went / bought / read (pronunciado como “red”) / got up / woke up / spent … etc
To form the positive: S +V +C
I / you / he / she / it / we / you /they —- went —- to the park

In the negative form we need to use the auxiliary did + not (didn’t). remember that when we use the auxiliary we put the verb
in the INFINITIVE form. The auxiliary didn’t is used in the negative form with verbs that are not to be. DO NOT USE DIDN’T
I went to school I didn’t go to school
Subject Auxiliary (did) + not Infinitive
She studied all night She didn’t study all night
I Study
You Work They ate a lot They didn’t eat a lot

She Play We had lunch We didn’t have lunch

He Go
It Did not (didn’t) Eat
We Arrive
They Live

Positive form Negative form

 Simple Past (QUESTION FORM) – TABLE # 3:
In the question form we need to use the auxiliary “Did” and we have to write the verb in the INFINITIVE form
Auxiliary (Did) Subject Infinitive
||| IYou StudyWork

| He Play
Did She Go
| It Eat
| We Arrive
| You Live
They Sleep
We can also place the question word before this structure.
QW + DID+ Subject+ Verb (Infinitive)

Examples: - What time did Pedro leave the party?

- What did you do yesterday? - When did Sarah get married?

- Where did Maria go last week? - How many bottles of beer did they drink?

 Let’s compare present simple with past simple

Present Simple Past Simple
(-) I don’t study I didn’t study

(-) She doesn’t work She didn’t work

(?) Does she study? Did she study?

(?) Do you like movies? Did you like the movie?

*** Como vemos en esta comparación, lo único que cambia es el auxiliar. Recuerden que el auxiliar DID (ademas de do y
 Short Answers (respuestas cortas)

Examples: Did Helen come to the party? ———– No, she didn’t.
Did you see Pam yesterday? ——– No, I didn’t. Did your parents have a good trip?——— Yes, they did.
Did it rain on Sunday? ———– Yes, it did.

Examples: - Martin wanted to go to the movies yesterday.

- I studied English last night. - We went to New York 5 months ago.
- She finished school 3 years ago.

/p/ clap clapped

/f/ laugh laughed
/s/ fax faxed
Unvoiced / t/
/S/ (sonido SH) crash Crashed
/tS/ (sonido CH) watch watched
/k/ talk talked
play played
all other sounds,
Voiced follow followed / d/
for example…
rain rained
*Con sonidos en t y d /t/ o /d/ Inventdemand inventeddemanded / Id/

** Unvoiced son los sonidos sin vibración. Es decir con solo la expulsión de aire. Los voiced son los sonidos
con vibración en donde utilizamos la voz.

Ed as “/t/” Ed as “/d/” Ed as “Id”

Asked (Pedir/preguntar) Pulled (jalar) Accepted (Aceptar)
Baked (hornear) Agreed (estar de acuerdo) Realized (darse cuenta) Afforded (poder pagar)
Brushed (cepillar) Allowed (permitir) Remembered (acordarse) Atended (atender)
Cooked (cocinar) Answered (responder) Rained (llover) Arrested (arrestar)
Cracked (rajar) Appeared (aparecer) Repaired (reparar) Collected (coleccionar)
Crashed (chocar) Arrived (llegar) Saved (guardar) Contacted (contratar)
danced (bailar) Believed (creer) Shared (compartir) Counted (contar)
Dressed (vestirse) Belonged (pertenecer) Shaved (afeitarse) Decided (decidir)
Dropped (dejar caer) Burned (quemar) Showed (mostrar) Defended (defender)
Escaped (escaparse) Called (llamar) Signed (firmar) Demanded (demandar)
Finished (acabar) Carried (llevar) Slammed (cerrar de golpe) Divided (dividir)
Fixed (arreglar) Changed (cambiar) Stayed (quedarse) Ended (finalizar)
Guessed (adivinar) Cleaned (limpiar) Snowed (nevar) Expanded (expandir)
Helped (ayudar) Closed (cerrar) Studied (estudiar) Expected (esperar)
Hoped (tener la esperanza) Covered (cubrir) Tried (intentar / tratar) Exported (exportar)
Hiked (caminar en el campo) Cried (llorar) Traveled (viajar) Flooded (inundar)
Joked (hacer bromas) Damaged (dañar) Turned (voltear) Graduated (graduarse)
Jumped (saltar) Described (describir) Used (usar) Hated (odiar)
Knocked (noquear) Died (morir) Welcomed (dar la bienvenida) Hunted (cazar)
Kissed (besar) Dried (secar) Whispered (susurrar) Included (incluir)
laughed (reírse) Earned (ganar dinero) Worried (preocupar) Invited (invitar)
Locked (cerrar) Encouraged (dar coraje) yawned (bostesar) Invented (inventar)
Looked (mirar) Enjoyed (disfrutar) Landed (aterrizar)
Missed (perserse / extrañar) Entered (entrar) Needed (necesitar)

Past Continuous / Past Progressive

Structure - John wasn’t eating because he was feeling sick.

Positive form - Jeff wasn’t watching TV.

- My parents weren’t having a good time because
Subject + was/were + (-ing) + Complement
it was very cold in Canada
Examples: Question Form
- Michael was watching the World Cup match.
(Question Word) + was/were + Subject + (-ing) +
- They were working all night long.
- Josh and Silvia were talking about getting
married. - What were you doing last night at around

Negative form 8:00pm?

- Was Jim doing his homework?
Subject + wasn’t/weren’t + (-ing) + Complement
- Were they sleeping all morning?
- Past continuous is very similar IN STRUCTURE to the
Present Continuous tense. The only difference is that in
the present continuous we use the verb to be in the
present (am/is/are) but with the past continuous we use
the verb to be in the past (was/were)

Compare (TABLE #2) - We do not use the auxiliary DID with the past
Present Continuous Past Continuous continuous.
They are writing They were writing
We use the past continuous to talk about an action
that was in progress at a certain time in the past, an
Pedro isn’t eating Pedro wasn’t eating
action at some point in the past between its
beginning and end
Where is he staying? Where was he staying?
Example: He was working in the garden at 7 o’clock
this morning.

The past continuous is used to describe an action that we were “in the middle of” at a time in the past.
- I was watching TV at 8:00pm. (I was “in the middle of watching TV” at 8:00)
- Miguel was cooking at noon. (At that time, Miguel was “in the middle of cooking”)
The Present Simple and Present Continuous
We have studied these two tenses before. These refer to the present tense but in different ways. The present
simple is used to talk about actions that “usually” happen. These actions describe routines or habits. The
present continuous is used to describe actions that are happening at the moment in which they are spoken.
Present Simple: For routines, habits and current Present Continuous: for actions happening at the
information moment
- I usually get up at 6:00 am. - We are studying English at InglesTotal.
- Tom goes to the gym at weekends. - I am not watching TV at the moment
- Sarah has two children.
Leccion de Present Perfect Tense en INGLES

This tense has the name “Present” but it has many uses and it is sometimes confusing. Today we are going to study the first
use which is for ‘EXPERIENCES”.
The Past Participle form of the verbs

To form the present perfect tense we need to learn a new form of the verb. This is called the past participle.
Regular verbs
When you want to form the past participle of regular verbs, it is the same as the past tense “played”where we add “ed” to the
base form.
Talk Talked Talked
Verb Past form Past Particple Study Studied Studied
Work Worked Worked Stay Stayed Stayed
Watch Watched watched eat ate eaten
Irregular verbs go went gone
The irregular form of the verbs in past participle change buy bought bought
and you have to learn them with practice. ride Rode ridden
Verb Past form Past Particple write wrote written
be Was/were been

Positive form

Subject Auxiliary Past Participle Complement

I/we/you/they have been to Brazil
He/She/It has Eaten Sushi
Negative form

Subject Auxiliary Past Participle Complement

I/we/you/they haven’t been to Brazil
He/She/It hasn’t eaten Sushi
Question form

Question Word Auxiliary Subject Past Participle Complement

What countries have I/we/you/they been to?
——————— Has He/she/it eaten Sushi?
He/she/it + has = he’s/she’s/it’s
I/we/you/they + have = I’ve/we’ve/you’ve/they’ve

Short Answers (Yes/no answers)


Positive Negative

Yes, I/we/you/they have No. I/we/you/they haven’t

Yes, he/she/it has No, he/she/it hasn’t

USE of the Perfect Tense

In this class we are going to learn the first use of the When we want to talk about an experience we can use
present perfect. REMEMBER that there are other uses the present perfect tense. An “experience” is something
and we will study these in the pre-intermediate level. that happened in the time but WE DO NOT KNOW
We use the present perfect tense to talk about: AN WHEN. Let’s look at the chart.

To emphasize this use of the present perfect we use the word “ever”. More examples:
- Have you ever been to Peru?
In this question we are asking for information about his life experience. We DO NOT CARE or WANT TO KNOW WHEN. It is
a question without a definite point in the past.
- I have been to Mexico three times.
We say that in our life we went to Mexico but we DO NOT SAY WHEN.
- Has Laura ever eaten Paella?
We want to know if Laura has eaten paella once in her life. WE DO NOT WANT TO KNOW WHEN.
*** ¿Cuando usamos el present perfect? El present perfect se usa para describir acciones que pasaron antes y sin decir
cuando. Es un tiempo indefinido del pasado y se usa para expresar experiencias sin determinar el tiempo en que se dieron.
Esto es muy util ya que la pueden usar para pedir informacion en general. “Ever” se utiliza para emfatizar este uso.
Present Perfect vs Past Simple
As we have seen, we can talk about the past with present perfect but we need to learn the differences with the past simple
Present Perfect : Indefinite time in the past
Past Simple: Definite time in the past

Maria has been to Spain (Present Perfect: we do not know when)

Maria went to Spain last year (Past simple: A definite time “last year” other phrases: three days ago, last week, yesterday


Subject + to be + going to + infinitive
We use the future with “GOING TO” to talk about plans
Subject Verb To be Going to Infinitive
I Am dance
He / She / It Is Going to Study
We / You / They Are Go shopping
- Maria’s going to travel this holiday.
- They’re going to go to a very expensive restaurant.
- I’m going to come home late.
Subject Verb To be + not Going to Infinitive
I Am not Clean
He / She / It Is not (isn’t) Going to Cook
We / You / They Are not (aren’t) travel
- I’m not going to go to the party.
- Juan isn’t going to work today.
- They aren’t going to stay at that hotel.
Question Word Verb To Be Subject Going to Infinitive
What Am not I Do
Where Is not (isn’t) He / She / It Going to Go
—————– Are not (aren’t) We / You / They travel
- What are you going to do later? - Are they going to attend the meeting?
- What is she going to cook? - Where is Maria going to study?
Short answers are with the to be verb - Yes, I am – Yes, you are – No, he isn’t – No, they aren’t
Errores típicos
Recuerden de NO USAR el do/does (para preguntas) & el don’t y doesn’t (para negativos). NO SE USAN porque usamos el
verbo to be.
- INCORRECTO: I don’t going to study. Recuerden de NO OLVIDAR de poner el verbo TO BE
- CORRECTO: I‘m not going to study. - INCORRECTO: Juan going to buy beer.
- INCORRECTO: Where do you going to go? - CORRECTO: Juan is going to buy beer.
- CORRECTO: Where are you going to go?

Future with WILL – Futuro WILL

Structure and syntax
The structure of WILL is quite simple. There is only one conjugation and we always use the verb in the infinitive form.
Positive form

 Subject + [WILL + Infinitive verb] + Complement

- Tom will never get married.
- She will pay you next week.
- I will love you forever
Negative form

 Subject + [WILL NOT (WON'T)+ Infinitive verb] + Complement

- It won’t rain today
- Seth and Tom won’t come to class today.
- I won’t be late anymore.
Question form

 Question Word + [WILL + Subject + Infinitive verb] + Complement

- What will you study?
- Will Maria live in Spain?
- How long will Mark stay in Peru?
Let’s look at the following table: FUTURO WILL

Como vemos la estructura es bastante simple. Siempre usamos WILL y de allí el verbo siempre va en la forma
infinitiva sin conjugación.
- Maria will never change. She is very stubborn.
- Don’t worry. It won’t rain today. You don’t need to take your raincoat.
- Will Mr. Goldbert be the next president?
We use the structure WILL in the following situations:
 INSTANT or spontaneous DECISIONS
El truco de aprender la forma WILL no es tanto es como formar la estructura sino en usarlo en las situaciones
correctas. Quiero que vean a la estructura WILL no solo como el tiempo FUTURO ya que eso no les va a servir de
mucho sino en saber que usamos WILL para: tomar decisiones, expresar promesas, predicciones, y ofrecer algo.
- We don’t have any beer left. Don’t worry. I‘ll buy some (INSTANT DECISIONS).
- Can you lend me some money? I’ll pay you back next month (PROMISES)
- The Peruvian football team will go to the next world cup (PREDICTIONS)
- (You see an old lady lifting a heavy bag) I’ll help you (INSTANT OFFERS)
DIFFERENCES IN USE – Diferencias en el – Offers
uso entre going to y will – Predictions
Talking about the future We use Going To for:

We use WILL for the following situations:

- Plans
- Instant decisions – *Predictions
– Promises

1 - Subject + Verb (S + V pattern):

My brother is sleeping - Mi hermano está durmiendo

2 - Subject + Verb + Direct Object (S + V + O pattern):

a) I am reading a book - Estoy leyendo un libro

b) Sam plays the piano - Sam toca el piano

3 - Subject + Linking Verb + Subject Complement (S + LV + C pattern): este complemento puede ser tanto una frase
nominal como un adjetivo (hablamos de oraciones simples), luego:

3.1 - Frank is not a teacher (frase nominal) - Frank no es profesor

3.2 - They are tired (adjetivo) - Ellos están cansados

No debemos confundir estos complementos con el objeto directo. Para ello, debemos establecer una distinción entre los
denominados"action verbs" (verbos de acción) y "linking verbs", también llamados "copular verbs" o, simplemente,
"copula", que no indican acción, sino que sirven para conectar el sujeto de la oración con, por ejemplo, un adjetivo que
describe o proporciona información adicional sobre el sujeto, como hemos visto en los ejemplos anteriores.

Así, concluímos que el objeto directo seguirá a un "action verb", mientras que el "subject complement" irá precedido de un
"linking verb". Algunos de estos verbos son: "Be", "Look", "Feel", "Taste", "Smell", "Sound", "Seem", "Appear", "Get",
"Become", "Grow", "Stay", "Keep", "Turn", "Prove", "Go", "Remain", "Resemble", "Run" y "Lie".

De nuevo, insistimos en que nadie va a preguntarnos por esta distinción en mitad de una conversación; simplemente se
trata de comprobar qué estructuras vamos a poder utilizar y de familiarizarnos con ellas. Y, evidentemente, tampoco
podemos pretender aprendernos de memoria la lista de "linking verbs". No es necesario y, además, sería una total pérdida
de tiempo. Basta con pensar si un verbo cualquiera nos está indicando una acción o, por el contrario, algo que no podemos
ver hacer a alguien.

4- Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object (S + V + IO + DO pattern):

a) His parents bought him(IO) a car (DO)- Sus padres le compraron un coche

b) He made me(IO) some coffee (DO) - Me hizo café

c) He sent his son (IO) a letter(DO) - Le envió una carta a su hijo.

d) I gave Sally (IO) a present (DO) - Le di un regalo a Sally.

Lógicamente, esta estructura solo es posible con aquellos verbos que admiten dos objetos. Los más usuales son: "bring",
"give", "buy", "send", "sell", "show", "tell", "teach", "offer", "write" y "lend", entre otros.

Es posible invertir estos complementos si "convertimos" el objeto indirecto en una frase preposicional introducida por "to" o
"for" sin que por ello se altere el significado de la oración:

I gave Sally (IO) a present (DO) = I gave a present(DO) to Sally (IO)

5- Subject + Verb + Adverbial (S + V + A pattern):

a) My sister lives here- Mi hermana vive aquí (Adverbial = adverbios, frases adverbiales o sintagmas preposicionales)
6 -Subject + Verb + Object + Adverbial:

a) I didn't eat breakfast yesterday morning.

Si en una oración aparece más de un "adverbial", el orden más usuales "manner", "place" y "time" (modo, lugar y tiempo):

b) He sang beautifully in the concert hall last night.

c) John sang that song happily in the kitchen yesterday morning.

7 - Subject + Verb + Object + Object Complement:

a) I left the window open - Dejé la ventana abierta

b) They elected him president - Le eligieron presidente.

c) They named the baby Edward - Al bebé le llamaron Edward.

Grades of Adjectives (Grados de adjetivos)

Los adjetivos que pueden variar en el grado o intensidad tienen formas comparativas y superlativas. En la
siguiente sección, hay las reglas sobre cómo formar estas formas comparativas y superlativas.El grado

El grado positivo de los adjetivos, que hemos visto anteriormente, es la cualidad en el grado más simple.
fast, hard, smart, pretty, clean, large, small, old, easy...

 Ejemplos:
Juan is fast. (Juan corre rápido.) I am tall. (Soy alto.)

Angela's room is clean. (La habitación de Angela New York is big. (Nueva York es grande.)
está limpia.)

El grado comparativo
Al hacer comparaciones, podemos destacar la superioridad, inferioridad o igualdad de calidad de uno u otro.
La estructura de cada uno de estos grados de comparación es diferente.

1. Comparativos de superioridad. En las comparaciones de superioridad, el adjetivo, que está en la forma

comparativa (véase más adelante), es seguido por "than".
o Ejemplos:
o I am taller than Beth. (Soy más alto que Beth.)
Juan is faster than Mark. (Juan corre más rápido
que Mark.) New York is bigger than Los Angeles. (Nueva
York es más grandeque Los Angeles.)
Angela's room is cleaner than Sue's. (La
habitación de Angela está más limpia que la de
2. Comparativos de inferioridad. Para formar este tipo de comparación podemos usar las conjunciones "not" or "less...than". En ambos casos, el adjetivo está en el grado positivo.
o Ejemplos:
Mark is not as fast as Juan. (Mark no corre tan Los Angeles is as big as New York. (Los Angeles
rápido como Juan.) es tan grande como Nueva York.)

Sue's room is less clean than Angela's. (La

habitación de Sue no es tan limpia como la de
3. Nota: Podemos modificar un comparativo con un cuantificador (much, a lot, a little...).
o Ejemplos:
Juan is a lot faster than Mark. (Juan corre mucho I am a little taller than Beth. (Soy un poco más
más rápido que Mark.) alta que Beth.)

El grado superlativo

El grado superlativo denota la calidad en el grado más alto y como en español, se usa "the" delante del
adjetivo en la forma superlativa (véase más adelante).
 Ejemplos:
Juan is the fastest. (Juan es el más rápido.) Nota: Si el adjetivo es posesivo, no se usa "the".
Además no se usa "the" si comparamos algo con
Angela'a room is the cleanest. (La habitación de si mismo.
Angela es la más limpia.)
 Ejemplos:

I am the tallest. (Soy el más alto.) His smartest student is Lisa. (Su estudiante más
lista es Lisa.)
New York is the biggest city in the United
States. (Nueva York es la ciudad más grande de New York is coldest in January. (Nueva York es
los Estados Unidos.) más frío en enero.)

Form (Forma)

Hay unas reglas para formar el comparativo y superlativo.

1. Para adjetivos de una sílaba: añade: "-er" ( añade: "-est" (

faster) fastest) funnier) funniest)

2. Para adjetivos de una sílaba que terminan 5. Para adjetivos de dos o más silabas:
en "e": añade: "more"/"less" añade "the
añade: "-r" ( añade: "-st" ( ( most"/"the least": (

nicer) nicest) morebeautiful) the mostbeautiful)

3. Para adjetivos de una sílaba que terminan 6. Adjetivos irregulares:

en consonante + vocal + consonante:
good better
añade: consonante + añade: consonante best
"er" ( + "-est" (
bad worse worst
hotter) hottest)

far further furthest

4. Para adjetivos de dos silabas que
terminan en "y":
sustituye "y" por: "- sustituye "y" por: "-
ier" ( iest" (

Nota: Algunas cualidades no pueden variar en intensidad o grado porque son extermos, absolutos o
adjetivos de clasificación. Estas cualidades no tienen forma comparativa o superlativa.
 Ejemplos: unique (único)
 Extremos
 Clasificación
freezing (helado)
married (casado)
excellent (excelente)

 Absolutos
dead (muerto)

Grados de los Adjetivos

Los adjetivos tienen tres grados de comparación.
Grado positivo, grado comparativo, grado superlativo:

positivo comparativo superlativo inteligente más inteligente el más inteligente

tall taller the tallest expensive more expensive the most expensive
alto más alto el más alto caro más caro el más caro

big bigger the biggest

grande más grande el más grande

intelligent more intelligent the most intelligent

 John is tall, but Bill is taller than John.

John es alto pero Bill es más alto que John.
 Jack is very tall. He is the tallest man in the team.
Jack es muy alto. El es el hombre más alto del equipo.

Bisílabos Comparativo Superlativo

Adjetivos Monosílabos - Formación del
adj + er adj + iest
Comparativo y Superlativo

Monosílabos Comparativo Superlativo easy easier the easiest

adj + er adj + est fácil más fácil el más fácil

small smaller the smallest happy happier the happiest

pequeño más pequeño el más pequeño feliz más feliz el más feliz

tall taller the tallest crazy crazier the craziest

alto más alto el más alto loco más loco el más loco

young younger the youngest clever cleverer the cleverest

joven más joven el más joven inteligente más inteligente el más inteligente

old older the oldest tender tenderer the tenderest

viejo más viejo el más viejo tierno más tierno el más tierno

new newer the newest humble humbler the humblest

nuevo más nuevo el más nuevo humilde más humilde más humilde

long longer the longest gentle gentler the gentlest

largo más largo el más largo suave más suave el más suave

short shorter the shortest narrow narrower the narrowest

corto más corto el más corto angosto más angosto el más angosto

big bigger the biggest polite politer the politest

grande más grande el más grande amable más amable el más amable

fat fatter the fattest

gordo más gordo el más gordo Adjetivos Largos - Formación del Comparativo y

Adjetivos Bisílabos - Formación del Comparativo y

Bisílabos terminados en: -y, -er, -le, -ow, (y otros
muy conocidos)

Adjetivos Comparativo Superlativo expensive more expensive the

Largos more + adj the most + adj caro más caro most expensive
el más caro
modern more modern the good better the best
moderno más moderno most modern bueno mejor el mejor
el más moderno
well better the best
beautiful more beautiful the bien mejor de la mejor forma
hermoso más hermoso most beautiful
el más hermoso bad worse the worst
malo peor el peor
elegant more elegant the
elegante más elegante most elegant badly worse the worst
el más elegante mal peor de la peor forma

interesting more interesting the much more the most

interesante más interesante most interesting mucho más la mayor parte
el más
interesante many more the most
muchos más la mayoría
dangerous more dangerous the
peligroso más peligroso most dangerous little less the least
el más poco menos el menos

far farther the farthest

lejos más lejos el más lejano
Formación irregular de comparativos y superlativos

Adjetivo o Comparativo Superlativo far further the furthest

Adverbio lejos más lejos el más lejano