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Leccin 1: la gramtica bsica!!

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Introduccin|Pronunciacin| Las palabras duras|Redondeando las


palabras suaves| La llanura abierta y adjetivos| El de las palabras |
Las frases | los pronombres |La regla genreal del cerrado posesivol

La introduccin
La gramtica turca es bastante diferente de aqullos de los
otros idiomas europeos (Como el ingls). Realmente, el turco
no es un idioma Indoeuropeo; es un idioma de Uralo-Altaic.
Todava, la gramtica turca es simple!! La gramtica turca
tiene, sin embargo, mucho en comn con ingls... Yo no
hablar mucho aprendemos el turco

El Alfabeto turco y pronunciacin:


El Alfabeto turco:
Aa
Bb
Cc

Dd
Ee
Ff
Gg

Father (El padre)


Boy (El Muchacho)
Jewels (Las joyas)
Church (La iglesia)
Day (El da)
End (El fin)
Foot (El pie)
Go (Vaya)
Como el francs (R) con las reglas de las vocales(vea las duras
para las vocales), pero el duro y suave como y en el yate con las
vocales.Nunca el suave va al principio de una palabra..
H h How (Cmo)
Girl (sometimes like i in pit) La muchacha (a veces como i en el
I
hoyo)
i Jeep (jeep)
J j Pleasure (el placer)

Kk
Ll
M
m
Nn
Oo

Pp
Rr
Ss

Tt
Uu

Vv
Yy
Zz

Kid, Cow El nio, la vaca


Law (a ley)
Monkey (El mono)
No
For (para)
Como el eu francs
Part (La parte)
Rat (La rata)
La Soda
Shows
Two (dos)
Goose (El ganso)
Como u francs o el ue
Voice (La voz)
Year (El ao)
Zoo (El Zoologico)

Difcilmente y las palabras suaves:


Gobierne 1:

Se llaman A/I/O/U las vocales duras.

Palabras en
que la ltima vocal es dura, es las palabras duras. Ex:
can (ja:n=el alma)/k(la luz)/ol(sea)/unsur(oonsoor=el
elemento)
Gobierne 2:

Se llaman E/I// las vocales. Las palabras


suaves en que la ltima vocal es suave, son
las palabras suaves. Ex:
el el (el la mano)/ilim(la ciencia)/l(Murase
indispensable)/st(anteriormente)

Redondeado y las palabras llanas:


Gobierne 1:

Se llaman O/U// estas vocales .


Las palabras redondeadas en la ltima vocal
son las palabras redondeadas. Ex:
ol/unsur/l/st
Gobierne 2:

Se llaman A/I/E/I estas vocales. Se llama la


palabra llano en la ltima vocal
can/k/ilim/el
Abra y las palabras cerradas:
Gobierne 1:

Se llaman A/E/O/ se llaman vocales.Las


palabras abiertas en que la ltima vocal est
abierta las palabras abiertas. Ex:
can/el/ol/l
Gobierne 2:

Se llaman I/I/U/ que vocales.Las palabras


cerrados en que la ltima vocal est cerrada
son las palabras cerradas. Ex:
k/ilim/unsur/st
El resumen:
La ltima vocal determina el tipo de la palabra.... sta es la
regla aqu!!!!!

Ex:
can: es un piso duro la palabra abierta.
k: es que un piso duro cerr la palabra.
el: es un piso suave la palabra abierta.
ilim: es que un piso suave cerr la palabra.

ol: es una palabra abierta redondeada dura.


unsur: es una palabra cerrada redondeada
dura.
l: es una palabra abierta redondeada suave.
st: es una palabra cerrada redondeada
suave.

Las frases
Gobierne 1(La frase=el asunto+el predicado)
La frase turca debe tener un asunto y un asunto de
predicado.El debe ser un noun(a el actually);and de grupo
nominal el predicado debe contener un verb(a el actually)[see
de grupo verbal debajo aprender los grupos casi nominales y
verbales]
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Rule 2(nominal group)
Nominal group's a group of words whose nucleus is a noun.
For example: "cat" is a noun,"the/a cat(s)" is a nominal
group,"a/the pretty cat(s)" is still a nominl group.
So a nominal group is a noun and all words attached to it:like
articles(a/the) and adjectives(pretty).
Note:
1-The relative clauses(and many other clauses attached to
(describing) a noun are considered a part of the nominal
group.
2- In turkish,there are no articels,i.e. no a/the,so all nouns are
considered nominal groups even if with no adjectives.
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Rule 3(verbal group)
A verbal group is a group of words that contains a conjugated
verb(not an infinitive).
For example:
1-"to be great" is not a verbal group in turkish,but "am/is/are
great" is a verbal group.
2-"flying(gerund)" is not a verbal group in turkish,but
"fly/flied" is a verbal group.

Note:
The "is/are" conjugation of verb to be with the third
peson(he/she/it/they) is usually ommitted as we shall see;so
we say in turkish I am..You are..He/she ...We
are...You(pl)are...They
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...

Pronouns
Personal Pronouns
singular
english
I

sing.
turkish
ben

you

sen

he/she/it

plural english
we
you (for pluarl and formal
singualr)
they

pl.turkis
h
biz
siz
onlar

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Possessive adjectives
sing
eng

sing turk

pl eng

m/im/um/m
our
/m
your(for plural
your
n/in/un/n/n and formal
singular
his/her/i /i/u//s/si/su
their
ts
/s
my

pl turk
mz/imiz/umuz/mz/mz/miz/m
uz/mz
nz/iniz/unuz/nz/nz/niz/nuz/n
z
lar/leri

Note:
1-The possessive pronouns in turkish are added to the end of
the noun not before it.Ex.Dil(tongue)>>>Dilim(My tongue)
2-The noun and the possessive adjective when added they
form together one word! (not two separate words)
3-We add hard suffixes to hard words,and soft suffixes to soft
ones.(see above to learn about soft and hard words)
4-We add flat suffixes to flat words and rounded suffixes to
rounded words.(see above to learn about flat and rounded
words)

5-We add m/n/si.../miz.../niz.../leri... to words ending in a


vowel.Ex:Sevgi(love)>>>Sevgim/sevgin/sevgisi/sevgimiz/sev
giniz/sevgileri
Examples:
can
kl
ben canm klm
sen cann kln
o
can kl
canm klm
biz
z
z
cann
siz
klnz
z
onla
canlar kllar
r

yer
zil
yerim zilim
yerin zilin
yeri
zili
yerimi zilimi
z
z
yerini
ziliniz
z

kol
pul
kolum pulum
kolun pulun
kolu
pulu
kolumu pulum
z
uz
kolunu pulunu
z
z

gz
gzm
gzn
gz
gzm
z
gzn
z

tr
trm
trn
tr
trm
z
trn
z

yerleri zilleri kollar pullar gzleri trleri

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A General rule for adding a suffix to a stem or a word:
There are many suffixes used in turkish.Suffixes or
(postpositions) may be a verb(imek),a possessive
pronoun,suffix of conjugation,...etc. Usually,suffixes of a
specific function are not fixed.Possessives (my) for example is
not fixed. (m/im/um/m/m) all mean (my),but you can't use
all of them with any word.You should use the appropriate
suffix form according to the type of the word.
Here are some hints that may be of some help:
1-Use a hard suffix with a hard stem/word.
2-Use a rounded suffix with a rounded stem/word.
3-Take care: some suffixes change when the stem ends
in a vowel.
4-Usually, closed letters (/i/u/) are the letters to be
changed/ommited according to the type of words.

LESSON 2:" Please fill in this form "


The form | Vocabulary | Grammar | Culture | Objectives |

Ltfen bu fii doldurun! *


*= please fill in this form !

Ad : Blent
Baba ad : Kerem

Soyad : Cengizolu
Doum tarihi : 30/1/1976
Doum yeri : Ankara
ehriniz : stanbul
lkeniz : Trkiye
Telefon Nosu : +90 212 522 35 49
Faks Nosu : +90 212 539 35 59
E-postanz : bulenttr@yenibir.com
Adresiniz : #124 aalolu

Vocabulary:
Note : I think you've already deduced the meaning of some words !!
Telefon , Faks , E-posta , Adres ... yes , you are right . Telefon =
telephone , faks = fax , e-posta = e-mail , adres = address .
Ad
name
Baba
father
father's name( see the grammar
Baba ad
section )
Soyad
last name or family name
Doum
birth
Tarih
date / history
Yer
place
Doum
birth date
tarihi
Doum
birth place
yeri
ehir
city
lke
country
an abreviation for numara or number
No
in turkish .
Telefon
telephone number
nosu
Faks Nosu fax number

Grammar:
It is not so difficult to say " birth date " in turkish . All that we should
do is put the turkish words in the same order as in english then add
the appropriate closed suffix to the last word .
Ex :
1) birth : doum
date : tarih
>>> birth + date = doum + tarih + the appropriate closed suffix
( which is i in this case ) >>> doum tarihi .
2)We add an S before the closed suffix , if the last word ends in a
vowel .
telephone : telefon

number : no
>>> telephone + number = telefon + no + s ( "NO" ends in a vowel )
+ u ( "NO" is a rounded word )
Note : there are other ways to combine words . Each has got its own
use . This'll be discussed later .

Culture :
1- Blent , Selim and Cengizolu are turkish proper names .
2- stanbul is the old capital and the biggest city .
3- Ankara is the present capital .
4- Turkey's zip code is 90 .
5- Istanbul's code is 212 .
6- Telephone numbers in Istanbul usually comprise 8 numbers .
7- http://www.yenibir.com is a cool turkish website that many turks
use for e-mail accounts and other benefits . I recommend that you
visit this website after you finish level 1 .

What have we acheived in this lesson ??


1- You can fill in a form in turkish .
2- You know about 15 basic words .
3- You can combine words like birth and date .
4- You know three turkish personal nouns,so you can deduce that
someone is turkish from their names .
5- You know the zip code of Istanbul .
6- You may have your turkish e-mail account at www.yenibir.com

Lesson 3: How are you?

Ahmet saw Refaat on his way home.


Ahmet : Merhaba !
Ahmet : Hey !
Refat : Merhaba ! Naslsn?
Refat : Hey ! How are you?
Ahmet : Ben iyiyim. Ailen de Ahmet : I am fine. How is your
nasl?
family?
Refat : yi! Teekkrler!
Refat : They are fine ! Thanks.
Vocabulary:
merhaba
nasl

Hi / hey / used to atract someone attention / some people


use it as "welcome" (arabic origin)
how

iyi
good(adjective) / well/fine (adverb)
aile
family
teekkr
thanks
ler

Grammar :
Verb to be in turkish :
Before you read this section, you should have read lesson 1 and have known about
the general rule for adding suffixes. Check lesson 1 and make sure you know that
rule.

(Ben)
m/im/um/m/ym/yim/yum/ (We) are
ym
(You
(You
singular
singular) (Sen) sn/sin/sun/sn
and
are
formal)
are
(He/She/It dr/dir/dur/dr(usually
(They)
) is
ommitted/not used)
are
(I) am

(Biz)
z/iz/uz/z/yz/yiz/yuz/
yz
(Siz)
snz/siniz/sunuz/sn
z
lar/ler(usually
ommitted)

Note:
1-Two vowels can't stand side by side in turkish. There must be a
consonant in between (y in the case of verb to be).
2-Use the appropriate suffix.(hard/soft , flat/rounded )
3- verb to be is unique.Why? Verb to be in turkish is different from all
other verbs.It can't be used alone as a predicate.
*YOU MUST USE IT WITH ANOTHER WORD TO MAKE A FULL
PREDICATE.
*There is no infinitive of verb to be.Instead we use "Olmak"
(see later).
* Conjugated verb to be must be used as a suffix(a kind of
postposition)
iyi(fine)+yim(I am)=iyiyim

General rules:
1-There is no gender in Turkish.That's to say there is no he/she /it.Only
(O).
2-Verb to be with the 3rd person is nill.You can use other
dir,dur(singular),lar(plura;)...... conjugates, but they are usually
unnecessary.
3-As you may notice, All conjugates of verb to be for the 1st and
2nd persons have closed vowels.( I U ), we choose the
conjugate according to the the type of the word (see
classification of the words lesson 1).

A) Rounded words take rounded conjugates.(U if hard and if


soft).
B)Flat words take flat conjugates.( I if hard and if soft).
Here is a table showing how to choose the conjugate:
conjugate Last
Last
used
vowel:open vowel:closed
...m
a

...im
e
i
...um
o
u
...m

Culture:
1- The turks use the plural form when talking to someone they want
to show respect to.
2- There are many foreign words in turkish as we have noticed in both
this lesson and the previous one.(merhaba,telefon,etc...)This should
be of some help.
What have we acheived in this lesson?
1- How to greet someone with simple words that work for almost
every situation.(We shall learn more soon.)
2- We learnt how to conjugate and use verb to be.One of the
most irregular turkish verbs.(That's what I really want you to
stress on.)

Lesson 4 : Erksin's family !!


Please read this passage:

Erksin hanm retmendir.Kocas


Hikmet hekim.Erksin'in ailesi kk.
Erksin hanmn ocuklar var.Onlar
iki.Biri olan br kz.Kzn ad
Zeynep.Zeynep on iki yanda.
Olann ad Ali.Ali alt
yanda.Erksin'in iki kardei
var,Ahemt ve Rfk. Ahmet yirmi

Mrs. Erksin is a teacher.Her


husband Hikmet is a
doctor.Erksin's family is small.
Mrs. Erksin has kids.They are
two.One of them is a boy and the
other is a girl.The girl's name is
Zeynep.Zeynep's 12 years old.
The boy's name is Ali.Ali's six

years old.Erksin has two brothers


, Ahmet and Rifki. Ahmet is
yanda.Ahmet henz bekar.Rfk
20.Ahmet is still single.Rifki is
yirmi be yanda.Rfk
25.Rifki is an engineer.He is
mhendis.Rfk evli ve ocuu var.
married and has three kids.
Erksin'in babas ve annesi
Erksin's father and mother are
Trabzon'dan.Babasnn ad Recep ve
from Trabzon.Her father's name
annesinin ad Cansu.
is Recep and her mother's name
is Cansu.

Vocabulary:
Hanm
retmen
Koca(s)
Hekim
Ailesi
Kk
ki
ocuklar
possessive
postposiion/of +
var
Biri(bir = one +
i Possessive
postposition)
Olan
br
kz
On iki
Yanda
Alt

Karde(ler)

Ve
Yirmi
Henz
Bekar

Mrs/Miss/Madam (used after a female proper name or


as an address in itself to show respect to a woman).
teacher.
(s:her or his according to context REMEMBER
THERE IS NO GENDER IN TURKISH. husband
Doctor.
her/his family.
small.
two.
her child(ren) N.b. Use lar/ler to make plural nouns.)
verb to have(see grammar note below).

one of them.
boy.
other.
girl
ten two>>>twelve.
at the age of/....years old. (it follows the number of
years.Ex. on iki yanda=12 years old/at the age of
12.)
six.
brother(s).Note:When a noun comes after a cardinal
number ex:2,3,8,it is usually in the singular form.We
say iki karde(wthout the lar/ler plural marks),but we
say kardeler(brothers when there is no number
before it.)
and
Twenty.
still.
not married (for males or females).

Yirmi be
Evli

Baba(s)
Anne(si)
'dan/'den

twenty five.
married.
three.
(her/his) Father.
(her his) Mother.
from (Postpositions will be discussed later)

Grammar:
Pluarl form:
Add lar/ler to get the plural form.This rule applies to all words....
Ex:
ocuk >>> ocuklar
aile >>> aileler
...of.../ Erksin's...
How do we say Erksin's family in turkish??
It's so simple>>>
Erkisn'in ailesi!!!
1-Use the same order as in English.
2-Add n/in/un/n/nn/nin/nun/nn* to the end of the owner (Erksin).
3-Add /i/u//s/si/su/s to the object owned (family=aile).
We do step 2 only if the noun (the owner) is:
a)known from the context.
b)a proper noun like Erksin,Peter,Turkey,Germany,etc...
* "n" is the letter we use with this suffix if the words it's added to ends
in a vowel.
I have a pen!!!
Unfortunately,there is no "verb to have" in turkish. The turks use
various structures to say that someone HAVE something.I am going to
explain here the commonest way to say "have" in the present tense.
It's simple!!!
In English we say "I have a pen "
I = ben
a = bir
pen = kalem
In Turkish we say :
Bir kalemim var.
1-First we put the number of what the subject(I)
has.>>>>bir=a/one(optional)

2-Then we add what they have...The object>>>> kalem = pen


3-Then we add the possessive pronoun** of the subject (= I)>>>> im
= my
4-Then we add "var"
**(check the grammar section to learn the possessive pronouns)
let's see >>>
bir >>> bir kalem >>> bir kalemim >>> bir
kalemim var
a/one >>>a pen >>> a pen of mine >>> I
have a pen

Erksin has a pen!!!


That is how it works if the subject is a pronoun.What if it's not!!What if
the subject is a noun like Erkisn , the boy ,the husband , etc...
It's simple!!
In English we say "Erkisn has a pen"
In Turkish we say:
Erksin'in bir kalemi var.
1-First we put the subject (noun like Erksin,boy,girl,Turkey,etc....)
2-Then we add either n/in/un/n/nn/nin/nun/nn* to the end of the
subject (Erksin) according to the general rule of suffixes.
3-Then we add the number of the objects that the subject has.
(optional)
4-Then we add the object (pen=kalem).
5-Then we add the of/possessive suffix.(/i/u//s/si/su/s) to the end of
the object(pen=kalem)
6-Then we add "var".
* "n" is the letter we use with this suffix if the words it's added to ends
in a vowel.

let's see >>>


Erksin(subje Erksin'i Erkisin'in
ct)
n
bir...
Erksin' Erksin's
Erksin
s
one/a ...

Erksin'in bir
kalemi
a pen of
Erksin's

Erksin'in bir kalemi


var
Erksin has a pen.

Culture
1-Erksin,Zeynep and Cansu are turkish female names.
2-Hikmet,Ali,Ahmet,Rfk and Recep are Turkish male names.
3-Trabzon is a northern city in Turkey.People from northern Turkey
have their own accent and customs.They are said to love fish a
lot...Various turkish accents will be discussed later.

What have we achieved in this lesson?


1-Learnt how to talk about someone's family.(may be yours too)
2-Learnt how to get nouns in the plural form.
3-Learnt how to say that someone has something.(That's what I
really want you to learn by hard from this lesson)

Lesson 5 : Breakfast !!
Dialogue | Vocabulary | How to make a question
| Present simple tense |Culture | Objectives

Read this dialogue:

Kerem's just got up.He's telling his mother


what he wants to have on breakfast.
Let's see what they are saying.
Kerem : Good morning , mom.
Kerem : Gnaydn,anneciim.
Anne : Gnaydn,olum.Kahvaltda ne
yersin?

Mother : Good morning , (my)


son . What do you want to
have on breakfast?
(in breakfast what you eat?)
Kerem : What is available?

Kerem : neler var?


Mother : Cheese , jam , eggs ,
Anne :
olives , honey , pasturami and
Peynir,reel,yumurta,zeytin,bal,pastrm salami .
a ve salami var.
Kerem : There are no
Kerem : Sucuk yok mu?
sausages ?
Anne : nsan Kahvaltda sucuk yer mi?
Hafif bir ey ye ,olum.

Mother : Do people (man) eat


sausages on breakfast?
Eat something light !!

Kerem : olur anneciim.Peynir yerim.


Anne : gzel,ne iersin.ay,st,meyve
suyu....?
Kerem : St,anneciim.

Kerem : Ok , mom . I eat


cheese .
Mother : well , what do you
drink ?
Tea , milk , juice ... ?

Anne : olur,olum.
Kerem : Milk , mom .
Mother : ok , son .

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Vocabulary:
Gnaydn Good day / good morning
Anneciim
my beloved mother.
:
Ol(um): (my) son.
Kahvalt(d
breakfast ( da = postposition of place meanng in).
a):
Ne
what.
Yemek:
(infinitive) to eat.(yersin=you eat/yerim=I eat).
Var:
available/is present.
Peynir:
cheese.
Reel:
jam.
Yumurta: egg.
Zeytin:
olive.
Bal:
honey.
Pastrma: kind of cold beef.
Salami:
some kind of beef.
Sucuk:
sausage.
nsan:
man / a human being.
Hafif:
light.
Bir ey
something.
Imperative from yemek(to eat).(imperative will be
Ye:
discussed later)
Olur:
OK.
Gzel:
Beautiful(adjective)/Well(adverb)
mek:
(infinitive) to drink.( iersin=you drink)
ay:
tea.
St:
milk.
Meyve
fruits juice.
suyu:
N.B.
You don't have to know all the words in the vocabulary section.I
recccomend these words:
Kahvalt (breakfast)
Peynir (cheese)
Yemek (to eat)
Reel (jam)
Yumurta (egg)
Zeytin (olive)
Bal (honey)

Pastrma
Salami
Sucuk (sausage)
ay (tea)
St (milk)
Meyve suyu(fruit juice/nectar)
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Grammar :

How to make a question ?


There are three types of questions:
1-The "YES/NO" questions.You ask such questions for someone to say
yes or no.
2-Question-words questions.You ask who , what , when , where , how ,
etc...
3-A/B/C questions.You ask someone to choose A or B or C .
"YES/NO" questions ?
In spoken English , we use the voice tone to make such questions.
Example:
You wanna have sausages on breakfast
This is not the case in Turkish however!!!
In both spoken and written turkish there is a word that we use to
make " YES/NO " questions.
This word is " m / mi / mu / m ".
Rules of using "m/mi/mu/m"
1- We choose m/mi/mu/m according to the type of the word before
it.Check the grammar section to know how to determine the type of a
word
2- We put m/mi/mu/m after the word we want the replier to affirm or
negate.Usually the predicate ,be it a nominal or verbal group.
3- Unlike all other suffixes in turkish , this one is not attached to the
word they follow.They are used as separate words.
Example:
insan sucuk yer mi ?
sucuk yok mu ?
Question-words questions ?

This one is really simple


We just put the question word!!!That's it...
Unlike English you don't have to put the verb before the subject!!
As I said you just put the question word.
Example:
Ne yersin?
Here are the question words most frequenly used :
ne
what / which
from what / why (to ask about the cause of
neden
something)
to what / what for (to ask about the reason for
niye
something)
nerede where
nereden where from
nereye where to
hangi
which
hangisi which one of them
hangi
at which hour
saatte
ka
how many
ne kadar how much
saat
which hour
kata
ne
when
zaman
ne vakit when
nasl
how
niin
why / what for / why
A/B/C quesiotns ?
It's even more simple!!!
Put mi/mi/mu/m after A/B/C
Example:
st m ay m meyve suyu mu iersin?
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The present simple tense:


Conjugation:
Follow the following steps:

1-Ommit the mak/mek suffix of the infinitive form.


2-A)If the stem ends in a vowel,add an (r).
B)If the stem ends in consonant,determine the type of the word(see
lesson 1)then add one of the suffxes below in the table:
suffi a e u
r ir
x
r r r r

There is no fixed rule to choose the appropriate suffix.You should


know which suffix goes with the verb you are learning(usually
mentioned in a good dictionary).However some suffixes are more
likely to be used with certain types of verbs.See the hints below.
Hints:(These are just hints that may help but are not rules)
1-Closed suffixes (r/ir/ur/r) are used with verbs whose stems are
formed of more than one syllable(contains more than one vowel).
(ex. dnmek....dnr).
2-Closed suffixes (r/ir/ur/r) are used with verbs whose stems
contain one open unrounded vowel(a/e) and the last letter (the
consonant) is (n/l/r)(ex.almak....alr).
3-Open suffixes (ar/er) are used in all other cases.(ex.
yazmak....yazar,sevmek...sever,sonmak...sonar,...etc)
3- Then we add the suffixes of verb to be (imek) to refer to the
persons talkde about.
Use :
This tense corrseponds to the present simple tense in English.Here
are the usual uses of this tense :
1- Used to talk about routine .
2- Used to talk about futur plans.(like the - "yor" - tense >>> see
later )
3- Used to say that you agree ( affirmative ) or refuse to do something
.( this is the commonest use of the present simple tense )
4- Used to make polite requests . ( In the form of a question >>>see
later )
5- Used to talk about general facts .
6- Used to talk about important events in history .
Examples:
ben
sen
o
biz
siz

yazmak
yazarm
yazarsn
yazar
yazarz
yazarsnz

almak
alrm
alrsn
alr
alrz
alrsnz

sevmek
severim
seversin
sever
severiz
seversiniz

gelmek
gelirim
gelirsin
gelir
geliriz
gelirsiniz

alnmak
alnrm
alnrsn
alnr
alnrz
alnrsnz

grmek
dnmek
grrm dnrm
grrsn dnrsn
grr
dnr
grrz
dnrz
grrsnz dnrsnz

s
s
s
s
s
s

onla yazar/yaza alr/alrl sever/seve gelir/gelirl alnr/alnrl grr/grr dnr/dn s


r
rlar
ar
rler
er
ar
ler
rler
r
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Culture
1- The turks don't like to eat meat in the morning.(That's what I have
noticed,Hope I am right)
2- The turks say "in breakfast" not "on".
3- The turks use the word "insan" to express what everyone should do
/ not do .
4-Yok ha many uses.(they'll be discussed later)
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What have we achieved in this lesson?


1- You can say in Turkish what you are going to eat this morning !
2- You know how to ask qustions.
3- You learnt everything about the present simple tense.(One of
the most frequently used tenses in turkish)

Lesson 6 : Lunch !!
Dialgoue | Vocabulary | The Imperative | The question form of the
present simple tense | Culture | Objectives
Ahmet and Selim are shopping !! Ahmet thinks they should go to a
restaurant and have lunch !! Let's see :

Read this dialogue , please !


Ahmet : Ben ok acm !!

Ahmet : I am so hungry !

Selim : Karnm da a !!

Selim : (My stomach is hungry


too)
Turkish expression !!

Ahmet : Bu lokantaya girmek


isterim !!
Selim : Olur !!
Garson : Buyurun efendim !! Siz ne
arzu edersiniz ?

Ahmet : I want to enter this


restaurant !
Selim : Ok .

Waiter : Welcome Sir !!


Ahmet : Ltfen , yemek listesini okur What do you order ?
musunuz ?
Ahmet : Would you please read

Garson : Elbette ! nce orbalar


okurum . Domates , sebze , ve
mercimek orbalar var .
Selim : Ben sebze orbasn isterim .
Ahmet : Ben mercimek isterim .
Garson : Et mi Balk m istersiniz
efendim ?

the menu ?
Waiter : Sure . I read "soups"
first.
we have(there are)
tomato , vegetable and lentil
soups .
Selim : I want vegetable soup .
Ahmet : I want lentil .

Ahmet : Etlerden neler var ?


Garson : Eskalop , kebap , pirzola ,
biftek , kfte ve dner var .
Ahmet : Ben pirzola .
Selim : Balklardan neler var ?

Waiter : Do you want meat or


fish ?
Ahmet : What kind of meat
dishes do you have ?

Garson : Hamsi , mercan ve kefal .

Waiter : ( There are ) Escalope ,


kebap , cutlet , beefsteak , kofte
and doner

Selim : Tavuk yok mu acaba ?

Ahmet : ( ME ) cutlet

Garson : Beli , i tavuk var .

Selim : What kind of fish dishes


do you have ?

Selim : Bana bir tavuk .


Waiter : Hamsi ,mercan and
Garson : Makarna , pilav ister misiniz? kefal .
Ahmet : Hayr .

Selim : There is no chicken ?

Selim : Bana bir makarna ltfen.

Waiter : Yes , we have ( there


is ) shish Tavuk .

Garson : Ne iersiniz efendim ?


Selim : A Tavuk for (to) me !!
Ahmet : Bana bir coca .
Selim : ecek eylerden
neler var ?

Waiter : Do you want pasta or


rice ?

Ahmet : No .
Garson : Bira , rak , maden suyu ,
coca , pepsi, , ay , kahve ,ve meyve Selim : A pasta for me please .
suyu var .
Waiter : What do you drink ?
Selim : Hi bir ey .
Ahmet : A coca for me .
Garson : Tatllar ister misiniz ?
Selim : What kind of beverages

do you have ?
Waiter : beer , raki , mineral
water , coca , pepsi , tea , coffee
and nectars .
Ahmet : Neler var ?

Selim : I don't want anything .

Selim : Aure , Kenafe ve kadayf var . Waiter : Do you want any


dessert ?
Ahmet : Ben kadayf .
Selim : Hi bir ey.

Ahmet : What do you have ?


Selim : Ashure , kenafe and
kadayif .
Ahmet : (me) Kadayif .
Selim : Nothing

Vocabulary
ok
very / so much (adverb)
a (rules for changing the last
letter in words will be discussed hungry
later)
karn >>> karnm
stomach >>> my stomach
too ( da / de as separate words have
da / de
many uses)
this ( demonstratives will be discussd
bu
in detail later )
lokanta
restaurant
girmek
enter / get into
istemek
to want ( infinitive)
a word used to ask someone to do
buyurun !!
something / used by vendors as
"welcome"
Mr. >>> my Mr / sir ( to show
efendi >>> efendim
someone respect )
arzu etmek
wish / want / order
ltfen
please
yemek
to eat (infinitive) / food / meal

liste
okumak
elbette
nce
orba
domates
sebze
mercimek
et
balk
eskalop
kebap
pirzola
biftek
kfte
dner
hamsi , mercan and kefal
tavuk
yok
acaba
beli
i tavuk
bana = (ben + a ( " to "
postposition)
makarna
pilav
hayr
coca (pronounced as in english)
iecek eyler
bira
rak
maden suyu
kahve
hi bir ey
tatl ( adjective )
tatllar
aure , kenafe , kadayf

list / menu
to read (infinitive)
sure
first / before / ago
soup
tomato
vegetable
lentil
meat
fish
Escalope
kind of grilled meat (oriental)
cutlet
beefsteak
kind of grilled minced meat balls or
fingers. ( oriental )
turkish meat dish chopped meat with
onions , tomatoes etc..( very turkish )
kinds of fish
chicken
negative of var /not available
used as " I wonder "
used to reply to a negative question
with "yes"
kind of grilled chicken made with
tomatoes , onions , green pepper ...
to me ( for me )
pasta / maccaroni
rice
no
coca cola
beverages /( " things to drink " )
beer
kind of turkish alcoholic beverages
mineral water
coffee
nothing / anything
delicious
dessert
kinds of turkish dessert

Grammar :
The imperative !!
A) Conjugation:
single
pluarl (siz)
(sen)
stem + n / in / un /
stem +
stem n / yn / yin / yun /
mak / mek
yn
almak
al
aln
gelmek
gel
gelin
kmak
k
kn
girmek
gir
girin
olmak
ol
olun
grmek
gr
grn
buyurmak buyur buyurun
dmek
d
dn
infinitive

single ( o )

pluarl ( onlar )

stem + snlar
stem + sn /
/sinler /sunlar /
sin / sun / sn
snler
alsn
alsnlar
gelsin
gelsinler
ksn
ksnlar
girsin
girsinler
olsun
olsunlar
grsn
grsnler
buyursun
buyursunlar
dsn
dsnler

Note:
1- We put a " y " after the stem if the stem ends in a vowel and the
suffix begins with a vowel .
Ex:
we say Okumak >>> oku >>> oku + y + un = okuyun
But
We say okusun not okuysun !!!
2- The word type determines which suffix we use .
Ex : gel >>> gelin , ol >>> olun , etc ... (check lesson 1 to know how
to determine the type of a word )
3- sn /sin /sun/ sn of the imperative belong to the third ( "o" = he /
she / it , "onlar" = they )person not to the second ( "sen" and "siz" =
you )!!( THIS IS WEIRD BUT WORTH NOTING)
B) Uses :
1- We use the imperative to make an order or a request.
2- We use the plural (siz) form with people we don't know and when
we want to show respect .
3- The third person ( o and onlar ) imperative has many uses ,many of

which are not important for beginners.That's why I 'll say only one
common use in this lesson .
" Use the third person imperative when you want to say that someone
should do something or that something should happen ."
Example :
Ahmet bir ey yesin !! = Ahmet should eat something or Let Ahmet
eat something !!

The question form of the present simple tense ...


We have already learnt all types of questions and how to make a
question . However ,we haven't learnt how to conjugate verbs in the
question form !! We shall learn in this lesson how to get the question
form of verbs in the present simple tense .
I recommend that you check lesson 5 before you read this !! (Please
make sure that you know how to conjugate verbs in the present
simple tense )
Here are the steps you should follow :
1- First of all get the verb in the present simple tense of the third
singular person ( "o" = he / she / it ). Check lesson 5
Example:
gelmek (infinitive) >>> gelir ( present simple ; 3rd singular person )
2- Add m/mi/mu/m ( as a separate word ) according to the word type
.
Example :
gelir >>> gelir mi
3- Add conjugated "verb to be" suffixes to m/mi/mu/m .Choose the
suffix according to the word type and person .
Example :
do i go
do you (singular) go
does he / she / it go
do we go
do you ( plural /

gelir
gelir
gelir
gelir
gelir

miyim
misin
mi /midir
miyiz
misiniz

formal ) go
do they go

gelir mi / ( irregular )
>>>gelirler mi

Summary:
gelmek >>> gelir >>> gelir miyim / misiniz / mi /miyiz / misiniz /
gelirler mi
to go ( infinive ) >>> he / she goes >>>do i go / do you go / does he
go /do we go /do you go /do they go

Note:
The table below shows the question form of "verb to be" in the
present simple tense. As you might notice , the question form of the
present simple tense of all verbs is their present simple conjugation
with the third singular person ( he she it ) and the question form of
the "verb to be" in the present tense .
The question form of "verb to be" in the present simple tense is used
to get the question forms of all verbs in many tenses . (present simple
, simple future , uncertain past , etc...)
muyu my
am I
mym miyim
m
m
are you
msn misin musun msn
( sing. )
is he / she /
m
mi
mu
m
it
we
myz miyiz muyuz myz
you ( pl
msn misini musun msn
formal
z
z
uz
z
~ lar ~ ler ~ lar ~ ler
they
m
mi
m
mi

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Postpositions : ( Introduction )
There are no "PREpositions" in turkish.There are "POSTpositions"
instead. Postpositions are suffixes added to the end of a noun ( or a
nominal group actually ) . Postpositions will be discussed in deatail
later on .
We have seen three postpositions in this lesson . The (" a / e
"= to ) (" / i / u / "=the known object ) and (" dan / den "=
from ) postpositions .

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Culture :
1- Turkish has many expressions so difficult to understand .We have
learnt one of those expressions in this lesson.The turks say " MY
STOMACH IS HUNGRY = karnm a ". In fact this is a unique way to
say that someone is hungry .
2- The turkish cuisine is a unique and a very rich one . I think you
should buy some book about the turkish cuisine if you are interested
.I'll just talk in brief here.
The turks have a lot of unique dishes . One of the most typical turkish
dishes is the "doner" . Kebap and Kofte are well known in all countries
in the middle east . Usually ,lamb meat is the kind of meat used to
make kebap and kofte .The turks have dishes from all over the world ;
french and italian cuisines are well appreciated in Turkey .
World Food Turkey
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What have we achieved in this lesson ?


1- You learnt how to order lunch in turkish .
2- You have learnt how to conjugate and use the imperative .
3- You have learnt how to get the question forms of all verbs
( including verb to be ) in the present simple tense .
4- You have some hints about the turkish cuisine .

Lesson 7 : Rooms !!
Dialogue | Vocabulary | Postpositions and cases | Simple past tense |
Negative form of the present simple tense

Dialogue :
Odalar !

Rooms !

Merhaba ! Adm Aysel . Ben bu


Hi ! My name's Aysel . I 've come
ayda Ankara'dan stanbul'a geldim. from Ankara to Istanbul this month
Henz hi kiralk daire bulmam .
.I haven't find a flat to rent yet .
Dostum Deniz galiba dn buldu . My friend Deniz most probablt
Bugn beraber grmeye gideriz.
found one yesterday .Today we are
going to see it together .
Aysel : Bu daire biraz kk.
Aysel : This flat is a little small !
Deniz : Evet,ama bakas

Deniz : Yes , but there is no other


flat . Isn't it ok ?
yok.Olmaz m?
Aysel : Beli,olur.Banyo nerede?

Aysel : Yes ,it is ok .Where is the


bathroom ?
Deniz : On (in) the right .

Deniz : Sada.

Aysel : Not bad .

Aysel : Fena deil.


Deniz : Gel de bak,mutfak ok
gzel.
Aysel : alma odasn grmek
isterim.

Deniz : Come and see , the kitchen


is very good .
Aysel : Yes . I want to see the study
(work) room ?
Deniz : There on ( in ) the left .

Deniz : te solda.

Aysel : This room is not ok !! I


Aysel : Bu oda olmaz ! Byle odada
won't work in a room like this .
ben hi almam.
Deniz : Yatak odasnda alrsn!
Aysel : Ka yatak odas var?
Deniz : Sadece iki oda.
Aysel : Bu dairenin kiras ka?
Deniz : 2000 milyon lira.

Deniz : You will study in the


bedroom.
Aysel : How many rooms do we
have (are here) ?
Deniz : Just two rooms .
Aysel : How much is the rent of this
flat ?
Deniz : 2 trilyon lira .

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Vocabulary:
Oda
Ay
Gelmek
Henz
Hi
Kiralk
Daire
Bulmak

Room
Month
To come ( infinitive )
Still / yet
any ( negative )/ never
( adjective )to rent
Apartment / flat
Find

dost >>> dostum friend >>> my friend


most probably ( used to talk about something you
galiba
are not sure about but is likely to happen )
Dn
Yesterday
Bugn
Today
Beraber
Together
Grmek
to See ( infinitive )
Gitmek >>> gider to go ( infinitive ) >>> he goes >>> we go
>>> gideriz
( present simple )
Biraz
a little
Kk
Small
Evet
Yes ( used to answer an affirmative question )
Ama
But
Bakas
Another / other
Yok
There is no.../ Negative of "VAR"
Olmaz
negaive of "olur"
Olur
OK / It works / I like it
Banyo
Bathroom
Sa
Right ( direction / place )
Fena
Ugly / bad / unacceptable
used to make the negative form of imek ( verb to
Deil
be )
Bakmak
To look ( infinitive )
Mutfak
Kitchen
Gzel
beautiful / pretty
alma odas
Study ( work ) room
te
Here it is / there it is
Sol
Left ( direction / place )
Like this / such
Byle
almak
Ka
Yatak odas
Sadece
Kira
Milyon
Lira

to Work / to Study ( infinitive )


How many / How much ( used to ask about the
number of something )
Bedroom ( yatak = bed )
Only / just
What you pay to rent something
million
Turkish currency

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Grammar:
I) Postpositions and cases :
Turkish doesn't have prepositions,but POSTpositions instead. A word
and a postposition added to it forms a CASE or a PHRASE . We shall
learn the postpositions now.
A ) ( IN ) DA / DE / TA / TE
Conjugation
Rule 1 : use "da / ta" with hard words and " de / te" with soft words .
Rule 2 : Use "ta / te" with words that end in any of these consonants :
fhkpst
Use "da / de" with words ending in any other letter.
nominati case with
ve
DA/DE/TA/TE
oda
odada
sevgi
sevgide
Sa
Sada
kitap
kitapta
ak
akta
et
ette
Uses :
1- The da/de/ta/te postpositions are used to talk about where
something happens or exists when they are added to a word of place.
ex:Ahmet odada okur >>> Ahmet reads in the room.
2- They are used to talk about when something happens or exists
when they are added to a word of time .
ex: Aysel bu ayda geldi >>> Aysel has come this month .
3- They are used to mean that someone has something available with
them when they are added to a word indicating someone .
ex :Bu kitap bende >>> this book is (with me) or for a better
translation I have this book with me !
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B ) ( FROM ) DAN / DEN / TAN / TEN case :
Conjugation :

Rule:the same as (IN) case but add an (N) to the da / de / ta / te


>>>> dan / den / tan / ten .
nominati case with
ve
DAN/DEN/TAN/TEN
oda
odadan
sevgi
sevgiden
sa
sadan
kitap
kitaptan
ak
aktan
et
etten
Use :
1- The dan/den/tan/ten postpositions are used to talk the direction
from somewhere if they are added to a word of place.Ex : Ahmet
Ankara'dan geldi >>>Ahmet has come from Ankara .
2- They are used to mean " since / for" if they are added to a word of
time . Ex : Ahmet bir aydan okuyor >>> Ahmet has been reading for
a month .
3- Stem of a verb + ma/me + dan/den = without doing the verb
ex: oku + ma + dan = without reading .
4- They are used to talk about the cause of something .(this will be
discussed later on)
5- noun + "dan/den/tan/ten" = ( "from" cases ) are sometimes used
with other postpositions.This will be discussed later .
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C ) (TO)A/E/YA/YE
conjugation
Rule 1:Use a/ya with hard words and e/ye with soft words.
Rule 2:Use a/e with words ending in a consonant and ya/ya with words
ending in a vowel.
nominati case with
ve
A/E/YA/YE
oda
odaya
sevgi
sevgiye
sa
saa
kitap
kitaba

ak
et

aka
ete

Uses :
1- Used to talk about the direction to somewhere if they are added to
a word of place .
ex : Ahmet Ankara'ya geldi >>> Ahmet has come to Ankara.
2- To say the reason for something if they are added to the infinitive
of a verb .
ex : biz daireyi grmeye ( notice the k is ommitted and a y is added )
gideriz >>> We go to see the apartment.
3- To say that someone is doing something for someone else.
ex : Ben bu kalemi Aysel'e aldm >>>I have bought / taken this pen
for Aysel.
4- Used to say that someone is doing something uptill some time
when they are added to a word of time .
ex : Ahmet bu (saat) sekize alyor >>> Ahmet is working till 8 (o
clock).
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D ) ( the object marker ) /i/u/ :
In general sentences are formed of a subject , verb and object . There
's a special marker used after objects of the verbs .That marker is only
used after determined objects.Determination means that the object is
a proper noun , known from the context , etc... The object marker
willbe discussed in dtail later on)
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N.B.

1-When you add a postposition to a word,it comes at the end of the


word.
ex.:oda(room)>>>odam(my room)>>>odamda(in my room).
The exception is with the proper nouns ,like Ankara , Ahmet , Aysel ,
Deniz, etc...
ex:Ankara'dan , Ahmet'ten , Aysel 'i , Deniz 'e ,etc...
2-An (N) is put between the possessive postposition of the third
person(singular/plural) and the postposition.
ex.:oda>>>odas>>>odasnda
kol>>>kolu>>>kolunda
oda>>>odalar>>>odalrnda

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II ) Past simple tense :


Conjugation:
STEP 1: Ommit the mak/mek from infinitive.
STEP 2: Add
d/t : to verbs in which the last vowel is (a/) .
di/ti : to verbs in which the last vowel is (e/i) .
du/tu : to verbs in which the last vowel is (o/u) .
d/t : to verbs in which the last vowel is (/) .
N.B.
TI/T/TU/T are added to verbs with (/f/h/k/p/s//t) consonants as
their last letter.
Step 3 : add
ben
sen
o
biz

m
n
nothing
k
nz / niz / nuz /
siz
nz
onla lar / ler /
r
nothing

Ex :
I found
ben buldum
you found sen buldun
he/she
o buldu
found
we found biz bulduk
you found siz buldunuz
they
onlar
found
buldu/buldular
Uses :
The past simple tense is used to talk about anything that happened
before now. The past simple tense is widely used both in written and
spoken turkish .
N.B.

The simple past of the "verb to be" will be discussed later".


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III ) Negative form of present simple:


STEP 1 : Ommit mak/mek from infinitive.
STEP 2 : Add :
last vowel of
stem:a//o/u
ben -mam
sen -mazsn
o
-maz
biz -mayz
siz -mazsnz
onla
-mazlar
r

last vowel of
stem:e/i//
-mem
-mezsin
-mez
-meyiz
-mezsiniz
-mezler

Ex:
bulmak
ben bulmam
sen bulmazsn
o
bulmaz
biz bulmayz
siz bulmazsnz
onla bulmazlar/bul
r
maz

gelmek
gelmem
gelmezsin
gelmez
gelmeyiz
gelmezsiniz
gelmezler/gel
mez

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Culture :
1- Istanbul is a very big city . However it's hard to find good
accommodation for a long time there . So ,take care ..If you want to
go there for a long time you should arrange it .
I hope this website helps you find good hotels (not only inturkey byt
world wide)
2- One of Turkey's big problems is INFLATION.That's why the number I
mentioned may be too small when you go there .To have a good
internet connection in Turkey ,you should pay about 69 million liras a
year.(That's to make things clear ) However , prices in Turkey are

considered very low.


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What have we achieved in this lesson ?


2- 1- You have learnt to talk about the rooms in your house .
2- You have learnt 3 postpositions and the object marker .
3- You have learnt how to conjugate and use verbs in the simple
past .
4- You have learnt how to get the negative form of verbs in the
present simple.
5- You have some hints about two of Turkey's big problems.

Lesson 8 : The Weather Today !!


Dialogue | Vocabulary | verb to be in the past simple | Culture |
Objectives

Dialogue :
Aysel and Deniz are talking about the weather today.
Let's see what they are saying ..
Aysel : Ah ! Bugn
hava
ok scak deil mi ?

Aysel : Ah ! It's very hot today


,isn't it ?

Deniz : You are right Aysel .


Deniz : Haklsn Aysel It's very hot in summer in
.
Ankara .
Ankara'da yazn
hava ok scaktr.
Aysel : Even in Istanbul ,It's not
very good !!
Aysel : stanbul'da
It was too cold last winter .
bile hava gzel deil.
Geen k fazla
Deniz : Yes , It rains and even
souktu .
snows in winter.
Deniz : Evet ,kn
yamur
ve kar bile ok
yayor .

Aysel : What is the temperature


today ?
Deniz : 38 C !!

Aysel : Bugn hava Aysel : My God !


scakl ka derece ?
Deniz : It was cool yesterday !!
Deniz : 38 derece !!

Aysel : Aman
Tanrm !
Deniz : Dn serindi !! Aysel : Right ! It was good
yesterday !
Aysel : Doru ! Dn
hava
Deniz : In august it's winter in
gzeldi !!
Australia !!
Deniz : Austos
aynda
Avustralya'da k !!
Aysel : Annen
Avustralya'da
Deniz : Evet ,
Avustralya'da
rzgarl !!

Aysel : Your mother's still in


Australia ?

Deniz : Yes , It's stormy in


henz Australia !!
m ?
Aysel : Anyway ,we are not
working
hava these days .
The exams are over!

Aysel : Herhalde bu
gnlerde almayz .
Snavlar bitti !!

top

Vocabulary :

Ah

hava
scak
hakl
yazn
bile
geen
k
fazla

an interjection used to
express pain
or wonder in turkish
air / weather (in turkish we
say
weather is ...hot/cold/etc...
not it's ...as in English)
hot
right (= not wrong)
in summer (adverb)
even
last / past
winter
too much (more than
accepted/

souk
kn
yamur
kar
(yamur / kar /) yamak
hava scakl
derece

aman

tolerable)
cold
in winter (adverb)
rain
snow
to rain / to snow
( the -yor- tense will be
discussed
later )
air temperature
degree (temperature is
measured in celsius in
Turkey!)
an interjection used to say
that you feel that
something
is very strange
my God
cool / good weather
right / true
August
Australia

Tanrm
serin
doru
austos
Avustralya
rzgarl >>> adjective of
wind >>> windy
rzgar
herhalde
anyway
snav
examination / test
bitmek
to be over / to be finished

top

Grammar :
"Verb to be" in the past simple
A) Conjuagation
Note :
"imek" (verb to be) is a suffix in Turkish.
Step 1:
Add yd/ydi/ydu/yd to any word (noun/adjective) that ends
in a vowel.Choose the suffix according to the word type
Example:

anl anlyd
iyi
iyiydi
mutlu mutluydu
gzlkl gzlkly

OR
Add t/ti/tu/t to any word (noun/adjective) that ends in one of
these consonants
"fhkpst"
Example:
ak akt
pis pisti
solu solukt
k
u
st stt

OR
Add d/di/du/d to any word (noun/adjective) that ends in any other
consonant.
Example:
bal bald
seri serin
n di
kul kuldu
kr krd

Step 2:
If you want to conjugate "verb to be " with different persons
(" I , you , he , she , we and they ") add
ben m
sen n
o
nothing
biz k
nz/niz/nuz/n
siz
z
Onl lar/ler/
ar nothing

Exampl :
ben mutluyum >>> ben
mutluydum
I am happy >>> I was
happy

Summary :
ben

sen

biz

siz

onlar
anlydlar /
anl anlydm anlydn anlyd anlydk anlydnz
anlyd
iyiydiler /
iyi
iyiydim
iyiydin
iyiydi
iyiydik
iyiydiniz
mutluydu
mutluydular
mutlu mutluydum mutluydun mutluydu mutluyduk mutluydunuz
/ mutluydu
gzlklyd
gzlkl gzlklyd gzlklyd gzlkly gzlklyd gzlklyd
ler /

m
n
d
k
nz
gzlklyd
ak
aktm
aktn
akt
aktk
aktnz
aktlar / akt
pistiler /
pis
pistim
pistin
pisti
pistik
pistiniz
pisti
soluktular /
soluk soluktum soluktun soluktu soluktuk soluktunuz
soluktu
sttler /
st
sttm
sttn
stt
sttk
sttnz
stt
bahtyardla
bahty bahtyard bahtyard
bahtyard
bahtyard
bahtyardnz r /
ar
m
n
k
bahtyard
irindiler /
irin
irindim
irindin
irindi
irindik
irindiniz
irindi
cesur cesurdum cesurdun cesurdu cesurduk cesurdunuz cesurdular
krdler /
kr
krdm
krdn
krd
krdk
krdnz
krd

top

Culture :
1- You will find people talking about the weather everywhere in
Turkey.I really noticed that all turks are concerned with the weather!!
The cause may be that the weather there suddenly changes!!You

should take car about the weather there especially in the anatolian
regions! Cities like Istanbul , Izmir , the southern coast is however
very good!
2- Turkey , like most countries , uses the celsius system not the
Fahrenheit .
top

What have we achieved in this lesson ?


1- You have learnt how to describe today's weather!
2- You have learnt how to conjugate "verb to be" in the past
simple.
top

Lesson 9 : I want to go to cagaloglu street !!


Dialogue | Vocabulary | The -yor- tense | country/city + l/li/lu/l | culture
| Objectives

Dialogue :
Bob and Mary are american tourists in Istanbul. They wanted to visit
some friends in cagaloglu street but their turkish friend Erksin
couldn't go with them. So they decided to go on their own !!Simply
they were lost but fortunately both Bob and Mary knew turkish and
they asked someone in the street about Cagaloglu.
Bob : Affedersiniz efendim ! Nasl Bob : Excuse me , Mr/Mrs/Miss !
aalolu caddesine gidiyoruz ? How ( can ) we go to cagaloglu
street ?
Efendi : Siz oraya ok uzaksnz !!
Siz stanbullu deil misiniz?
Mr / Mrs / Miss : You are far away
from (to) cagaloglu !!
Mary : Hayr ! Amerikalyz !
You are not from Istanbul ?
Efendi : Trkiye'ye ho geldiniz
efendim .
Mary : Ho bulduk .
Bob : Biz aalolu caddesine
yrmek isitiyoruz

Mary : No ! We are americans .


Mr/Mrs/Miss : Welcome to Turkey ,
Mrs.
Mary : Thanks .
Bob : We want to walk to cagaloglu

street .
Efendi : Olur ! Ama ok
yryorsunuz!
Mary : Oraya ka kilometre ?
Efendi : ki kilometre ?
Bob : yle uzak deil !
Efendi : yi ! Siz doru gidin ,
sada drdnc caddeye dnn
sonra da solda ikinici caadeye
dnn!
Bob : ok teekrler efendim .
Efendi : Bir ey deil .

Mr/Mrs/Miss : Ok ! But you are


going to walk much .
Mary : How many kilometers (to
there) ?
Mr/Mrs/Miss : Two kilometers .
Bob : It's not that far !!
Mr/Mrs/Miss : Well ! You go
straight , turn to the fourth street
on the right then to the second on
the left !
Bob : Thanks a lot ,Mr/Mrs/Miss .
Mr/Mrs/Miss : Nothing .

top

Vocabulary :
affedersiniz excuse me (you forgive me)
cadde
avenue / street
oraya = ora
(to) there = there + to
+ ya
far (the turks usually say far "to=a/e/ya/ye"
uzak
not far from)
stanbullu
from Istanbul(Citizen of Istanbul)
Amerikal
American / American citizen
Trkiye
Turkey
ho geldiniz welcome
fixed phrase used to answer "welcome" in
ho bulduk
turkish
yrmek
to walk
kilometre
kilometer
yle
to that extent / like that
doru
straight(adverb) / true
drdnc
fourth
dnmek
to turn / return / come back

ikinci
second
teekkrler thanks
bir ey deil it is nothing (to reply thanks in turkish)

top

Grammar :
The -yor- tense
Conjugation
Step 1 :
Ommit mak/mek of the infinitive. Example : gelmek / anlamak >>>
gel / anla
Step 2 :
A) If the stem ends in a consonant , add /i/u/ to it.
Example : gel >>> geli
B) If the stem ends in a vowel , ommit it and add /i/u/ to it.
Example : anla >>> anl
Step 3 :
Add one of these suffixes according to the subject .
ben yorum
sen yorsun
o
yor
biz yoruz
siz yorsunuz
onla yorlar /
r
yor

Uses :
1- Used to talk about something that happens at the present .Now,
these days ,....
2- Used to talk about habits and routine (commoner than the present
simple)
3- Used to talk about the futur.
Note:
1- To get the question form >>> use yor +

muyum/musun/mu/muyuz/musunuz/yorlar m .
2- To get the negative form >>> add m/mi/mu/m to the stem
in step 2 >>> gel >>>gelmi>>> gelmiyor ,gelmiyorsun etc...
infinitiv
affirmative
e

affirmative
negative
question
question
alyor
almyor
alyorum /
almyorum /
muyum /
muyum /
alyorsun /
almyorsun /
alyor musun / almyor musun /
alyor /
almyor /
alyor mu /
almyor mu /
almak
alyoruz /
almyoruz /
alyor muyuz / almyor muyuz /
alyorsunuz / almyorsunuz / alyor
almyor
alyorlar
almyorlar
musunuz /
musunuz /
alyorlar m
almyorlar m
geliyor
gelmiyor
geliyorum /
gelmiyorum /
muyum /
muyum /
geliyorsun /
gelmiyorsun /
geliyor musun gelmiyor musun
geliyor /
gelmiyor /
/ geliyor mu / / gelmiyor mu /
gelmek
geliyoruz /
gelmiyoruz /
geliyor muyuz gelmiyor muyuz
geliyorsunz / gelmiyorsunuz / / geliyor
/ gelmiyor
geliyorlar
gelmiyorlar
musunuz /
musunuz /
geliyorlar m gelmiyorlar m
buluyor
bulmuyor
muyum /
muyum /
buluyorum / bulmuyorum /
buluyor
bulmuyor
buluyorsun / bulmuyorsun / musun /
musun /
buluyor /
bulmuyor /
buluyor mu / bulmuyor mu /
bulmak
buluyoruz /
bulmuyoruz /
buluyor
bulmuyor
buluyorsunuz / bulmuyorsunuz / muyuz /
muyuz /
buluyorlar
bulmuyorlar
buluyor
bulmuyor
musunuz /
musunuz /
buluyorlar m bulmuyorlar m
gryor
grmyor
muyum /
muyum /
gryorum / grmyorum / gryor
grmyor
gryorsun / grmyorsun / musun /
musun /
grme gryor /
grmyor /
gryor mu / grmyor mu /
k
gryoruz /
grmyoruz /
gryor
grmyor
gryorsunz / grmyorsunz / muyuz /
muyuz /
gryorlar
grmyorlar
gryor
grmyor
musunz /
musunz /
gryorlar m grmyorlar m
negative

top

country/city + l/li/lu/l

Add to l/li/lu/l to a country or a city to get its adjective.


Example :
Amerika(America) >>> Amerikal
Ankara >>> Ankaral
stanbullu >>> stanbullu
Berlin >>>Berlinli
ran >>> ranl
Japonya(Japan) >>> Japonyal
Msr(Egypt) >>> Msrl
Belika(Belgium) >>> Belikal
Almanya(Germany) >>> Alman / Almanyal
Fransa (France) >>> Fransz / Fransal
top

Culture :
1- Turkey uses kilometers not miles .
2- The turks are very friendly .You may ask anybody about your way if
you felt lost!!

top

What have we achieved in this lesson ?


1- You have learnt how to ask about your way !
2- You have learnt how to conjugate and use the -yor- tense.
3- You have learnt to express your nationality.
top

Lesson 10 : What shall we take to Trabzon ?


langtolang.c
om

to
Search

Dialogue | Vocabulary | "With" postposition | Subjunctive | objectives

Dialogue :
Erksin wants to see her parents in Trabzon . Her american friends Bob
and Mary asked to go with her . They are talking about what they
should take to Trabzon .

Erksin : biz nasl Trabzon'a


gideriz ?

Erksin : How shall we go to Trabzon ?

Bob : uakla gidelim !!

Bob : let's go by plane !

Erksin : olmaz ! uak ok pahal Erksin : no ! the plane is very


expensive .
Mary : gemiyle olsun !
Mary : Let it be by ship !
Erksin : ne gzel !
Erkisn : excellent !
Bob : ben hi gemiyle gitmem .
Bob : I'll never go by ship !
Mary : neden ?
Mary : Why ?
Bob : gemiden daima
korkuyorum !
Bob : I am afraid of ships !
Erksin : ben ve Mary gemiyle
gidiyoruz !

Erksin : I and Mary will go by ship !


Bob : I shall go by bus !

Bob : ben otobsle gidiyorum!!


Erksin : It's very dangerous !!
Erksin : otobs ok tehlikeli !!
Bob : Dangerous ?
Bob : tehlikeli mi ?
Erksin : tabii .Hergn ok
kazalar oluyor .

Erksin : Sure . Many accidents happen


everyday .
Bob : I'll go by train !

Bob : trenle giderim .


Mary : You won't find any train going
Mary : oraya tren bulmazsnz . there .
Bob : ben mutlaka gemiyle
gitmem

top

Vocabulary :
uak
pahal
gemi
daima

plane
expensive
ship
always

Bob : I won't ever go by ship .

korkmak
(dan/den/tan/ten)
otobs
tehlike(li)
tabii (interjection)
hergn
kaza
olmak
tren
mutlaka

afraid (from)
bus
danger(ous)
surely / certainly
everyday
accident
happen / be(used in place of imek where imek
can't be used)
train
ever / never

top

Grammar :
ile/-le/-la/yle/yla (=with/by) postposition
Conjugation :
This postposition is unique . You may use it as a suffix (-le/-la) ,or as a
separate word (ile) .
The "separate word" form is fixed .
The rule
Add la/le to any word that ends in a consonant .
OR
Add yla/yle to any word that ends in a vowel.
uak
tren
araba
(car)
gemi

uakla
trenle
arabay
la
gemiyl
e

Uses :
1- Used with means of transport .
Example: Ben trenle giderim >>> I'll go by train .
2- Used to say the tool you use
Example: Ahmet kalemle yazyor >>> Ahmet is writing with the pen .

3- Used to mean "with " somebody


Erksin Ahmet'le konuuyor >>> Erksin is talking with Ahmet .
4- Used to make adverbs
Example : Ahmet hzla gidiyor >>> Ahemt is going fast (with speed)
top

The subjunctive : (a/e/ya/ye tense )


Conjugation :
Step 1 :
Ommit the mak/mek of the infinitive >>>
yazmak /okumak / girmek / yrmek >>> yaz / oku / gir / yr
Step 2 : ( just if the stem ends in a vowel )
Add " y " to the stem .
yaz / okuy / gir / yry
Step 3 :
Add an "a" to hard stems or an "e" to soft stems .
yaz / okuy / gir / yry / >>> yaza / okuya / gire / yrye
Step 4 :
Add these suffixes for different persons
pers hard verb
on
stem
ben ym
sen sn
o
biz lm
siz snz
onlar lar

soft verb
stem
yim
sin
lim
siniz
ler

Examples :
ben

sen

yazma
yazaym yazasn yaza
k
okuma okuyay okuyas okuy
k
m
n
a
girmek gireyim giresin gire

biz

siz

onlar

yazalm yazasnz yazalar


okuyal okuyasn okuyala
m
z
r
girelim giresiniz gireler

yrm yryeyi yryes yry yryeli yryesi yryel


ek
m
in
e
m
niz
er

To get the question form :


Just add m/mi as a separate word after the verb
Example :
yazaym m / okuyasn m/ girelim mi etc...

to get the negatve form :


Add maya/meye after the stem then add the suffixes
Exaple :
yazmayaym / okumayasn / girmeyelim / etc....
Uses :
1- Used to make suggestions.
Example :
stanbul'a trenle gidelim . >>> Let' go to Istanbul by train .
2- Used to make wishes .
Example :
Ben ok ders alyorum (study) iyi notlar (marks) alaym(almak=to
get/take) . >>> I study a lot to get good marks .
Note :
We usually use the third person impertive instead of the third person
subjunctive .
Example:
trenle gitsin ( not trenle gidesin ) >>> let him go by train
top

What have we achieved in this lesson ?


1- You have learnt various means of transport .
2- You have learnt how to conjugate and use "ile" .
3- You have learnt how to conjugate and use the subjunctive .
top

Lesson 11 : Clothes !!
Dialogue | Vocabulary | Hard and soft consonants
| Cardinal numbers | Order numbers | Objectives

Dialogue :
Bob and Mary wanted to buy some gifts for their friends.Erksin
suggested that they buy some clothes.She knows a very good store
.Let's see
Satc : Buyurun efendim ! Ne
arzu edersiniz ?

Vendor : Welcome sirs/madams


.What do you order ?

Mary : Biz hediye iin bir eyler


satn almak istiyoruz .

Mary : We want to buy some gifts .


Vendor : What like ?

Satc : Ne gibi ?
Mary : henz bilmeyiz ! Bir
bakalm m ?
Satc : tabii efendim , buyurun
bakn !
Erksin : Bu etek gzel deil mi ?

Mary : We don't know yet ! May we


have a look ?
Vendor : Sure , madam . You are
welcome !
Erksin : This skirt is beautiful ,isn't it
?

Mary : Beli ok gzel !Ama galiba Bob : Yes , it is ! But most probably
ok pahal !
very expensive .
Erksin : Bu etek ka lira ?

Erksin : How much is this skirt ?

Satc : otuz iki milyon lira .

Vendor : Thirty two million liras

Erksin : ucuz .Ben bu etei


alrm .

Erksin : It's cheap . I'll take this skirt

Mary : u pantolon kaa ?

Mary : How much are those trousers


?

Satc : Otuz be lira ?

Vendor : Thirty five million liras !

Bob : u pantolon ok ksa


,Mary !!

Bob : Those trousers are very short ,


Mary !

Mary : Bir deneyeyim !

Mary : Let me try it .

Satc : Siz haklsnz efendim .

Vendor : You are right ,madam

Mary : They are very beautiful ,but


Mary : Ne gzel , ama gerekten
really very short !
ok ksa .
Bob : Ben hep haklym !! Bu
ceket ka numara ?

Bob : I am always right . What is the


number of this Jacket .
Vendor : 38

Satc : 38
Bob : Deneyeyim mi?

Bob : May I try it ?


Vendor : Sure .

Satc : Elebette.
Erksin : Mary , bu palto ne gzel .
Mary : Hem de bu gmlek .
Erksin : Bu palto bana uymuyor
mu ?
Mary : Galiba sana gelir !
Bob : He Mary he Erksin ! Bu
ceket hakknda ne dersiniz ?
Erksin : Galiba biraz uzun !
Mary : Erksin hakl .
Bob : Ama rengini ok beendim .
Mary : ok uzun ,Bob .
Eksin : Arkadan iin bu fistan
gzel mi .

Erksin : Mary , this coat is very


pretty .
Mary : This shirt too .
Erksin : Doesn't this coat go with
(match) me ?
Mary : Most probably it does .
Bob : hey Mary hey Erksin ,what do
you say about this jacket ?
Erksin : It's a little long .
Mary : Erksin's right .
Bob : But I liked its color a lot .
Mary : It's very long , Bob .
Erksin : Is this dress good for your
friend .

Mary : Evet , ok gzel . Bu fistan


Mary : Yes , it's very beautiful . I'll
Ann iin alrm .
buy this dress for Ann .

top

Vocabulary :
hediye
iin (fixed
postposition)
ey

gift
for
thing

satn almak
istemek
gibi (fixed
psotposition)
bilmek
bakmak
etek
pahal
ucuz
almak
u
pantolon
ksa
denemek
gerekten
hep
ceket
palto
gmlek
uymak
hakknda
demek
uzun
renk
beenmek
arkada
fistan

to buy
to want
like
to know
to watch / to see
skirt
expensive
cheap
to take / to buy
that
trousers
short
to try / to test
really / actually / in fact
always (adverb) / all / the
whole
jacket
coat
shirt
to match / go with
about
to say / to mean
long / tall
colour
to like
friend
dress

top

Grammar :
Hard and soft consonants
In your first TURKCE2020 free lesson ,you have learnt the hard and
soft vowels .Now we shall learn the rule of hard and soft consonants
.
What are consonants ?
They are : b c d f g h j k l m n p r s t v y z

The hard consonants are :


fhkpst
The soft consonants are all other consonants :
bcdgjlmnrvyz

The rule is :
Some hard consonants are changed to soft ones when they
are followed by a suffix that begins with a vowel .
Hard
Soft consonant
consonant

c
(common)/g(r
k
are)
p
b
t
d

top

The cardinal numbers :


9
10 on
dokuz
11 on 12 on 13 on 14 on 15 on 16 on 17 on
18 on
19 on 20
bir
iki

drt be
alt
yedi
sekiz
dokuz yirmi
21
22
23
24
25
26
29
27 yirmi 28 yirmi
30
yirmi yirmi yirmi yirmi yirmi yirmi
yirmi
yedi
sekiz
otuz
bir
iki

drt be
alt
dokuz
31
32
33
34
35
39
36 otuz 37 otuz 38 otuz
40
otuz otuz otuz otuz otuz
otuz
alt
yedi
sekiz
krk
bir
iki

drt be
dokuz
41
42
43
44
45
49
46 krk 47 krk 48 krk
krk krk krk krk krk
krk
50 elli
alt
yedi
sekiz
bir
iki

drt be
dokuz
51 elli 52 elli 53 elli 54 elli 55 elli 56 elli 57 elli
58 elli 59 elli 60
bir
iki

drt be
alt
yedi
sekiz
dokuz altm
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
69
70
68 alm
altm altm altm altm altm altm altm
altm yetmi
sekiz
bir
iki

drt be
alt
yedi
dokuz
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
yetmi yetmi yetmi yetmi yetmi yetmi yetmi yetmi yetmi sekse
bir iki drt be alt
yedi
sekiz
dokuz n
1 bir 2 iki

3 4 drt 5 be 6 alt

7 yedi

8 sekiz

89
sekse
n
dokuz
99
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
doksa
doksa doksa doksa doksa doksa doksan doksan doksan
n
n bir n iki n n drt n be alt
yedi
sekiz
dokuz
300 400 500
800
900
100 200
600 alt 700 yedi

drt be
sekiz
dokuz
yz iki yz
yz
yz
yz yz yz
yz
yz
9 999
999
222 222
dokuz
800
222 iki
milyon
888
yz
332
900
dokuz
7 000
204
100
sekiz
yirmi iki

10
000
yz
000
iki
000
yz bin
milyon
yz 000
dokuz
doksan
000
yz
yz
sekiz
iki yz
otuz on bin
yz
dokuz
yedi
drt
bin
yz
yirmi iki
iki
bin
bin
bilyon
seksen
bin iki
dokuz
sekiz
yz
yz
yirmi iki
doksan
dokuz
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
sekse sekse sekse sekse sekse seksen seksen
n bir n iki n n drt n be alt
yedi

top

order numbers :
bir one
iki two
three
drt four
be five
alt six
yedi seven
sekiz eight
dokuz nine
on ten
on bir
yirmi
otuz
krk
elli

birinci first
ikinci second
nc third
drdnc fourth
beinci fifth
altnc sixth
yedinci seventh
sekizinci eighth
dokuzuncu ninth
onuncu tenth
on birinci
yirminci
otuzuncu
krknc
ellinci

88
seksen
sekiz

90
doksa
n
100
yz
1000
bin

1
trillion
= bir
trilyon

altm
altmnc
yetmi
yetmiinci
seksen
sekseninci
doksan
doksannc
yz
yznc
iki yz
iki yznc
drt yz bir
drt yz birinci
bin
bininci
on yedi bin iki yz on yedi bin iki yz
be
beinci

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What have we achieved in this lesson ?


1- You have learnt how to talk about clothes .
2- You have learnt the rule of hard and soft consonants .
3- You have learnt the cardinal numbers .
4- You have learnt the order numbers .
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Turkish basic expressions :


Note :
This page is written in turkish !To view turkish letters right , click view
>>>encoding>>>more>>> turkish.

General | Greetings | Questions | The time | Months | Days | Cardinal


numbers | Order numbers | The city and the country | Colours |
Clothes and accessories | Common phrases | Family and relatives |
Food and beverages | Vegetables | Fruits and nuts | House |
Countries , nationalities and languages

General
yes
evet
no
hayr
thanks
teekkrler
thanks a lot ok teekkrler
reply to
bir ey deil

thanks
excuse me affedersiniz
teessf ederim / zr
sorry
dilerim
reply to
bir sorun deil
sorry

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Greetings
good morning gn aydn
good evening iyi akamlar
good night
iyi geceler
hi
selam / merhaba
welcome
ho geldiniz
reply to
ho bulduk
welcome
how are you naslsnz
I am fine
iyiyim
grmek zere /
goodbye
Allahasmarladk
reply to
gle gle / grmek zere
goodbye

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Questions :
what
how
why
who
which
where
where from
where to
when
what hour
what does this
mean :

ne
nasl
niin / niye /
neden
kim
hangi
nerede
nereden
nereye
ne zaman
saat kata
bu ne demek

how much
with what
with whom
whose
is there / are
there
do you have ...

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the time
centuryyzyl
year
yl / sene
month ay
day
gn
hour
saat
dakika /
minute
dakka
second sanya
season mevsim
mornin
sabah
g
noon le
evenin
akam
g
night gece
winter k
spring bahar
summe
yaz
r
aumtu
sonbahar
mn

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Months
January Ocak
Februar
ubat
y
March Mart

ne kadar
neyle
kiminle
kimin
var m
sizde ... var m

April
May

Nisan
Mays
Hazira
June
n
Temmu
July
z
Austo
August
s
Septem
Eyll
ber
October Ekim
Novemb
Kasm
er
Decemb
Aralk
er

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Days
Pazarte
si
Tuesday Sal
Wednesd aram
ay
ba
perem
Thursday
be
Friday
cuma
cumart
Saturday
esi
Sunday Pazar
Monday

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Cardinal numbers
9
dokuz
11 on 12 on 13 on 14 on 15 on 16 on 17 on
18 on
19 on
bir
iki

drt be
alt
yedi
sekiz
dokuz
21
22
23
24
25
26
27 yirmi 28 yirmi 29
yirmi yirmi yirmi yirmi yirmi yirmi yedi
sekiz
yirmi
1 bir 2 iki

3 4 drt 5 be 6 alt

7 yedi

8 sekiz

10 on
20
yirmi
30
otuz

bir
iki

drt be
alt
31
32
33
34
35
36 otuz 37 otuz
otuz otuz otuz otuz otuz
alt
yedi
bir
iki

drt be
41
42
43
44
45
46 krk 47 krk
krk krk krk krk krk
alt
yedi
bir
iki

drt be
51 elli 52 elli 53 elli 54 elli 55 elli 56 elli 57 elli
bir
iki

drt be
alt
yedi
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
altm altm altm altm altm altm altm
bir
iki

drt be
alt
yedi
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
yetmi yetmi yetmi yetmi yetmi yetmi yetmi
bir iki drt be alt
yedi
81
82
83
84
85
sekse sekse sekse sekse sekse
n bir n iki n n drt n be
91
92
93
94
95
doksa doksa doksa doksa doksa
n bir n iki n n drt n be
100
yz

300
200

iki yz
yz

204
iki
yz
drt

332

yz
otuz
iki

400
drt
yz

100
10
000
000
yz
on bin
bin

500
be
yz

900
000
dokuz
yz
bin

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Order numbers
bir one
iki two

birinci first
ikinci second

dokuz
39
38 otuz
40
otuz
sekiz
krk
dokuz
49
48 krk
krk
50 elli
sekiz
dokuz
58 elli 59 elli 60
sekiz
dokuz altm
69
70
68 alm
altm yetmi
sekiz
dokuz
78
79
80
yetmi yetmi sekse
sekiz
dokuz n
89
86
87
88
90
sekse
seksen seksen seksen
doksa
n
alt
yedi
sekiz
n
dokuz
99
96
97
98
doksa 100
doksan doksan doksan
n
yz
alt
yedi
sekiz
dokuz
800
900
600 alt 700 yedi
1000
sekiz
dokuz
yz
yz
bin
yz
yz
9 999
999
222 222
dokuz
800
222 iki
milyon
888
yz
dokuz
7 000
sekiz
yirmi iki
1
yz
000
yz bin
milyon
trillion
doksan
000
sekiz
iki yz
= bir
dokuz
yedi
yz
yirmi iki
trilyon
bin
bilyon
seksen
bin iki
dokuz
sekiz
yz
yz
yirmi iki
doksan
dokuz

three
nc third
drt four
drdnc fourth
be five
beinci fifth
alt six
altnc sixth
yedi seven
yedinci seventh
sekiz eight
sekizinci eighth
dokuz nine
dokuzuncu ninth
on ten
onuncu tenth
on bir
on birinci
yirmi
yirminci
otuz
otuzuncu
krk
krknc
elli
ellinci
altm
altmnc
yetmi
yetmiinci
seksen
sekseninci
doksan
doksannc
yz
yznc
iki yz
iki yznc
drt yz bir
drt yz birinci
bin
bininci
on yedi bin iki yz on yedi bin iki yz
be
beinci

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The city and the country :


capital
municipality
street
alley
Square
road
pavement /
sidewalk
sewer
pedestrian
crowd
railway
tunnel

bakent
belediye
cadde
sokak
meydan
yol
yaya kaldrm
lam
yaya
kalabalk
demiryolu
tnel

tower
status
bridge
region / area
district
quarter
palace
fountain
university
bank
hospital
tent
garage
parking
circus
park
zoo
library
theatre
cinema
club
casino
store
supermarket
baker's
butcher's
fishmonger's
cafe
laundry
bookshop
coiffeur
office
market
factory
village
field
villa
garden
mill
wood

bur
stat
kpr
blge
blge
mahalle
saray
fiskiye
niversite
banka
hastane
adr
garaj
park
sirk
park
hayvanat
bahesi
ktphane
tiyatro
sinema
kulp
gazino
maaza
spermarket
frnc
kasap
balk
kahvehane
amarhane
kitap
kuafr
ofis
ar
fabrika
ky
tarla
villa
bahe
deirmen
orman

canal
tomb / grave
borders

kanal
mezar
snrlar

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Colours :
beige
black
blue
brown
golden
green
grey
mauve
orange
pink
purple
red
silver

bej
siyah
mavi
kahve
rengi
altn rengi
yeil
gri /
klrengi
leylak
rengi
portakal
rengi
pembe
mor
al / krmz
gm
rengi

turquoi
turkuaz
se
white beyaz
yellow sar
dark
koyu
light
ak

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clothes and accessories :


(in alphabetical order )
anorak
anorak
bathrobe bornoz
blouse
bluz

bra
sutyen
cap
kasket
coat
palto
dress
elbise
girdle
kemer
gloves
eldiven
handkerch
mendil
ief
hat
apka
jacket
ceket
jeans
blucin
nightdressgecelik
overalls tulum
panties
kadn klotu
pullover kazak
pyjamas pijama
raincoat yamurluk
sandals
sandal
scarf
earp
shirt
gmlek
shoes
ayakkab
skirt
etek
slip
kombinezon
slippers terlik
socks
ksa orap
stockings uzun orap
suit
takm elbise
sweater kazak
uzun kollu pamuklu
sweatshirt
kazak
swimsuit mayo
tie
kravat
tights
klotlu orap
trousers pantolon
underpant
klot
s
waistcoat yelek

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Common phrases :

can I try this


Bunu deneyebilir
on ?
miyim?
This is so
Bu ok gzel
beautiful !
How much is
Bu ... kaa ?
this ...
I 'll take this ... bu ... alrm .
Where to pay ? demek nerede
it's too long
fazla uzun
it's too short
fazla ksa
this is too large bu fazla byk
this ... too small bu ... fazla kk
it's so expensivepek pahal
... is cheap
ucuz
sale
indirim

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Family and relatives :


boy
man
bachelor
son
father
husband
baby
brother
cousin
uncle( father's
brother)
uncle ( mother's
brother)
grandpa
grandson
relative
orphan
girl
woman
daughter
wife

olan
adam
bekar
oul
baba
koca
bebek
karde
amcazade /
dayzade
amca
day
dede
torun
hsm
yetim
kz
kadn
kz
e

child
sister
mother
aunt (father's
sister)
aunt(mother's
sister)
grandma
granddaughter

ocuk
hemire
anne
hala
teyze
nine
torun

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Food and beverages :


menu
breakfast
lunch
dinner
meal
bread
butter
cheese
yoghurt
honey
jam
egg
spaghetti
macaroni
pizza
hamburger
meat
minced
meat
beef
cutlet
sausage
fish
chicken
soup
vegetable
soup

yemek listesi
kahvalt
le yemei
akam yemei
yemek
ekmek
tereya
peynir
yourt
bal
reel
yumurta
spagetti
makarna
piza
hamburger
et
kyma
sr eti
pirzola
sucuk / sosis
balk
tavuk
orba
sebze orbas

tomato
soup

domates
orbas
mercimek
lentil soup
orbas
onion soup soan orbas
pickles
turu
oil
ya
sugar
eker
salt
tuz
mustard
hardal
vinegar
sirke
sause
sala
salad
salata
tart
turta
milk
st
coffee
kahve
cream
krema
tea
ay
fruit juice meyve suyu
beer
bira
wine
arap
whisky
viski
bitter
ac
sweet
tatl
hot
scak
cold
souk
fresh
taze
raw
i
rice
pilav

top

Vegetables :
lemon
limon
cucumbe
hyar
r
tomato domates
cauliflow karnaba
er
har
cabbage lhana

onion
garlic
radish

soan
sarmsak
turp
maydan
parsley
oz
carrot
havu?
bean
fasulye
potato patates
lettuce marul
eggplant patlcan
spinach spanak
pepper biber
artichokeenginar
quince ayva
pine
am
zucchini kabak
turnip
algam

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Fruits amd nuts :


bananas muz
oranges portakal
mandarin mandali
es
na
appels
elma
grapes
zm
figs
incir
mangoes mango
dates
hurma
apricot
kay?s?
strawberri
ilek
es
pineapple ananas
raspberry dut
watermel
karpuz
on
melon
kavun
Plum
armut
peaches erik

pears
armut
pomegran
nar
ate
hazels
fndk
pistachios fstk
almonds badem
kuru
raisins
zm

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House :
building
floor /
storey
flat
lift
stairs
door
key
window
roof

inaat
kat

daire
asansr
merdiven
kap
anahtar
pencere
at
zemin /
floor
deme
bathroom banyo
shower
du
toilet
tuvalet
hall
hol
corridor koridor
balcony balkon
sofa
kanepe
chair
iskemle
table
masa
curtain
perde
carpet
hal
cupboard dolap
bedroom yatak odas
bed
yatak
pillow
yastk

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Countries , nationalities and languages :


Country/conti
nent
(England)
Europe
Belgium
Netherland
Germany
France
England
Spain
Russia
Poland
Portugal
Italy
Scotland
Greece
Yugoslavia
Romanya
Bulgaria
Croatia
Serbia
Bosnia
Czec
Slovakia
Austria
Hungary
Swtizerland
Sweden
Norway
Finland
Turkey
Albania
Bellorussia
Denmark

nationality
Language
Englishman/Eng
English
lish
Avrupa
Avrupal
Belika
belikal
franszca/hollandalca
Hollanda
hollandal
hollandalca
Almanya
alman
almanca
Fransa
Fransz
franszca
ngiltere
ingiliz
ingilizce
spnaya
spanyal?
spanyolca
Rusya
rus
rusa
Polonya
Polonyal
Polonyalca
Portekiz
portekizli
portekizce
talya
ialyal
italyaca
skoya
skoyal
skoyalca
yunanistan
yunan
yunanca
Yugoslavya
yugoslav
srp?a
romanya
rumen
rumence
bulgaristan
bulgar
bulgarca
Hrvatistan
Hrvat
Hrvata
Srbistan
srp
srpa
bosna hersek bonak
srpa/hrvata
ek
ek
eke
cumhuriyeti
Slovakya
slovak
slovaka
Avusturya
Avusturyal
almanca
Macaristan
macar
macarca
Almanca / talyaca /
svire
svireli
Franszca
sve
sveli
svee
Norve
norveli
norvee
Finlandiya
Fin
Fince
Trkiye
trk
trke
Arnavutluk
Arnavut
Arnavuta
Beyaz rusya beyaz rus
beyaz rusa
Danimarka
danimarkal
danimarkaca
country in
turkish

Estonia
Ireland
Lethuania
Macedonia
Ukraine
Asia
Syria
Irak
Jordan
Palestine
Israel
Iran
Arabia
Pakistan
India
Khazakistan
Uzbekistan
Tajikistan
Turkmenistan
China
Korea
Japan
Kuwait
Lebanon
Thailand
Taiwan
Australia
New zealand
Thee new
world
America(USA)
Canada
Mexico
Venezuela
El Ecuador
Brazil
Cuba
Africa
Egypt
Lybia
Algeria

Estonya
rlanda
Litvanya
Makedonya
Ukranya
Asya
Suriye
Irak
rdn
Filistin
srail
ran
arabistan
Pakistan
Hindistan
Kazakistan
zbekistan
Tacikistan
Trkmenistan
in
Kore
Japonya
Kuveyt
Lbnan
Tayland
Tayvan
Avustralya
Yeni zelanda

estonyal
irlandal
litvanyal
makedonyal
ukranyal
asyal
Suriyeli
Irakl
rdnl
Filistinli
srailli
iranl
arabi
Pakistanl
hintli
Kazak
zbek
tacik
trkmen
inli
koreli
Japon
kuveytli
lbnanl
tay
tayvanl
avustralyal
yeni zelandal

estonca
ingilizce
litvanca
makedonca
ukranca
arapa
arapa
arapa
arapa
branice
farsa
arapa
urdu
hinte
kazaka
zbeke
tacike
trkmence
ince
korece
japonca
arapa
arapa
tayca
ince
ingilizce
ingilizce

yeni dnya

yeni dnyal

Amerika(ABD) amerikal
Kanada
Kanadal
Meksika
meksikal
Venezuela
venezuelal
Ekavtor
ekvatorlu
Brezilya
brezilyal
Kba
kbal
Afrika
Afrikal
Msr
msrl
Libya
libyal
Cezair
cezairli

ingilizce
ingilizce
ispanyolca
ispanyolca
ispanyolca
portekizce
ispanyolca
arapa
arapa
arapa

South africa
Nigeria
Kenia
Morocco

Gney Afrika
Nijerya
Kenya
Fas

gney afrikal
Nijeryal
kenyal
Fasl

afrikanz
ingilizce
ingilizce
arapa