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of, Hatha Yoga ala lic Contents Introduction 7 Fundamentals 3 Locations on the Body 8 Skeleton 10 Joints 22 Ligaments 26 Muscles and Tendons 35 Movement 44 Part One - The Pelvic Girdle and Thighs 49 Chapter: Iliopsoas 57 Chapter 2: Gluteus Maximus 64 Chapter 3: Gluteus Medius 69 Chapter 4: Tensor Fascia Lata 7 Chapter 5a: Pectineus 79 Chapter 5b: Adductor Magnus 8% Chapter6: External Rotators 91 Chapter 7: Quadriceps 96 Chapter8:Hamstrings 103 Part Two - The Trunk 113 Chapter 9: Abdominals 118 Chapter 10: Back Muscles 128 Chapter 11: Latissimus Dorsi 135, Chapter 12: Trapezius 139 Chapter 13: Pectoralis Major & Minor 144 Part Three - The Shoulder Girdle and Upper Arms 151 Chapter 14: Rhomboids 157 Chapter 15: Serratus Anterior 162 Chapter 16: Deltoids 167 Chapter 17: Rotator Cuff 17 Chapter 18: Biceps Brachii 185 Chapter 19: Triceps Brachii 190 Chapter 20: Sternocleidomastoid 197 Chapter 21: Lower Leg and Foot 202 Chapter 22: Forearm and Hand 206 Chapter 24: The Breath Connection 212 Chapter 25: Bandhas 220 Chapter 26: Chakras 222 Putting It AllTogether 224 Appendix of Asanas 230 Index of Asanas 236 | Chapter 23: Myofascial and Organ Planes 210 | Index of Muscles 238 Introduction H is the art of hatha yoga. Nevertheless, combining knowledge from both fields is extremely beneficial to the yoga practitioner. Athletes can improve their performance and experience fewer injuries through a basic understanding of their musculoskeletal system. Similarly, yoga practitioners can benefit from the application of Western science to their practice development. It is not necessary to memorize hundreds of muscles and bones to experience the benefits of applying science to yoga. What is necessary is the functional understanding of a manageable number of key anatomic structures in their settings as they relate to hatha yoga. Knowledge of these structures can be applied immediately to optimize your practice, break through blockages and avoid injuries This first volume presents key muscles in the context of hatha yoga. For practitioners unfamiliar with the Western scientific terminology of the body, the following section, “Fundamentals,” is recommended. About the Author Ray Long Poy Long MD FRCSCis aboard certified orthopedic surgeon and the founder of Bandha Yoga. Ray ‘graduated from The University of Michigan Medical School with post-graduate traning at Cornell University, MeGill Univesity, ‘The University of Montreal and Florida Orthopedic Institute Hehas studied hatha yoga for cover twenty years, training extensively with B.S. Iyengar andother ofthe world’s leading yoga masters. Chris Macivor Chris Macivorisa digital ilustrator ‘andthe visual coordinator of Bandha Your. Chris isa graduate of Ftobicoke School of The Arts, Sheridan College and Seneca College. His work has spanned many genres from TV and film to videogames and underwater videography. Patanjali, the patron saint of yoga, said that mastery combines a balance of science and art. Knowledge of science is like the colors on an artist’s palette - the greater the knowledge, the more colors available. The body is the canvas and the asanas are the art we create. Scientific Keys Volume I First Edition: Copyright 2005, Raymond A Long mo FRSC ‘Second Edition: Copyright 2006, Raymond A Long Ho FResc Third Edition: Copyright 2006, Raymond A Long wo FRcse Bandha Yoga Publications All ights reserved No part ofthis book may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form without the express written permission ofthe publisher. Aways consult your healthcare provider before practicing yoga or any other exercise program. ‘Yoga must always be practiced under the supervision ofa qualified instructor, The author assumes no responsibility for injuries that may occu as resuit ofthe practice of yoga. Design: Ingrid Patricia Sanchez Scientific keys How to Use This Book The imagesin this book are the keys. We present each muscle in the context of its function asan agonist, antagonist or synergist. Note the interrelated views of the muscle in each of its various representations. Relax and study one muscle ata time. Actively apply what you have earned by visualizing the muscles as you perform the asanas. Consciously contract and relax them, as detailed in the images. This will consolidate your knowledge. Review each studied muscle, fist at twenty four hours and then again at one week. In this way you will master the muscles and integrate them into your yoga practice. Fundamentals Locations of Structures on the Body The following terms are used to describe where structures lie in relation to certain landmarks on the body. Medial: Lateral: Closerto the midline of the body Away from the midline Proximal: Distal: Closer to the trunk or midline Away from the trunk or midline Superior: Inferior: ‘Above or towards the head Below or away from the head Anterior: Posterior: Towards the front of the body Towards the back of the body Ventral: Dorsal: On the front of the body Onthe back of the body Superficial: Deep: Towards the skin Inside the body Locations on the Body These images demonstrate the terminology for identifying body locations in yoga postures, Note that some ofthe terms are interchangeable. For example, an anterior structure (such, asthe chest) in utkatasana is also ventral, 1) The sternum is medial tothe shoulder. 2) The shoulders itera tothe sternum. 3) The shoulder is proximal. 4) The hand isdistat. 5) The head is superior tothe fet. (6) The feet are interior tothe head. 1) The chest is anterior to the back, ') The backs posterior to the chest. 9) The abdomen is ventral. 10) The tumbar region is dorsal. 11) Theabdominal muscles are superficial. 12) The abdominal organs are deep. tadasana utkatasand Skel ’ sores the dancing sue that ems the bd stat fnew burs rss composed of wgenean erga rouse cn Sica come tac oa Sinton oot waa cab Miser ‘ghar, tocateSater eyes ‘oka cosy sri creton effec, of atv alg toro ot Ope tes Sheng nose . Regula practice Voge beneficial for your bons because healthy stressesare applied in a variety of unusual diections. This strengthens Bares wich erode in response to strestby depos iting layers of eae int the bone matrix. Like» physilesiat YynAangiekof healthy stress on bones ears then. reper ea ace otal am complexiinterplay between the skeletal, endocrine and excretory living bone Bone mass decreases in osteoporosis. Tis age related de ‘crease associated with the loss of estrogen in pst- mv. pausal women. Studies have demonstrated that resistance ‘ype exercise maintains bone mass, hecordinaly, is reason able to conclude thatthe various healthy stresses that youn practice applies across the bones may aid preventing osteo pores The bones ofthe skeleton tink together a the joints ad act. as lovers for the muscles that cross the joints, Consciously contracting and relaxing these skeletal muscles moves body into the various yoga postures = a vertebral body Shapes of bones The form or shape ofa bone reflects its function. Long bones provide leverage, flat bones provide protection and a place for ‘broad muscles to attach, and short bones provide for weight bearing functions. Yooa accesses each bone’s particular po- tential using long bones to leverage the body deeper into postures, the fat bones (nd their accompanying core muscles) for stability, and the short vertebral bodies to bear weight. Examples of these hones are iMustrated here. itium femur ~~ icaneus irabhadrasana 2 utthanasana Gravity and the Skeleton ‘he Sanscrit word fora yoga poses asana. Sansrit scholars variously ‘vanslate this word to mean “a comfortable or effortless position”. ‘Yoga postures approach effortlessness when we align the long axis of the bones withthe direction of gravity. This decreases the muscular force needed to maintain our postures. For example, in utthanasana, the force of gravity aligns withthe long axis of the femur and tibia bones. Sinilarty, in siddhasana the force ‘of gravity aligns with the long axis of the spine. Use muscular force to bring the bones into a position where they carry the load. Oncethese positions ae attained, muscular forceis no longer necessary (or greatly decreased). siddhasana ————— fibula Fundamental Bones clavicle scapula sternum humerus radius ulna itium sacrum pubis patella tibia femur a Fundamental Bones lateral condyie | ‘medial condyle patella ress a tibial platenw a fiularhead tibia tuberosity ~ eapals — radies — — ankle raat ead troctea Lateral epleondyle mil epiconyle eos ; io hindfoot ——midfvot. forefoot (calcaneus,talus) (tarsals) (metatarsals, phalanges) 4 Shoulder and Hip ( 9 ye lesser trochanter ‘schiat tuberosity hip ‘The hips and shoulders are ball and socket joints. Their form elects ther function In that the deep socket (acetabulum) of thei s designed to support weight while the shallow socket (qlenoid) ofthe shoulders designed to provide maximum range of motion for the arms. Yooa postures balance mobility an¢ stability by teasing the range of motion of the hips and stabilizing the shoulder. ‘acetabulum femoral head ae greater trochanter 670K ~ humeral head reater tuberosity : lesser tuberosity bicpital groove shoulder 16 The Axial and Appendicular Skeleton axial skeleton appendicular skeleton ‘The axial steleton consists ofthe spinal column, cranium (skull, and ib cage. The spinaleolumn surrounds and protects the spina cord, whichis the central energy channel, orsushurina radi Itis| ‘theayis around which the poses of yoga revolve. The _appendicular skeleton connects us with the world. The lower extremities form our connection tothe earth. Theupper extremities, inassociation with oursenses, connect us with each other The Shoulder Girdle The shoulder girdle is the yoke that connects the upper extremities with the aval skeleton tis the seat of the brachial plexus, a collection of nerves that in association with the heart forms the bass forthe fourth and ith chakras. The shoulder girdleis comprised ofthe following structures: ‘Scaptla (shoulder blade) ‘Scapulothoracic joint Gaavice ‘Sternoctavicular and Acromioclavicuar joints Humerus (upper-arm bone) Glenohumeral joint The Pelvic Girdle ‘The pelvic gicdle’s the yoke that connects the lower extremities tothe axial skeleton. Its the seat ofthe sacrat plexus, acllection of nerves that for the bass for the first and second chakras. The pelvic girdles comprised ofthe following structures: ac bones Sacroiliac joint Femur (thigh bone) Hipjoint Connecting the Appendicular and Axial Skeleton ‘a po vipavita dandasana demonstrates connecting the upper and lower appendicular skeletons to create movement in te axial skeleton. Note the inset image demonstrating stimulation ofthe spinal nerves in this back bend, nerve roots in back bend eka pad dandasana The Vertebral Column ious eee RRR ms cervical thoracic lumbar sacrum coccyx Spinal Curves We determinethe spinal ‘curves by viewing then from the sie. Kyphosiss aconvexcurveand lordo- Tis itstration demon strates the fournormal ‘curves inthe spine: 2) cervical lordosis 2) thoracic kyphosis 3) lumbar lordosis 4) sacral kyphosis tadasana Scoliosis Seotiosisisa lateral deviation and rotational deformity of the spine. The mast comman form of scoliosis scaled “idiopathic”, meaning without anidentifable cause. Other forms ‘include congenital and neuromuscular scoliosis. Studies have suggested that iio pathic scoliosis elated to hormonal factors including the level of melatonin — produced, This form of scoliosis also has a hereditary component. hen the magnitude of the scoliotic curve progresses beyond 20 degrees, thereisa risk of continued progression after skeletal maturity Very large scoli- otiecurves ean impact respiration by restricting the ribcage Seotosisalso affects the pelvic and shoulder girdles, as illustrated here. For example, titng the polvic girdle creates a perception of limb Lenath liscrepancy (one leg shorter than the other. Similarly, one arm may ap pear shorter than the other Scoliosis affetsthe bone, cartilage and muscles ofthe spine. Muscles on the concave side ofa curve become chronically shortened when compared with those on the convex side. Yoga postures ai to counteract this process by stretching the shortened muscles. scoliosis marichyasana Yoga as therapy These inages ofa twist, back bend and forward bend demonstrate how yoga postures contract and stretch the back muscles. Ths lengthens chronically shortened muscles on the «concave side of the scoliotic curve while strengthening them on the convex sie. This assists ‘balancing perceived discrepancies in tim length and mayalso improve nerve conduction. paschimottanas: salabhasana triang mukhaikapad 22 Joints AAswith the bones, the shape of the joints reftects their function (and their function reflects their shape). Joints come ‘ina spectrum of shapes, de pending on the mobility or stability they require. For example, the hip joint is a ball and socket ‘while the knee joint isa hinge. &balland socket {ype hip joint confers the greatest mobility in all planes and is useful for activities sueh changing direction while walking and running (or reach- ‘ng in various directions to grasp objects as with the shoulder). A hinge type knee joint provides greater stability and is useful for propelling the body forward (or drawing an object towards the body, as with the elbow). Other joints suchas the intervertebral between ‘the vertebrae allow for tinited mobility between ‘individual vertebrae but great stability to protect ‘the spinal cord. Mobility ofthe spinal column comes from combining the limited movement of individual intervertebral joints asa whole. eq ball and socket te ) hinge nn compressive hip lumbar spine Bh 1x4 \ hip articular cartilage hip joint capsule with synovium (posterior view) Articular Structure ‘The join capsules connective tissue sheathing thatsurrounds and seals synovial its. issu ‘ceptible to stretch injury when exeating extreme Imovementsin yoga postures. Smovil issue tines the inside ofthe join cap se, This tisue produces synovial fle, 2 viscous lubricant forthe ein surface that decreases ‘rietion during joint moverent. Synovial fuid “Greats threughcut te ent, transporting ntrents tothe articular cartilage an remeving {debris fom the joint space. The varius contor- tons resulting from yoga pestues ad flex and expand the eit capsule, stimulating creation of synovial fluid. ‘Arteuarcartlage covers the joint surfaces al- lowing smooth gliding of one one over the other Infact, articular cartilage sone the smooth lest surfaces known to nan. Appving excessive pressurete this fragile cartilage an ijureit, Uitimatly resulting in arthritis, ‘hemeriscus deepens the articular surface and Ivoadens the contact area of theo This is F to stabilize the joint anc distributes the force of knee with ‘rviy and muscular contraction over a greater ee Surface area, The maniacs composed oF ro- menisci Cartilage, giving ita exe ubery consistency 4 Joint reaction forces Every action has an equal and opposite reaction. Muscular eontraction and grav- ‘ty create opposing forecs across the joint surfaces, known a5 joint reaction forces. Itisimportantt spread these forces over the greatest possible joint surface area. Joint congruency efersto theft ofa joint’ articular surfaces. A joints congeu= ent when its surfaces fit together perfect- ly. Movement out of congruency focuses stress on a small surface area. Alarge force focused on a smal area of articular Cartilage can injure it, eventually causing degenerative changes. Some yoga postures have the capacity to Ssublux or take jintinto an incongruent position, Avoid this by using the joints with greater range of motion while protecting those joints with limited of motion, Joint reaction forces - applied For example, the ball and socket joint of the hip has greater range of mo- ‘tion than the hinge joit of the knee. Lotus posture (or padmasana) re- quitesa large amount of external rotation ofthe hip joint to bring the foot Into postion on the opposite leg. Obtaining ths external retation from the ke joint creates incongruency because the knee i 2 hinge joint with in- ‘ted capacity t rotate. This incongruency ean result the abnormal distri- bution of joint reaction forces, injuring the intraarticular structures ofthe knee. Therefore itis essential to fist obtain Full range of motion of the ball and socket hip joint to protect the hinge knee joint. (see artows) ardha padmasana 26 Ligaments WS » \ Ligaments are fibrous connective tissue structures that link one bone to another at the joint. They serve to stabilize the joint ‘while at the same tine allowing mobility. Ligaments vary in size and shape according to their function. For example, the cruciate ligaments ofthe knee are short, stout structures that assist in maintaining the kneeasa hinge The sacroiliac ligaments are dense, broad and thickstructures that limit movement of the sacroitiacjoint. Theshoulder ligaments are thin band- tke structures that are confluent with the shoulder capsule, allowing for great range of notion. Ligaments are ron-cantractile but actively participate in movement because they have sensory nerves that transmit information about joint position tothe spinal cord and brain. Ligamentotaxis Ligamentotaxis refers to the pul of ligaments on the bones to which they areattaches. This concept is used by physicians to set pull broken bones bback nto place and set them. Tt can also be used during yoga practice as illustrated herein the forward bend utthanasana, Here the weight of the upper body is transmitted to the pelvis via the ligaments ofthe back. This pulls forward and lifts the ischial ies, passively stretching the hamstrings. Similarly, ligaments hhave some capacity for elastic reeoil. This recoil can be combined with the ‘momentum of the body as it raises from postures such as back bene. ‘The form ofthe pelvic and hip ligaments reflects their function. The pelvic Pelvic and Hip Ligaments _ 4 Fan et ota supe oft mlitberngtunction of these joints. The hip ligaments are shaped to stabilize the hip wile allowing ‘movement for walking and eunning sacroiliac ligaments sacrotuberous ligament posterior iliofemoral ligaments anterior iliofemoral ligaments Pelvis and Hip (anterior) Pelvis and Hip (posterior) Iliofemoral Ligaments | tigaments (relaxed) Hip joint (flexed, internally rotated) The anterior iliofemoral ligaments are part ofthe hip joint and stabilize it. These ligaments become taut when the femur extends and externally rotates. They relax when the femur flexes and internally rotates Tightness in these ligaments limits extension ofthe hip in lunging poses and forward splits. This limitation is overcome by tilting the pelvis forward and internally rotating the femur. anterior iliofemoral ligaments (tightened) Hip joint (extended, externally rotated) 30 anna ganent — Shoulder and Elbow Ligaments (att sme) so Elbow (posterior) The calateral gamers fhe elbow tnt side tosde rotor and inane tsa ge The terse membrane tates the bores ete eee dalle ieee Shoulder econasanes coraodavear Unlike te thick gamers ofthe ip the Tae lgnents ‘lenohumera ligaments ofthe shoulder are : thin structures. Their design allows greater coracoacromial mobility ofthe joint. ligament transverse bicipital tigament Theintrior olenohumera igamentisthe most imjortont ofthe three glenohumeet _ ligaments. This ligament tightens when the inferior glenohumeral, humers abducts ond externally artes. Uigament The Muscular Stabilizers sc daposkite bonesaadtihdnsarenrredacessd aa ee of the Shoulder ‘ale shure pray see start eae Cul the secondary stabilizers are the triceps and biceps. You postures suchas arm balances and inversions strengthen these rmusdes, balancing stability and mobility nthe Joint. supraspinatus infraspinatus subscapularis biceps (long head) triceps (long head) Rotator Cuff shoulder joint) 31 VERTEBRAL UNIT Spine Ligaments | -Reatalnetceomentt ncn esi kal the imtevertebal die, Movenent between the vertebrae possible inseveral planes (icluding sal amounts of otation flexion ond {xtersion) The combination of otion aces ail verte Units calinatesnspnal movement. LUMBOSACRAL SPINE anterior longitudinal ligament vertebral body interspinous ligament spinous process tranverse process spinalis muscle < ‘ransversatis muscle sacrum neural foramina 32 Trunk Ligaments Ligaments attach bone to bone andals serveas attachments for certain rcs Belo are tre such igrent that connect he ody an trunk wth helo bo. tinea alba lumbosacral fascia ‘inguinal igament « ‘he pala tendon cme te quis mutta theif extndn the te The Knee Ligaments casual panels ose etn ofthe ee snd tensions age Seu lstenron uuremguumenee Une see mace rth nef espertneyThemensel eon nd se cas ea te oaanes menue hin boar felon bp patellar tendon lateral collateral ligament anterior cruciate ligament posterior eruciate ligament menisci medial collateral ligament medial collateral ligament ‘nterosseous membrane Knee (anterior) asterior - menisci removed, 3 Muscles and Tendons Thesynergist of psoas assistin Mexing te ip. The quadriceps are the agonists that contract to extend the knees. The hamstrings are the antagonists stretched by this action. | Movements are determined by the varying forces acting across the joints. These forces are preduced bythe muscles, and thei effects on body position are determined by the muscles shape, orgin (the attachment ofthe muscle to a bboneat the more fixed or paximal end), and insertion (the attachment ofthe ‘muscle toa bone tthe end tovard the part to bemoved, or the more cists Provimal attachment ofthe muscle to bone, Distal attachment of the muscle toa bone, The muscle that contractste producea certainaction about a joint. For example, the hamstrings areagonists when you flexyour nee, Aisle that relaxes while the agonist contracts. The antagonist produces the opposite action about a joint. For example, ‘he quadriceps (a the front ofthe thigh) ithe antagorstt the hamstrings when you flex your knee. when you extend your knee, the {quadriceps isthe agonist and the hamstrings theantagonist. ‘muscle that assists and fine-tunes the action ofthe agonist and canbe used to produce thesame action, although generally nt. efficiently, x \ \ wW The serio he patel, Muscles and Tendons Tendon attach muscles to bones, transmitting the forces praduced bythe muscles, maving joints. Tendons also have Sensory nerves that communicate information about muscle tension and joint position tothe bin. Teunlons arligaments have limited capacity to stretch an do net contrac. Practicing yoga improves tendon and ligament leiblity, especialy when performed in aheated room, Practitioners should not stretch tendons igaments beyond their noma ength as this can cause injury. a ra hamstring tendon x itiacus tendon a7 luscle Shapes Muscles come in variety of shapes, reflecting their specific ction. These different shapes provide for maximal ‘rica effcieney during moverient ofthe skeleton. Sinilarly, museles may curve aver the bones to provide a hal pulley” effect which multiplies the force of cortraction. Some ofthe various muscle shapes include the follwing: Mono-articular and Poly-articular Muscles ‘Muscles are also defined bythe number ofjonts that they cos from ther origin to their insertion. Monoarticlar ‘muscles cross only ane joint vile polyarticular muscles cross more tan onejoint. When monoarticular muscles contract they primarily move only one joint. When polyarticular muscles contract they «can move multiplejints. For example, in the one-legged viksasana theilacus an gluteus medius represent monoarticular muscles because they originate on the ium andattach to the proximal femur crossing (and moving) only the hipjont. Here the {igcus and gluteus medius serve to stabilize the hp ont in the standing leg The cuadretustumborum, psoas, rectus femoris and sartorus represent polyarticular muscles because theyall ross and move) multiple joints. Here these ‘muscles contributeto flexing, abducting and externally rotating the non-standing leg. mono-articu poly-articular Muscle Structure and Function Muscle fibers are the functional contractile units of each skeletal muscle, Fibers are grouped into fascicles which in turn are grouped {inte bundles, thus forming the individual skeletal muscles. ‘Skeletal muscles are also composed of non-contactile elements. The non= contractile element include the connective tissue sheath surrounding the muscle bundles, fascicles and ‘individual fbers, as well asthe myotendon junction. Muscle bers contract in response to afferant nerve stimuli (rom the central nervous system). This i an active, energy-dependent process involving the release of calcium atthe cellular level ofthe muscle fiber. Calcium then ‘Forms eros bridging between the myoflaments (ofthe myofibril). This causes a “ratcheting” effect that results inthe shortening or contraction of the individual muscle fiber. The net effect ofthis process is shortening or contraction ofthe entire muscle. ‘The force of this contraction is transmitted tothe non-contractle facial elements surrounding the muscle, ‘These fascial elements then transmit this forceto the myotendon junction and on tothe bones, moving the Joint. Muscles existin either a contracted, relaxed or stretched state, This is ilustrated above nthe inset shoring the ‘108s bridging of myofaments, Types of Muscle Contraction There are tvee types of muscle contraction: Concentric (isotonic) contraction The musee shortens while maintaining constant ‘tension through arange of motion. Eccentric contraction ‘The muscle contracts while lengthening. Isometric contraction ‘The muscle generates tension but does not ‘shorten, andthe bones donot move. Stretching Muscles Static Stretching ‘Static stretching isthe most commen technique used in hatha yoga. There ae two categories of statie stretching, The fists ative static stretching, This rvolues contracting antagonist muscles to stretch a target muscle. Contracting the quadriceps, iopsoas an biceps during the forward bend paschimottanasana isa form of active static stretching of the hamstrings. Contracting antagonist muscles in active static stretching results ina phenomena called “reciprocal inhibition.” During reiprocalinhibitio, the central nervous system signals the target muscle to relax. Passive static stretching occurs when we relax into a stretch, using only the force of body weight (or an exterally applied weight to stretch muscles. The restorative pose setubandhais, ‘an example of passive static stretching ofthe iopsoas muscle, Facilitated Stretching Yoga practitioners use facilitated stretching to deopen ther postures. This type eh of stretching involves contracting the muse being stretched during an active \ static stretching, This action triggers a reflex ar involving the Golgi tendon organ, resulting na profound rlavation ofthe target muscle when the contraction period end. This also known a proprioceptive neuromuscular feiitation (PAF). Is extremely important consider the joint reaction forces when using facilitated £4 stretches, since the force the muscle generates is transmitted to the joints. Asa {general rule, gently contract the stretched muscle to avoid excessive joint reaction ferces. these mages demonstrate facilitated stretching ofthe gluteus meds, ‘maximus ad tensor fascla ata, Dynamic Stretching ‘Yoga practitioners use dynamic stetching during the viayasa type practice. This typeof stretch mvoles repetitive movement of the body ito increasingly deer stele Performing dynarvic stretching {nthe morning “resets” the resting muscle length forthe day. (Scientific Keys, Volume I covers the physiology of stretchingin detail). Tl Ll [Motion of the musculoskeletal system necessarily involves “ ‘multiple joints, forces applied in many directions, and ‘movement in many planes. A convention exists to describe Movement Definitions the sie movements ofthe musceskeletl system ha an ‘be useulin analyzing the form and function ofthe asaras. The six basic movements of the ovonal plane: Divides the body into front and back. Movements along this, plane ate called adduction and abduction. Adduction moves the extremity towards the midline, abduction moves the extremity away fom the rnin Sagittal pane: Divides the body nto right and left. Movements along this plane are called flexion and extersion. Flexion usually moves the extremity forward except atthe knee where it moves backward, Extension ‘moves the extremity backuard “Transverse plane: Divides the body into upper ard tower halves. Movement along this planes called rotation. Rotation isfurther classified as medial Fotation (toward the midline or lateral rotation (away from the mine), eal and lateral rotation are also referred to as internal and external rotation, respectively All movements of the body are composed of varying contributions of these six elemental movements. Pose with movements iabtudosanatitoanayacthe asttonsolthe boy neyo peste You can combine ti als with ravledge othe muse actions 0 ‘etininethe ncionof your pote 1. The front knee flexes. 2. The front hip flexes. 3. The back hip extends. 4, The back foot rotates internally. 5. The torso extends. 6. The arms abduct. 7. The forearms rotate internally. 8, The neck and head rotate. “6 Complex Movements “In ealty and especially in yoga postures, movement can rarely be described in simple terms. Complex movements involve many joints moving in various ways. Complex movernens are also described in terms of ether characteristics, neluding coupling of jcints and open and closed chain movements. Coupling of Joints Movement of ajacont joints in different planes is called coupled movement. Far example, inthe side bend of uttitatrikonasana, the vertebral column undergoes. «2 complex series of coupled moverents including rotation, flexion, and extension at various levels, ‘Simiary in the same pose, the pestion of the hip joint ofthe forward leg involves a combination of flexion of ‘the femur (thigh bone) at the hip joint and forvard ttt oF the pelvis Open and closed chain movements 1) Open chain: Movements in which the distalend moves. ‘ely are calles open-chain movements (or exemple, the deltoid abducting the upper arms in vrabhadrasana I) 2) Closed chain: Mavements in which the distal end (the insertion) ofthe moving limb or body segment are fixed are called clesed-chain movements (For example, the iopsoas lowering the pelvis in virabhadrasana 1). ‘Open chain movements teach balance and awareness ofthe body i space, Closed chain movements strenythen the cave muscles. Part One | retvic Girdle & Thighs = in - a External rotators of the hip 4 piritormis 2 games 3 obturatorinterrus 4 cbturatorexterus 5 quadrats femoris 1 psoas 2 teu metus 3 luteus maximus a serterus 5 tensor faci ata 6 pectinevs 7 racis a adductor longus 9 rectus femoris 10 quadriceps " biceps femoris 2 semitendonoses B Semimembrarosus a ‘gastrocnemios Movement: Hip The following examples ilustrate the elemental movements ofthe hip EE | ant pats Looeclosely to appreciate the coupling’ ef the movements af the hip joint and pes. Flexion Extension Utthita Hasta Padangustasana Vrishchikasana 52 Abduction bon {nee ony am thei |. | Siete etuettin Saget (covert toads te die t trtgecne pty Movement: Hip Internal Rotation Garudasana External Rotation Padmasana Movement: Pelvis Anterior Tilt Utthanasana Posterior Tilt Urdhvadhanurasana Movement: Pelvis Rotation Garudasana Chapter 1 «::s::2:ruetmsmnase Mdanlyecontncionfteltngemecoe eetcege meee epee . mit msc oats he te Tliopsoas | sexiteiacsorsivatesontheinsice titanate tontoctsconicrn sezatecan pets Eskee psoas major ‘The iliopsoas is thus called polyarticular. This means that it crosses over (and moves) more than ‘one joint. The iiopsoas also acts like a pulley 2s it euves over the front rim ofthe pelvis on its waytothe femur. Like other pulley systems, this Serves to multiply the force generated when the iiopsoas contracts. The iiopsoas thus moves the bones of the lower back, pelvis and hip ina coupled fashion. This means that when it Contracts, a combination of meverents across several joints is possible, Tre liopsoas frst avakens during infancy when we are learning to situp and then to walk. Once itiacus awakened, the iiopsoas becomes constantly Aactivein activities sueh as standing and walking InspiteoFthisconstantuse, ouraworeness ofthe iiopsoas quickly becomes unconscious. (Imagine ifwe had to think everytime we tooka step!) Hatha yoga can be used to reawaken our consciousness of this large and important muscle. Once you awaken the iopsoas, contractor relax it totransform and deepen your asanas.. itiopsoas Origin 4) Fsoas major: Traverse rocesses, discs and bodies of lobar vertebrae one tinough He; body of twetlth thoracic era, Insertion Lesser trochanter the smaller prominence ‘or knob ofthe proximal femur. 2) Wacus: Upper tuo thirds of the inside surface ofthe iliac bone up tothe inner i ofthe Iliaccrestand anterior sacroiliac joint. Innervation & chakra illuminated Lumbar nerves 12.3.4 Chakra Second ‘The second chakra is illuminated by contracting and lengthening ‘theiliopsoas muse. This is due to stimulation of the various sensory nerves ati origin and insertion, within the mmuscteitself, andthe kin surounding it. Gtuteus moxinus: extenéship and trunk resulting in lengthening and stretching of the Tiopsoas, particularly inbackbends. Homstrings: extends the hip when initiating backbends, can be used to {raw the opposite leg iiopsoas into a deeper stretch in lunging postures. a hd s Synergists Tensor foscia lato: assists the iliopsoas in fine-tuning hip flexion, Sortorius: assists the lopsoasin fine tuning hip flexion and external rotati Rectus fomoris: assists the liopsoasin fine-tuning hip flexion, also assists the luteus maximus in accentuating stretch ‘ofthe ilfopsoas daring back-bending (by ‘extending the knee). Pectineus: assists the iopsoas in ine- tuning hip flexion and provides adduction component to stabilize hip (also balances abiction action of sartorts) Synergy This illustration uses virabhadrasona Ite demonstrate the tensor fascia late, sartorus, rectus femoris, and pectineus as synergists ofthe psoas. Similarly, the extended back hip demonstrates how the gluteus maximus and hamstrings act a antagonists tothe psoas. virabhadrasana IT Synergy Thisillustration uses ka pada vipaita dandasana to demonstrate the luteus maximus and hamstrings stretching the psoas ane the synergists ft the psoas in the planted leg. Similarly, the flexed hip ofthe legin the vr demonstrates the tensor fascia lata, sartorius, rectus femoris and pectinevs as synergists of the psoas. eka pada viparita dandasana Itiopsoas (il-e-o-SO-us) Action Open chain (Origin Fixed, insertion moving): Flexes and laterally rotates the femur at the hip. Ex. Padangusthasana D Closed chain (Ansertion fixed, origin moving} Floxes the trunk, anteverts (tilts forward) the pelvis, straghtens and supports the lumbar spine. Ex. Virebhadrasana B Awakening Open chain isometric resistanceto Femur flexing. (Closed chain isometric resistance to trunkflexing.. Conscious contraction standing tccentric contraction in lunging poses. poses. Contracted Uta triknasana 9 optimal conracts the inoasmajorportiencr ‘hetiapsoas male. Conaetion in hispostive teverts the pei ‘tion draws the ssi origin Ghia hers) aa rm their insertion overagh ad ‘ccontuatestheatretch, Stretched Ushtrasana stretches the iopsoas through contraction ofthe hipand trunk extensors, including the gluteus ‘maximus. Stretch is accentuated by contraction of the quadriceps (including the rectus femoris, which is eccentrically contracted). Iwisted variations oF utthitatrikonasana preferentially contract ‘the lacus potion ofthe = pf SALI \\\SSS Cha pte VD | seers four muscles located on the outside . | ttnepet te glten racise ise snle usd ied intro Gluteus Maximus ‘insertions: one on the outside of the 7 proximal femur bone and one on a _ me Stropitestcture on theese of thethgh ald the til band Contin te tended ate ‘our Ps atached tothe tia bandterseitard assist inmoving the fee he utes mats frcdans ase mano: ad yobarta esc TohtnesoFte gles moxie Tats owardbencngat thes, suchastnuthanesm Like the lopsoas, the gluteus ‘maxinus works unconsciously during standing and walking. Many ‘important yoga postures avaken the — luteus maximus including standing poses, backbends and forward bends. Tightnesstimits Forward bends and weakness limits back bends Gluteus Maximus (GLOO-te-us MAK-si-mus) Origin Insertion Outer posterior sufacef the it, postr surface ef the sac and ocya ae the aponeursis ofthe wectr Sone rscles ofthe bach 1) cute! est on tea serfaces the prin fer belon the rete trochanter. 2) rctbalband Gets onto Cardy tubes tne rote theponina ing) Innervation & chakra illuminated Inferior gluteal nerve (lumbar spinal nerve and sacral spinal nerves 1 and2). Chae illuminated: Fest. | Gluteus Maximus (GLOO-te-us MAK-si-mus) Synergists Antagonists Sermiinembranoss,serritendenoss, biceps ferris, quadratus lumberum Wiopsoas, rectus femoris and pectineus. and adductor magnus, x Action ‘Extends and externally rotates hip. Upper bers ‘sist Lo abduct thigh. Assists to stabilize fully, ‘extended knee (via liotibial band). (pen chain contraction extends and externally rotates the hip joint. Contracting the gluteus maximus Lifts and externally rotates the back legin virebhadrasana IT. The fibers ‘inserting on the itotibal band also assstin stabilizing the straight knee. ‘Closed chain contraction extends trunkin virabhadrasana I. Awakening The gluteus maximus can be eccentrcally contracted in padangustasana, stretching and strengthening it. Closed hai ‘luteus maxionis in ushtrasa extends the tunk contraction of the Gluteus Maximus (GLOO-te-us MAK-si-mus) Contracted Purvottanasana: The gluteus maximus contracts in this asana, Its external rotation component is counteracted by contraction ofthe gluteus medius anterior fibers), tensor fascia lata and adductor group. (Accentuate this by pressing ‘dun the ball ofthe foot.) Stretched Utthanasana: The gluteus maximus stretches in this and other asanas flexing the trunk and hips Chapter=> Gluteus Medius The gluteus medius presents a medium sized, fan-shaped muscle located forward of the gluteus maximus, which partially covers it. The gluteus’ medius inserts onthe tip ofthe greater trochanter (@ protuberance on the proximal ferur to which muscles attach). The gluteus medius covers the gluteus minimus. Direction and placement of muscle fibers determines the movement produced by contraction. Anterior Rbers internally rotate and middle fibers abduct the femur-Whenthefemurisfixedin place, as in one-legged standing poses, contracting the gluteus medius tilts the peli, maintaining balance. Weare largely nawareofthesluteus medivs, though it is constantly active and balances the pelvis when standing. and walking, Contract it in backbends to counterbalance the external rotation of the hips produced by contraction ofthe gluteus Tightness in the gluteus medius nits postures that require extensive external rotation of the femur at the hip (e., lotus posture) Weakness limits one- legged standing poses. Gluteus Medius (GLOO -te-us ME-de-us) Origin Cuter surace of ium below theae ‘cestand anterior tothe gutus Gluteus Minimus This see-through image of the luteus medius illustrates the position ofthe gluteus minimus, ‘which has.a similar function Origin ute surface of the ium below and anterior to the gluteus medius origin Insertion Superior surface of greater trochanter ofthe proximal Femur, Insertion: Anterior portion ofthe greater trochanter. Synergists Antagonists luteus minimus, tensor fascia ata and pirformis. ‘Adduetor group and quadratus femoris, KA’ la Innervation & chakra illuminated ‘Superior gluteal nerve (lumbar spinal nerves 4 and, and sacral spinal nerve 1) Chaka illuminated: Fist Gluteus Medius (GLOO -te-us ME-de-us) _ Action [Abducts and internally rotates hip. Stabilizes pelvis during walking. Posterior ‘bers may externally rotate thigh. ‘The gluteus medius contracts and abducts the bent leg in janusirasana. Anterior fibers also medially rotate the thigh, protecting the knee, The gluteus medivs contra abducts the straight Leg, it ardhachandrassna. Awakening Contracting the gluteus medivs in rmarichyasana IV accentuates the twist. This isometric contraction avakers the luteus medius.. Contracting the gluteus medivs in ta trikonasana, the trunk by rotating the femur. n Contracted Lrdhvadhanurasanas Contracting the anterior fers ofthe gluteus medius internally rotates the hips and releases stress atthe sacroiliac joint created by contracting the gluteus maximus (to extend the hip) Stretched \Vatayanasana: Externally rotating the hip stretches the gluteus medius (especialy the anterior fibers) Al poses with a lotus component. ‘to the hips (external rotation) accomplish this. Chapter4 Tensor Fascia Lata aa This smal polyarticular muscle originates, {rom the tac crest infront ofthe ‘luteus medius, assisting itwith internal fotation ofthe hip. Inserting on the jtibal band, itaiso works with the “anterior Rers ofthe gluteus meximus to extend the knee. Tightnessin the tensor fascia lata Limits postures that externally rotate the hip, suchas padmasana Tensor Fascia Lata (TEN-sor FASH-e-a LA-te) Origin Innervation & chakra illuminated « postion of the outside ofthe iliac eest, and the Superior gluteal nerve (lumbar nerves 4 and 5, and sacral nerve 2), or superior Hac spine. (Chakra ituminated: First Insertion Motibal band (and from there to the anterolateral I proximal tibia). Tensor Fascia Lata (TEN-sor FASH-e-a LA-te) Antagonists Synergists Hanstrngs,aédetersroup and lteus maximus (Femoral insertion, undo topsoa amd anterior portion of lites mais (lotta band nserton gluteus meds. way re Action Flow, internally rotates and abduets the hi, and supports the femur fo the tibia during standing. (Open chain contraction in parsvottonasana and urdhvadhanurasana tums the thighs inward and straightens the knee, Contracted “* Contracting the tensor asi lat stabizes Uhelifted leg in ada chandrasaa. Tensor Fascia Lata (TEN-sor FASH-e-a LA-te) Stretched Padmasana stretches the tensor fascia lata, Eccentrically contacting iin this pose {clitates this, awakening the muscle, = Chapter5a Pectineus ‘The pectineus s the proximal muscle Inthe adductor group. It isa lat rectangular muscle originating from the front of the pelvic girdle and inserting ‘on the inside ofthe proximal fem. Is ‘monoarticular. Tightnessin the pectineustinits the depth of poses tke baddhakonasana. ‘Awareness ofthe pectineus awakens its neighboring adductor muscles, the brevis and longus. Pectineus (pec-ti-NEUS) Origin Fecten a bulge) ofthe pic bone ‘onthe topiramate othe pecaiaes tent iow) Insertion Pectineal line extending from the lesser trochanter tothe linea aspera ‘onthe inside ofthe proximal femur. (back view) Innervation & chakra illuminated Femoral nerve (lumbar spinal nerves 3 and 4) ¢/- obturator nerve (lumbar spinal nerves 2, 3and ). Chaka illuminated: Secon Antagonists Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fascia Inta and piiformis. | 7 {") | ~ | ) Synergists ‘Adéuctor group, liopsoas and quadratus femor Pectineus (pec-ti-NEUS) Action Adducs, flexes and internally rotates hip. The pectineus contracts in parivettaikapada sirasana adducting both femurs and assisting the liopsoas, flexing the forward hip. This same principle applies in parivrtta trikonasana, Awakening Baddhakonasara awakens the petiness Semel cent iccontcion ecertustes thi Closed chain contraction of the Font leg pectineus draws the pelvis (and trunk) {forward in parsvottanasana, Stretched Baddhakonasara: The pectineus i at fullstretch inthe upright version of Contracted Bakasana: Contracting the adductor group stabilizes this asana, Chapter5) Adductor Magnus This isthe largest and mest posterior ofthe adductor group. Itoriginates from the back of the pelvis and inserts along the length of the inside of the err. & ~ holeor "hiatus" inthe distal region ofits insertion allows passage ofthe femoral blood vessels Its posterior location means thatit functions to adduct and extend the thigh backward. Ttisa synergist tothe gluteus maximus, assisting itn back- bending postures suchas turahvaghanurasana. Tightness limits poses such as front spits. Weakness mits bakasana, Contraction of the adductor magnus accentuates moola bandha. Adductor Magnus (ad-DUK-tor MAG-nus) MAF Innervation & chakra illuminated ‘Anterio fibers: Obturator nerve (lumbar spinal nerves 2, and 4) Posterior fibers: Tibial portion of sciatic nerve (lumbar spinal nerves 3, ¢andS) Origin Anterior section: [sehiopubic ramus, (Chakra illuminated: Posterior section: Ischia tuberosity, Upper partof fst lower pat of second. insertion { 1) Anterior section: Lines aspera on the back af | hide tind ofthe femur. 2) Posterior section: Neal epicondyte on loside oF the distal Femur above the knee joint. 2 Adductor Magnus (ad-DUK-tor MAG-nus) Antagonists Guteus metus, guteus minis, tensor fsca ata an por Synergists Actor group and quadrats Tenor Action ‘Aiducts hip, Posterior fibers extend hi er ‘squeezes the thighs together in ‘extending and externally rotating the Awakening rerio bait Rots erect sa acer magna og pelos abducting and flexing the hip. Adductor Magnus (ad-DUK-tor MAG-nus) Stretched Contracted ‘The adductor magnus lifts the Lower leg accentuating the tis in parsvabakasana. Adductor Group Tightness ofthe adductor group causes the knees to be higher in seated postures, such as baddhakonasana and siddhasana. Higher knees means a higher center of gravity. Holding a seated posture where the center of Gravity is higher requires more muscular effort. Lowering the knees makes these postures easier to maintain. Releasing tightness in the adductor group assists inthis process Factitated stretching ofthe adductor group isillustrated here. Begin by placing the Legs into badahakonasana and then attempt to adduct them while resisting them with the elbows. Contract the adductorsisometrcally for afew moments and then drav them out to length by lowering the knees. 1@) baddhakonasana Chapter6 External Rotators Piriformis (piri-FOR-mus): this sa pyramid-shaped nuscle originating from the inside ofthe pelvis atthe actum. The priformis wraps vrouned the ium and inserts on the tip ofthe greater trochanter onthe proximal femur This creates a pulley effect multiplying the pirforris’ Force ~ much Uke what occurs with the 'vcurves over the Front oF the pelvis. The sciaticnerve } runsbehind the piriformis and can be iritated by ‘ightness or inflammation of this muscle, a phenomenon known as “pirformis syndrome.” The priformis acts in open and closed chain fashions. When its origin (the sacrun) is fixed, contraction produces external rotation and abduction of the Femur When the femur is Fixed, contraction tits the pelvis backward Tightness inthe pirforrs limits internal rotation ofthe thigh in certain seated twists and in twisted standing poses. Piriformis & Quadratus Femoris Quadratus Femoris (KWA-drat-us fe-MOR-us) Thisisthe most cstal of the external rotators tis a (quadrangular-shaped muscle originating from above the ‘ischial tuberosity and inserting con the greater trochanter of the proximal femur Itisa synergist to the piriformis in external rotation of the fermur Its also an adductor ofthe femur and opposes the piriformis capacity to abduct, Combined contraction ofthe two muscles externally rtates the thigh, Tightness inthe quadratus Fermors limits internal rotation ofthe femur in certain seated twists and “twisted standing poses. Contraction accentuates the effect of other seated ‘wists and non-twisted standing poses. Avakening the priformis and ‘quadratus femoris muscles brings awareness to the neighboring garnelli and ‘bturators (the other external rotators ofthe hip), Piriformis & Quadratus Femoris Origin-Piriformis Inside surface of sacrum and secrotiberous Ggomen Origin-Quadratus femoris Lateral surface of ischial tuberosity. Insertion Piriformis: Tip of greater trochanter. ‘Quadratus femoris: Posterior surface offemur atthe evel of the greater trochanter. Innervation & chakra illuminated Piriformis: Nerve to picformis (acral nerves 1 and 2). ‘Quadatus femoris: Nerve to quadratus femerts (lumbar nerves 4 and 5, and ‘sacral nerve 1). Chakra illuminated: First. Antagonists-Piriformis Synergists-Piriformis Adductor group an luteus meds fnterir fiers) Gluteus mets (lateral and posterior fibers} luteus mininus and tensor fascia lata La Antagonists-Quadratus femoris Synergists-Quadratus femoris Glueus medi (anterior Ror), gluteus minimus and tensor Auto croup. fascia lata, em ny Contracted ‘Supta Padangusthasana 8: All external rotators ‘ofthe hip contract inthis aan. The pirformis also assists the lateral bers ofthe gluteus ‘medius, abducting the femur. Stretched Marichyasana IML: Contracting the internal rotators ofthe hip (Censor fascia lata and anterior ites of gluteus medius) in this Asana stretches the external rotators. Chapter? Quadriceps rectus femoris vastus intermedius ‘The quadriceps muscle forms the Font ofthe thigh. Its name, derived from Latin, means “four headed." Itisa four-part muscle combining te form the quadriceps tendon which inserts ‘onthe patella (kneecap). The patellar tendon isa Functional continuation of the quadriceps tendon, inserting on the front ofthe proximal tibia. The patella “sesamoid” bone stone-the). This refers toa bone within a tendon, Acting a a fulerum, itnereases the force produced bycontraction ofthe quadriceps when streightening the ine. ‘The rectus femoris - unique in thatit originates from the front ofthe pelvis at the anterior-inferioriliac spine continues ton the front ofthe thigh, covering the vastus medial and combining with the other quadriceps to inset onthe patel Itworksas a polyarticular muscle Force produced by its contraction resultsin a Combination of two possible maverrents: fRexion ofthe hip and extersion of the knee, Theother three heads ofthe {quadriceps are monoarticular and only act tostraighten the knee. ‘The quadriceps ate key muscles in yoga. Contracting them directly stretches the hamstrings when seated orn standing poses. They also straighten the knees in backbends, iting the body. Quadriceps (KWA-dra-seps) Origin Vastus medialis Proximal two-thirds of the anterior femur Vastus intermedius Lateral portion of proximal femur in region of greater trochanter (seen through the vastus latealus). a Vastus lateralis Lateral portion of proximal Femur in region of greater trochanter, Origin - Rectus femoris “Anterior inferior iliac spin. Insertion - (all) | ‘uadriceps tendon: Superior surface of patella (and on tothe anterior proximal tibiavia the patellar tendon). Quadriceps Innervation & chakra illuminated Synergists Antagonists Femoral nerve (lunbar nerves? 32nd 4). Tiopsoas, tensor fascia lata. Hamstrings, gastrocnemius, srtaras andgraci. (Chaka illuminated: Second, | , | Action Extends knee. Rectus femaris also Rexes hip. The quadriceps contract, extending the knee and flexing the hip (ectus femoris) in uthita trikonasana, Awakening The vastus lateralis, medialis and intermedius contract straightening the knee in, ‘urdhvadhanurasane. The rectus femoris stretches and contracts (eccentric contactio). Quadriceps Contracted Utthanasana: The quadriceps contract inthis forward bend, Lifting the patella, straightening the knee and stretching their antagonists (the hamstrings). Stretched ‘Trianga Mukhaikapada Paschimottanasana: Bending the knee stretches the vastus laterals, medialis and intermedius. The rectus ferris relaxes due tothe flexed position ‘ofthe hip. The straight leg quadriceps contract stretching the corresponding hamstings. \ Knee Biomechanics Contracting the quadricops draws the patella upward and against the anterior Femur ‘nto a groove between the femaral condyles. The patella fits congruently into the {ntercondylar groove, stabilizing the standing leg In this way the patella acts asa fulatum for knee extersion. ‘The flexors ofthe knee counterbalance the extension force ofthe quadriceps. These mages ilustrate how the knee flexors and extensors oppose eachother, stabilizing the knee. Tis important to ave hyperextension or “locking” ofthe knee during standing poses. This can overstretch the hamstrings and creates unhealthy stress on the knees articular cartilage. Contracting the knee flexors helps to avoid hyperextendng the knee. For example, pressing down the ball ofthe foot contracts the astroctremius, stabilizing the kree. Vis Sartorius (sar-TOR-e-us) The sartorius i a long strap-tike muscle originating From the anterior superior ila spine and inserting onthe upper mediat ‘surface ofthe tibia, This muscle flexes, abducts and externally rotates the thigh, asin sihasana, padmasana, veksasana Janu sitsasana In fac, the Latin translation for sartrius is “ilo, because tailors used to sitcross-Legged. The femoral nerve inervates the sartorus, stimulating the second chakra Chapter’ Hamstrings Biceps Femoris (BI-seps fe-MOR-us) ST) te tiegenarisiat traded fstory-chaped msde One head originates from the ischial tuberosity, the other From the back ofthe fr Both heads combine forming single tendon insertion onthe head ‘ofthe bla bone atthe teal Side ofthe nee Iteanbe palpated as cord inthis region, The bicops femoris lexes the straight knee and outwardly rotates the one leq (nthe bent knee) Its rotary action accentuates twisting postures such as marichyasane Tightness inthis muscle inits {Forward bends and certain standing poses, especialy those involving internal rotation of theleg Semitendonosus (sem-e-ten-di-NO-sus) Semimembranosus (sem-e-mem-bruh-NO-sus) ‘These two muscles make up the inner hamstrings. The semimembranosus has a fattened wide belly. The semitendonosus ‘is usitorm in shape (tapered at both ends) with the distal end forming along tendon. Both musees originate from the echial tuberosity, They have _separate insertions on the proximal tibia, neon the inside ofthe back ofthe tibia (semimembranosus) ‘and one onthe inside of the font ofthe tibia (semitendonasus). The semitendonosus insertion combines with the sartorius and gracilis muscles ‘to forma broad duckfoot-like insertion con the anterior tibia called the pes The semimembranasus and semitendonosus lex the stright knee, inwardly rotating the lower leg inthe bent knee. This rotary component accentuates seated twists, but the opposite tection ofthe biceps Femoris, Contraction ofthese muscles also assist the gluteus maximus in extension ofthe thigh atthe hip, as Snvirabhadrasana IIL. Tightness in this muscle limits forward bends and certain standing poses, especially those involving external rotation ofthe le, Semitendonosus Semimebranosus Hamstrings Origin-Biceps femoris Insertion-Biceps femoris ie Head of ula. Long hese! Short head: Ischia tuberosity Linea aspera on upper two | thitds of posterior femur. (Long head origin is shared with the semitendinosus) Insertion-Semimebranosus & Semitendonosus 1) Semimembranasus: Posteromestal surface of proximal tibia. Some fibers join to Form oblique popliteal ligament and attach toposterior medial meniscus. Origin-Semimebranosus & Semitendonosus Ischial tuberosity: (Semitendinosus origins shared with the long head of biceps Femais). 2) Semitendonosus: Upperinner surface of proximal tibia (Contributes topes anserinus). Innervation & chakra illuminated Biceps femoris 1) Long head: Tibial portion of sciatic neve (sacral nerves 1 and 2), 2) Short head: Fular portion of sciatic nerve (lumbar nerves, and sacral nerves Land2) Semimebranosus & Semitendonosus Tibial nerve (lumbar nerve § and sacral nerve 3) (Chakra uminated: First Gluteus maximus (illustrated by green arrow) ‘extending hip and knee, stretching long head of the biceps femoris (and gastrocnemius). Hamstrings Antagonists ‘uadriceps and iiopsns. Front view (anterior) Back view (posterior) Synergists ‘luteus maximus, sartorius, gracilis and gastrocnemius. Biceps femoris | Action Flexes knee and extends hip (long head). Externally rotates tibia in flexed knee. of Thebiceps femoris contracts, flexing the kngeand externally rotating the tibia in marichyasana It. This external rotation manifests as internal rotation ofthe hip, accentuating the twist ofthe trunk, Awakening dha Mukha Svanasans stretches and awakens the biceps fenoris. Semimebranosus & Semitendonosus Action Floxes knee and extends hip. Internally rotates the tibia in the flexed knee. The semimembranosusand semitendonosus contract, bending the knee and internally rotating the tibia in marichyasana I. Thisinternal | rotation manifests as external rotation ofthe hip, accentuating the ‘wistofthetrunk, Awakening Theseinenbronossand senitedonost seth ond aver Sopa padangutca Hamstrings Contracted Iliopsoas lunge: Contracting the hamstrings ofthe font leg draws ‘te body forward, accentuating the stretch ofthe iopsoas in lunging postures. Stretched Krounchasana: This asana stretches ll hamstrings. Contracting the ilopsoas onthe side ofthe bent knee tilts the pelvis forward, drawing the origin ofthe ‘hamstrings away from the insertion. Tis accentuates the hamstring stretch Hamstrings Marichyasana II “Twisting postures awaken the muscles ofthe trunk stimulating sensory nerve conduction from the skin, myoFacia ayers and the ‘muscles themselves. Tis illuminates and drives the subtle energies ofthe chakras upward though the sushumna nadi (spina cord). ‘The semimembranosis and semitendonosis contract in ‘marichyasana I. The biceps femoris contracts in marichyasasna TI Test your anatomy* wewne *Please see for answers... Part Two The Trunk The Trunk Left to right illustrates the muscles of the back from deep to superficial splenius capitis spleniuscervcis longissimus cervicis — — mutts —— semispinatis (thoracis,capitis,cervits) ‘tiocostalis — Interspinous ligament —— lumbosacral fascia — sacrotuberous ligaments levator scapulae trapezius — — rhomboids {nterspinous ligament __— serratus posterior latisimus dorsi. — __— erector singe — lumbosacral fascia — sacrotuberous ligaments Flexion Paschimottonasana Extension Urdhvadhanurasana "| Rotation (twist) eae hte eae Lateral Flexion (side bend) Utthita Trikonasana Chapter9 | Abdominals 1 Transversus Abdoninis 2 Interna Obtique 3 External Obtique 4 RectusAbdorinus Rectus abdominus (REK-tus ab-DOM-i-nus) Internal oblique (o-BLEEK) External oblique (o-BLEEK) Transversus abdominus Rectus Abdominus f This is atong Mat muscle that ‘is divided into four bellies by horizontal fibrous bands, siving ita “washboard” appearance. Itoriginates bilaterally from the pubic symphysis and pubic crest, inserting on the xyphoid process (atthe bottom ofthe sternum) an, mare laterally, the cartilage ofthe fifth, sixth and seventh ribs. Contracting the rectus alpdomtinus flexes the trunk forward, or ifthe insertion i fixed, lift the pelvis. This is demonstrated in utthanasana and tolasara respectively Tightness inthis muscle fimits the depth of backbends such as urdhvadhanurasane and purvottonasana Contracting the rectus abdominus also compresses the abdominal contents, producing an “airbag” effect, which s thought to prevent hyperextension ofthe lumbar spine, protecting it when extended (asin, backbends) External Oblique Tis is also a sheet-tke muscle with bers running opposite to the internal oblique. Itisthe larger ofthe two obliques and lies superficial. Its anterior bers are more superior originating from the front oftherits, crossing diagonally forward and downward and inserting onthe Uinea alba, Is lateral bers are ‘more posterior, originating from the back ofthe ribs, crossing downward and forward and inserting on the structures atthe front ofthe pelvis. Contraction ofthe external oblique draws the same side shoulder forward. This action combines with contraction ofthe contralateral (othe side) internal oblique, accentuating twisting ‘poses Tghtness inthis muscle ints these postures, Contraction assists in compressing the abdominal contents and contributes to the airbag” effect, protecting the lunbar spine. Internat Oblique | Transversus Abdominus ‘Thisisa thin sheet-tike muscle located ‘onthe side ofthe trunk. Its fibers cress siagonally upward and forward from the ‘tia crest, inserting on the lower ribs and the inea aba (a band offbrous tissue running down the frontof the abdomen). Contraction ofthe internal oblique draws the opposite shoulder forward and bends the trunk laterally. Thisaction accentuates twisting postures such as parvetta ‘rikonasana. Contracting the internat ‘oblique also contributes tothe “air bag” ‘effect described forthe rectus abdominus. ‘The transversus abdominus is the deepest ‘ofthe abdominal muscles. Its bers run horizontally, originating from the iliac ‘rest, the inguinal ligament and the ‘thoracolumbar fascia and inserting onthe lower costa cartilages. Contracting the ‘ransversus abdominus compresses the ‘abdomen and tones the abdominal organs. This muscles important for udyana bandha and nai. Avaken and strengthen it Abdominals Origin-Rectus Abdominus symphysis pubs and pubiccrest. Insertion-Rectus Abdominus Zyphoid process, costal cartilages 5, 6 and. Origin-Internal Oblique Lower borders ofthe lateral 1/3 of the inguinal igament, iia crest, thoracolumbar fascia and tinea aba. Insertion-Internal Oblique Linea alba and vibs 9 through 12. Origin-External Oblique Ribs 5 through 12 and lower section of latissimus dors Insertion-External Oblique Linea ab, inguinal igament and anterior halfofiiac crest Transversus Abdominus Origin Insertion [ SE & Innervation & chakra illuminated Intercosta nerves (thoracic nerves 7 through 12), iliohypogastricand itioinguinal nerves (thoracic nerve 12 and lumbar nerve 2). Chakra illuminated: Third “nguinal ligament and ‘thoracolumbar fascia; Insertion: omer costal cartilages Abdominals Abdominals Antagonists Erector spinae and quadratus lumborum. Obliques Antagonists ‘Same side muscles are rotational antagonists. Abdominals Synergist Each other (forabdominal compression). | Obliques Syneraists | Opposite side muscles ae rotational synergists. They can assist each other, tutning the body. Rectus Abdominus Action Flexestrunkand compresses abdomen. Contracting the rectus abdominus draws the trunk forward and deepens prasarita padottanasana, Contracting the iopsoas ‘and quadriceps accentuates this action. Awakening ‘The rectus abdominus awakens in Obliques 2 Action and Awakening 1) External Obique: Unilateral (one-sided) contraction rotates sameside shoulder forward and laterally flexes trunk. Bilateral contraction flexes trunkand compresses abdomen. ay 2) Internal Obtique Unilateral contraction rotates opposite side shoulder Forward and laterally lees trunk. Bilateral contraction flexes trunkand compresses abdomen. ‘The upper side internal oblique and the lower side external oblique contract in utthita trkonasana turning the trunk. Their opposites are lengthened by this action. Abdominals The “Airbag” Effect Contracting the abdominal muscles compresses the abdominal organs and provides additional support tothe muscles surrounding the lumbarspine. This mechenism comes into play when welifta heavy object and “valsalva”. This concept can be applied during yoga postures. Only light contraction fs necessary to benefit from this action. Light contraction of the abdominals in back bends also opposes hyperextension ofthe lumbar spine and tones the abdominals (through eccentric contraction). Contracting the abdominals inthis way activates udyana bandha {in the region ofthe solar plexus), illuminating the third chakra Twisting and Detoxification Twisting postures crete a “wringing” effect on the abdominal ‘organs. This helps toflush the iver and other organs, directing blood and lymphatic Rui nto the larger vessels ofthe ‘cardiovascular system, eliminatiog toxins. The abdominal musclesare the core prime movers inthe twisting postures. Combine them with other muscular ‘synergists ofthe tus. For example, n twisting sidchasana, the sternocledomastotd,latissimus dors and triceps of oneside assistthe biceps and hamstrings of the other sie to accentuate the twist synergy Combine the actions of various muscles to create synergy in your posture, Contract the Posture’ synergists to lengthen the antagonists. These illustrations demonstrate that contracting the rectus abdominus,siopsoas, quadriceps, deltods ad biceps in prasarita padottanasana stretch the erectorspinae, hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles. RL. prasarita padotanasana - synergists prasarita padotanasana - antagonists Chapter 10 Back Muscles Erector Spinae (EE-rec-tor SPEE-neh) This group has three sets of muscles running paaltelto the vertebral column. The spiralis runs up the Center ofthe back rom one vertebral spinous process tothe next. The longissimus are more lateral and run from one vertebral transverse process to the next. The iliocostalis {re the most lateral and run from one rib tothe next. Contracting these muscles straightens the spine asin tadanasa. Contacting the laterally placed longissimus and iiocostalis produces lateral bending as in utthita ‘rikonasara. Contracting one side or the other produces rotational effect ‘intwisting postures. Forward bends euch as utthanasana nd huemasana stretch these muscles. When they rach full length they tilt the pelvis forward by pulling on the back ofthe um This tit {draws the ischial tuberosity upward and stretches the hamstrings. Backbends such as urdhvachanurasana strenativen these muscles. Quadratus Lumborum (quad-RA-tus lum-BOR-um) Deep tothe erectorspinge is the quadratus lumborum, a combination of five heads that form a square-shaped muscle. They havea commen origin from the posterior iia crest, dividing into ‘our parts, inserting on the transverse processes ofthe lumbar vertebrae and the posterior section of rib twelve. Contracting the aquadratus lumborum unilaterally flexes the trunk tothe sie in Uutthita trkonasana, Contracting both sides extends the lumbar spine inurdhvadhanurasena. ‘When the pelvis is ied, contracting the quadratustunborum draws ‘the ribcage downward. This action can be used to deepen respiration. ‘The quadratus lursborum and psoas major wrap around the lumbar spine ad stabilize. Contracting the quadratus turborum, psoas najor and rectus abdominus protects the lumber spinein backbends. 1) Quadratus Lumborum 2) Psoas major 4) Spinalis: Spnous processes ofthe vertebrae 2) Transverslis: Transverse processes ofthe vertebrae, 3) Miocostais: Sacrum and ribs. Origin: | Insertion: 4) Spinalis: Spinous processes ofthe vertebra above. 2) Tansversalis: Transverse processes of the vertebra above. 3) iocostalis: Ribs above. Back Muscles Innervation & chakra illuminated | a Lower thoracicand upper lumbar neve. Chakra illuminated: Third and fourth Origin Quadratus Lumborum eta cet Insertion Quadratus Lumborum Lower border of rib 12 and transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae 1 through 4. Antagonists Synergists ‘Adoninas. Each other, atissinus dorsi and trapezis. Back Muscles Action Extends, ately eves, and assis in rotation of vertebral clunn. Thelatrall placed erecta spinae and the deeper quadrats umborum ‘contract to twist the back ad lift the kidney region in poses suchas mmarichyesana I, ‘The erectorspinae and quadratus lumborum liftand straighten the spine in tadasana, ‘Open chain contraction ofthe quadratuslumborum draws the ribs ‘downward during respiration. Synergy The ereetorsinae uses oe the pine moversin the ack end purettanasene, Carbine contacting the erectrspiraeith the “yee ofthis poe, nding the quadriceps, lites maxis and ‘eps This coination street recs fers horse, ets sinus, pectoral mj, triceps and anterior nek muscles. Chapter 11 Latissimus Dorsi ‘The latissimus dorsi forms two-thirds of the superficial back muscles, originating from the posterior ac crest, sacrum and thoraco-lumbar fascia, rotating 180° before inserting onthe inside ofthe proximal humerus. This “twist” increases the torque generated by contraction of the latissimus dorsi. This muscle draws the arm down and toward the body {om the overhead position, internally rotating the humerus. When the humerus 's fixed (asin certain twists or upward dog), contraction ofthe latissimus draws the chest forward and opensit. Tightness timits overhead postures such asvirabhadrasana I, urdhvadhanurasana, and adhomukhasvanasana. Latissimus Dorsi (luh-TIS-uh-mus DOR-si) Origin (back view) Iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia, spinous processes of sacral vertebrae 1 through 5, lumbar vertebrae 1 through 5, and thoracic vertebrae 7 through 12, lower 3 ribs and inferior ‘angle of scapula Insertion (front view) Floor ofthe bicipital groove ofthe ‘humerus Innervation & chakra illuminated Thoracodorsal nerve (cervical nerves 6, 7 and8). Chakra urinated: Fourth Antagonists Synergists Anterior deltoid, pectorais majo (clavicula portion) and long head of Posterior deltoids and pectorais major (sternocostal port biceps. humerus). Long head of triceps. 1 extends Latissimus Dorsi (luh-TIS-uh-mus DOR-si) Action Extends thearm (froma flexed position) Internally rotates and ‘adducts thearm. Te latissimus dori contrac, drawing the lower back upward _and opening the chest in urdhva mukha svanasana, Awakening Te atisimus drs stretchin adh mua sarasana, ‘The atissimus dors, in association with the peetoratis major, draws the body forward and through the arms during the trasition from ‘adho muna svanasara to urdhva mukka svanasana. Chapter 12 Trapezius | a broad triangularshaped muscle ‘originating fom the center ofthe back, ‘extending from the lower thoracic spine tothe base ofthe skull, inserting onthe scapula and clavicle. Contraction ofthe lower fibers draws the scapula downware Contraction of the upper fibers elevates and rotates the scapula upward Thisaction, ‘increases contact of the humeral head with the glenoid in overhead moverents (such as fullarm balance). Contraction ofthe mile fibers adducts the scapula assisting the rhomboids to open the chest Tightness nthe middle fibers limits postures such as gomokhasana B. Weakness in the lower and upper fibers inits arm balances suchas tolasana and vksasara respectively, Trapezius (tra-PE-ze-us) Innervation & chakra illuminated ‘ecessory nerve (cranial nerve 11, and cervical nerves 3 and 4). Origin ase ofl, posterior igaments of neck and spinous processes of cevvenestete 2 ough tore vertebra Chakra illuminated: Fifth (ltustration shows upper, middle and loner fibers ofthe trapezius) Insertion (top vi Posterior aspect fateh ofthe lvl ell margin faconion nd sierrspne othe sap Antagonists Lower Fibers Antagonists Upper Fibers pfs fwaperus, oon ef wi Sd ah daa Lower fibers of trapezius, pectoralis minor, majorand ltissinus dors = F —— °; Trapezius (tra-PE-ze-us) Synergists Lower Fibers Synergists Upper Fibers Anterior ond ateral dtd, tomboi ao, inor and stenocleidonastoi. Pectoralis minor, major and latissimus dos. Action ‘The upper fibers of the trapezius contractin urdiwadhanurasana assisting the it of the upper body, ‘outwardly rotating the scapula and ‘drawing the glenoid into greater contact with the humeral head. ‘Awakening Themidland ner fers the traperuscontactin loan, tig the body trating the sap leeds odanres Maes ints mse tthe ato ert sae Chapter 13 z 8 Pectoralis Major & M Pectoratis Minor (pek-to-RAtis): Thisisa small three- headed muscle tying deep tothe pectoralis major, originating from the thir, fourth and fifth ribs and inserting on the coracoid process of the scapula. The pectoralis minor draws the scapula downward and forward in ‘open chain moverents. Closed chain contraction of the pectorais minor, while stabilizing the scapula posteriorty (with the rhomboids), ts the ribcage in respiration, Pectoralis Major The pectorais major presents a a large fat muscle forming te font ofthe chest The larger sternocostal portion originates from the body ofthe sternum, the smaller dlaviculer portion originates from the medial davicle, Both portions combine to form ‘one tendon, inserting on the inside ofthe proximal humerus. ‘Sequential closed chain contraction of the pectoralis major draws the body forward (eswhen moving from downward dog to ‘upward dog). Both portions adduct the humerus (as in gorukhasara 8). Thisis also key muscle in push-up poses such as chaturanga dandasana. The sternocostal portion stretches in overhead pastures such as urdhvadhanurasane and tightness tits the depth of these poses. Origin Pectoralis major Medial 1/3 of davicle, anterior aspect of sternum, upper six costal cartilages and ‘aponeurosis ofthe external oblique. Origin Pectoralis minor Cuter surface fib 2 through. Insertion ‘ectoralis major Lateral lip ofbcipital groove (steal fibers more proximally, clavicular fers insert more distally. Insertion Pectoralis minor Coracoid process ofthe scapula. Pectoralis Major & Minor Antagonists Synergists Pectoralis major Pectoralis major ie deltoid, supraspinats,nfraspinats and biceps (Lng hea). Latssinus dorsi and trices (long hen). Antagonists | Pectoralis minor | Synergists Pectoralis minor Sturnodleidomastoid and upper fibers ofthe trapezius. Rhomboid major, minorand | latissimus dort Innervation & chakra illuminated Pectorlis major: avieular portion: Lateral pectoral nerve (cervical nerves 5 through 7) ‘ternal portion: Medial pectoral nerve (cervical nerves 8 through ‘thoracic nerve 1) Pectortis minors Medial pectoral nerve (cervical nerves through thoracicnerve 2) Chakrailminated: Fifth Pectoralis Major & Minor 7 | Action ‘Adducts and internally rotates arm, Flexes arm from an extended position. Depresses arm and shoulder. ‘The pectorais major and minor are stretched ‘and awakened in purvottonasana, Awakening (haturange Dandasana: The pectoralis major and minor Gnassecntion withthe sets tera) sta the {pe ody in tis pose Stretched and Contracted The upper arm stretches the lower fibers of the pectoral major. The pectoral minor contracts drawing the scapula of the lowe arm Forward. The rhombeids ofthe lower arm contract to stabilize thescapula, lifting the ribcage. Ecoentrically contracting the upper arm pectorals major facilitates this stretch (seen herein gomukhasana B). Test your anatomy* 2 3 a “Please see for answers Shoulder Girdle & Upper Arms Rotator cuff Shoulder Girdle & Upper Arms levtorscepulae anterior dtoid lateral toi bicep longhen) biceps ort hea) corcbraciais subscapularis sertusamaror thombolé minor shot major supasiats postror det triceps sorted) | triceps (ong head) al tees itor teres major Movement: Scapula Abduction (protraction) Chateranga Dandasana Adduction (retraction) Viabhaasana tt Shoulder Girdle & Upper Arms Movement: Scapula Movement: Upper Arm Shoulder Girdle & Upper Arms Movement: Upper Arm External Rotation Gomukhasana 8 Internal Rotation Parsvottonasana Chapter 14 Rhomboids — = Seer SS : eS ‘The major and minor thombotds are flat rectangular muscles originating from the vertebral spinous processes ‘anda tigamentin the midline ofthe back, inserting onthe medial border ‘ofthe scapula. Contraction draws the scapula towards the midline and opens the chest. Postures suchas qarudasana stretch the rhomboids. Contracting the thomboids stabilizes the scapula and lifts the ribeage (in association with closed chain contraction ofthe pectorals minor). The shombotds are direct antagonists ofthe serratus anterior muscle. The levator seapulae assistin lifting and rotating the scapula. Rhomboids and Levator Scapulae Rhomboids (rom-BOID) Origin 1) de Sees / thoracic vertebrae 2 though end sumrespinos ligament. Insertion ‘ s 1) Major: Medial border from scapular fe areca e Spine inferior angle of the scapula i vertebra 1, lower ligamentum nuchae and supraspinous ligament. 2) Minor: Upper medial border ofthe scapula. Innervation & chakra illuminated Dorsal scapular nerve (cervical nerve). Chakra illuminated: Fifth Antagonists ‘Serratus anterior (seen here through the scapula), trapezius (lower bers) and pectealis major (sterocostal portion se set above. Synergists Levator scapulae and trapezius (upper fibers). Rhomboids (rom-BOID) — Action Stabilizes, retracts (adducts) and rotates scapula downward. Assists in opening chest. Contracting the rhomboids opens the chest in marichyasana I and Virabhadrasana I. Contracted & Stretched ‘Therhomboids contract in utthita trikonasana, opposing the action ofthe serratus anterior (hich also contracts). This action stabilizes the scapula and turns the chest Chapter15 Serratus Anterior ‘This mult-headed muscle Forms the lateral partof the chest wall, aiving ita “serrated appearance. originates fom the superior borders of the upper nine its, inserting on the media border ofthe scapula from the inside. Contracting thismuscle draws the scapulaforwardand away from the midline and eelaxing it allows the scapula tobe drawn toward the midline opening the chest Weakness inthe serratus anterior Limits postures such as chaturange dandasara, resulting in the “winging” ofthe scapula, (in which the mediat borders lift off the back) Serratus Anterior (ser-RA-tus an-TEER-I-or) Origin Insertion Costataspectofmeial border ofthe scapila. (Geen ete ough the chest) Outer surfaces and superior borders ofribs through 9. Innervation & chakra illuminated Long theracic nerve cervical nerves 5, 62nd 7). Chaka uminated: ith Serratus Anterior (ser-RA-tus an-TEER-I-or) Antagonists Synergists Rhomboid (major and minor) and trapezius (middle bers). Pectoral (major and minor). Action Stabilizes and protracts(sbducts) scapula, preventing the medial border from lifting o “winging” during pushing movements Assists scapular rotation. The serratus anterior contracts and prevents “winging*of the scapula in chaturanga dandasana, Serratus Anterior (ser-RA-tus an-TEER-I-or) Contracted & Stretched ‘The serratus anterior muscles contract utthita {rikonasana, drawing the scapula away from the midline and extending the arms. This opposes the action ofthe thomboids (which also contract in this pose). Adjusting the contraction ofthese oppesing muscles asists in %S turning and opening the chestin this pose. aLy AS i! ‘ _ adil Chapter16 posterior deltoid lateral deltoid anterior deltoid Deltoids | Thisisa three-part muscle with anterior, lateral and posterior sections originating from the clavicle, acromion and scapula respectively, and inserting on the lateral humerus. The anterior section raises the arm forward The posterior section extends the arm backward. These two sections are thus antagonists, and contracting ‘one stretches the other. The lateral section abducts the arm. Tightness nthe anterior section limits postures ‘inwhich the armis extended backward, such as purvottonasana Tightness in the posterior section limits overhead movements such 2 uudhvadhanurasana and virabhadrasana 1 Tightness inthe lateral section limits postures ‘involving eross body movements, such as ‘garudasana, Weakness inthe deltois nits postures in uibich the body Weight fs supported by thearms. Arm balances can be used to strengthen the deltoid, Deltoids Origin Aerio section: Anterior border of thelatera 1/3 ofthe dave. Lateral section: Lateral border of the | Insertion ‘croton process of the scapula. Deltoid tuberosity on lateral surface ‘ofthe humeral shaft. } | | Posterior section: Scapularspine. | | Innervation & chakra { illuminated axillary nerve (cervical nerves 5 and 6). Chakea illuminated Fifth Deltoids Anterior Section Antagonists Synergists Deltoids (posteiorsection,latissimusdorsiand pectoraismajor(sternocastal Pectoralis major (clavicular portion). portion). Deltoids Lateral Section Antagonists Synergists Pectoralis major latissimus dors and triceps (long head) ‘Supraspinatus and biceps (long head). Deltoids Posterior Section Antagonists Synergists Deltoids (anterior section), bicens (Long head) and pectoralis major (clavicuar portion, Latissimus dorsi and triceps (long head) Deltoids (DEL-toid) Action The lateral section ofthe deltoid contracts ‘invirabhadrasana I, abducting the arms. ‘The supraspinatus muscle of the rotator cuff initiates this action. Awakening ‘The posterior section ofthe dltoids contracts, extending the arms in purvottonasana, and stretching the anterior section of the deltoid, the biceps brachii andthe pectoralis major muscles. Contracted & Stretched me SPRY RLS Chapter 17 Rotator Cuff ‘The rotator cuffis a combination oF four muscles: the subscapularis, the infraspinatus, the teres minor and the supraspinatus. The subscapularis and infraspinatus have opposing actions and function as antagonists The teres minors a syneraist ofthe infraspinatus and isnot covered in detail here, The shoulder (glenohumeral joints composed ofa bal (the humeral head) and a shallow saucer like socket (the glenoid of {he scapula) The shoulder joint enjoys the ‘greatest mobility ofall the joints, but also has the least Stability ands the joint most frequently dislocated. (Like ayin-yang, greater mobility ‘means lesser stability) The rotator cuff encircles the humeral head, stabilizing it within the shoulder joint. ‘Aswith the deep pelvic muscles, we are unaware ofthe rotator cuff even ‘though we use its muscles ‘constantly in our daily ie Certain yoga postures awaken ‘ur consciousness ofthese muscles. Once awakened, their contraction and relaxation can be used to refine other postures. Infraspinatus (in-frub-spi-NA-t us) ‘This musele originates from the back lorsal) surface ofthe scapula, inserting on the larger, more lateral greater tuberosity ‘ofthe humerus. Contraction produces cexteral rotation ofthe upper arm. The subscapularis and infraspinatus function as assicantagonists.Tightness ofthe infraspinatus limits internal rotation ofttehumerus, especially n postures suchas parsvottanasana. Weakness limits externa rotation in poses suchas urdhvadhanurasana Rotator Cuff Supraspinatus ‘soo-pruh-spi-NA-tus) (so0-pruh-sp 5) Subscapularis ‘The supraspinatus originates from the back (dorsal) surface ofthe scapula and inserts on the greater tuberosity ofthe humerus front ofthe infaspnatus (Sub-skap-u-LAR E-us) The supraspinatus initiates arm abduction. Injury to this musele results in the use of accessory muscles suchas the trapezius and deltois to accomplish this action, ‘The subscapularis originates from the inside (ventral surface ofthe scapula and ‘inserts on a knob-shaped structure called the “lesser tuberosity” ofthe humeral head. Contracting the subscapularis internally totates the humerus. Tightness inthis muscle limits poses with an external rotation component of the ‘upper ars, such as urdhvadhanurasana, Weakness limits poses suchas parsvottanasana. Of the rotator cuff muscles the supraspinatuss the most Frequently injured, due to impingement of ts tendon on the inferior surface of the actomion process ofthe scapula. Inyoge, impingement can cur in asanas, such as dog pose and urdiwadhanurasan, Ths prablem can be avoided by externally rotating the ‘humerus and inwardly rotating the scapula, Tightness ofthe supraspinatus limits poses where the arm crosses the chest such as ingarudasam). Injuries may limit abduction of the arm, resulting in 2 “shnugged” shoulder appearance to poses where the arm is abducted (such a5 virabhadrasana 1). Rotator Cuff Origin Subscapularis Sabscapuar fossa on antaior surface ofthe scapula. (seen here ‘through the chest) Origin-Infraspinatus Infraspinous fossa ofthe scapula. In Subset Lesser tuberosity of humerus and capsule ofthe shoulder joint (lower part). ertion pularis Insertion Infraspinatus Wide facet of greater tuberosity ofthe humerus and capsule of the (shown From above) Insertion Supraspinatus (front view) Origin Supraspinatus back v Upper part of greater tuberosity of | |__ humerus and capsule ofthe shoulder Joint. | Supraspinous fossa of scapula, Innervation & chakra illuminated Subscepulors: Upper and lower subscapular nerves (cervical nerves 5 and 6). Infrospinatus: Suprascepular nerve (cervical nervesSand6). | Suprospinotus: Suprascapular nerve (cervical nerves 5 and 6). Chakra illuminated: Fifth Subscapularis Antagonists Synergists Infraspinatus, deltoid (posterior section) and teres minor. Pectorais major, latissimus dorsi and deltoid (anterior section. Infraspinatus Antagonists Synergists Subscapulais,ltissinus dorsi, peetoralis major and deltoid (anterior Teres minor and deltoid (posterior section). section). Supraspinatus Synergists Dettod (Lateral section) and biceps (tong head). Antagonists Pectorals major, latissimus dorst and triceps (long head). Subscapularis & Infraspinatus Contracted & Stretched Gomukhasana B: The upper arm infraspinatus hing the subscapularis. The lower arm sub cts, stretching the infraspinatus, Impingement The subacromial bursa isa sac-tike fluid-filled structure that {aciltates the gliding ofthe rotator cuff under the acromion. Impingement involves compression ofthe subacromial bursa between the greater tuberosity ofthe humerus and the acromion. Thiscan result in shoulder pain, Contracting the infraspinatus externally rotates the humerus and draws the greater tuberosity away from the acromion. Contracting the ong head ofthe triceps rotates the acromon towatds the midline, away from the greater tuberosity Combining contraction of bath ofthese muscles creates space between the acromion and the greater tuberosity, assisting to prevent impingement ofthe bursa Contract these muscles to externally rotate the humerus and outwardly rotate the scapula when performing postures involving overhead movements Chapters Biceps Brachi rachialis This isa two-headed fusiform muscle. The short head ‘originates from the coracoid (crows beak) process of the scapula, near the insertion ofthe pectoralis minor. When the ‘elbows fixed, contracting the short head tilts the scapula forward. The long head originates from the top ofthe glenold ‘ofthe scapula, curving over the humeral head and into the bicipital groove, (a trough into which itis tethered by a ligament). Contracting the tong head with the elbow fixed depresses the humeral head, stabilizing iin thejoint. Both heads combine to form one tendon inserting onthe bicipital tuberosity ofthe radius. When the biceps contract. the forearm rotates into supination (palm up) position. Further contraction flexes the elbow. Tightness in this muscle limits poses suchas purvottonasane, Weakness limits poses such as sarvangasana. f ‘The brachialis muscle acts in synergy with the biceps lexing the elbow. 185 Biceps Brachii (BI-seps BRA-ke-I) Origin Long Head Supraglenoid t tubercle. | Insertion | Shor Heat i of cracoid proces ofthe scoala facil tuberosity. Innervation & chakra f illuminated |© nuscalocitancous nerve (cervical nerves and6) Chakra illuminated: Fifth 1R6 Antagonists Synergists ‘Triceps and deltoid (posterior section). ‘eltoid (anterior section) and pectoralis major (sternocostl portion, Biceps Brachii (BI-seps BRA-ke-I) Contracted ‘The biceps contract, flexing the elbow to draw the upper body forward in paschimottanasana. The force produced by this action ultimately affects the postion ofthe pelvis, tilting it forward. This draws the ischial tuberosity backward, stretching the hamstrings. Stretched The biceps stretch in purvottanasana. The triceps and posterior section ofthe dltoids ‘contract to accentuate this action. 188 Chapter 19 Triceps Brachii The triceps brachii presents three-headed muscle on the back of thearm. The medial and short heads originate from the humerus. The tong head originates from the inferior border of the glencid. Allthree heads combine to form one distal tendon, inserting onthe olecranon process ofthe ulna (forearm bone). Contraction ofall three heads produces extension of the elbow (as in downward facing dog pose). Contraction a the long head with the forearm fixed rotates the scapula upwatd (by pulling on its origin) This rotation increases contact of the humeral head withthe shallow glenoi, stabilizing the joint. This contraction ‘ofthe triceps also moves the acromnion process medially and ‘away frm the humeral head, preventing impingement of the acromion on the humeral head. This protects the rotator cuff muscles in poses lke the backbend and dog. Contraction ofthe triceps opens the front ofthe elbow (antebractial fossa) and retieves blockages inthe minor chakra ofthe elbow. Weakness inthe triceps limits the ability to perform the various am balancings. Triceps Brachii (TRI-seps BRA-ke-I) Origin 1) Lateral Head: Upper half ofthe posterior surface ofhureral shat Insertion 2») Medial Head: Psterior shaft ofthe humerus distal to the radial groove. Posterior surface ofthe olecranon process ony Head: nfaglencld tubercle ofthe scapula. (looking int the armpit) aftheulna. (back view) [ (1) 7 ation & chakra illuminated F a. Radial nerve (cervical nerves 7 and8). Chaka illuminated: Fifth Triceps Brachii (TRI-seps BRA-ke-I) Contracted The triceps contract and stabilize ‘the upper arms and shoulders in ‘rishchikasena (and similar asanas such as pinchs mayurasara). Stretched ‘The upper and Lower acm triceps stretch in gomukhasana 8. Triceps Brachii (TRI-seps BRA-ke-I) Action & Awakening The triceps contract, extending the elbows in urdhvadbanurasana, The Long head of the triceps aso upwardly rotates the scapula, increasing contact between the humeral heed and the lencid, This ads to prevent impingement of the humeral head onthe aeromion. Thetriceps contract, extending the elbows in urdhva mukha svanasana The force produced by this action assists in extending the knees and stretching the hamstrings. Test your anatomy* awn wi far Gaiaeee 1 2 2 4 5 6 Test your anatomy* weun oe 196 *Please see for « Trapezius and drsal neck muscles. Synergists Longus cll and tongus capitus. Sternocleidomastoid (ster-no-kli-do-MAS-toid) Action & Awakening Bilateral contraction: Flexes nec forward and draws chin downward Unilateral contraction: Rotates and tilts head to face opposite side, Closed chain contraction lifts ribcage during respiration, ‘The sternocleidomastoid contract, drawing the head ‘forward tothe sternum in padmasana. This action lifts the ribcage, accentuating jalandhara bandhe. Contracted The lower side sternocleidomastoid contracts in utthita trikonasana, lengthening the upper side sternocleidomastoid and turning the head. Stretched Te dorsal neck muscles and upper trapezius contractin purvottanasana, stretching oth sternocleidomastoid muscles Chapter21 , Lower Leg and Foot The Lower leg and foot form the foundation for many yoga poses. For this reason tis important to have a functional Understanding ofthe major muscles ofthe lower leg and foot. Hinor chakras are present inthe foot that contribute to illuminating the rst and second major chakras Forease of understanding itis useful to divide the many ‘muscles in this region into groups identified by their function. The major functions include flexing, extending, everting and inverting the foot. Inthe foot itselfthe muscles are ‘categorized into flexors and extensors ofthe toes These illustrations demonstrate the major muscles performing these actions Extensors of foot and toes tibialis anterior extensor digitorum longus extensor hallucis longus peroneus longus peroneus brevis abductor digit minim (odéucstite toe) Lower Leg and Foot 1 gastrocnemius Ve 2 soleus 7 a ae B | 3 siiaispostein 3 i 4 flexor digitorum So tans nero tro Shea ee ‘sS longus 2 Ss 6 flexor hallucis g | ire P z Gis | 7 atest ww flexion (planta flexion) Movement: Foot Eversion Plantar Flexion Purvettonasana Sarvangasana_ Inversion UrthitaTrikonasana Gastrocnemius "he gastrocnemius ia two-headed fusiform muscle originating from Uiebacks of the femora condyles and inserting on the calcaneus (heel hone) via the Acills tendon. Is primary actions plantar ‘lesion ofthe foot. The gastrocnemius also acts synergistically with thehamstrngs to flex the knee duting the push-off phase of walking, propelling the body forward. Tightness in the gastrocnemius limits extension ofthe ke (as vith tightness in the hamstrings). Faciitated stretching of the «gastrocnemius is an effective method to breakthrough limitations in ‘orward-bending postures where the knees straighten, Use the forward bend paschimottanasana to bring the gastrocnemius ‘ut to full length and then resist plantar flexion ofthe eet by pulling them towards the head with the hands Hold this for afew moments and then extend the knees and draw the fet upward. aschimottanasana ‘This view from the floor illustrates the polyarticular nature of the gastrocnemius and howt originates from the posterior femora condyles, crosses the knee, and inserts ‘onthe calcaneus (va the achilles tendon) Paschimottanasana illustrates stretching the gastrocnemius by contracting the ‘quadriceps to extend the knees. The hands dorsifiex the ankles. 205 Chapter22 Forearm & Hand | Extensors ‘extensor pollicis longus ‘The muscles ofthe forearm and hand connect the upper body with the lower body in yoga. ‘They aso stabilize the body in balancing poses and inversion. Minor chakras are present in the hand that contribute to illuminating the fourth and fifth major chakras. For ease of understanding itis useful to divide the many muscles in this veglon into groups identified by their function The major functions include flexing and extending the wrist and complex movements ofthe hhand and fingers. For the purpose of this chapter we illustrate the flexors and extensors of this region 6 flexor carpi ulvaris ‘extensor carp radiatis brevis 7 flexor digitorum profundus ‘extensor carpi raiais longus extensor digit minim extensor digitorum pronator teres Flexors 9 flexor digitorum superficial, | 10 Resorearpi radials, Movement Flexed ‘The fingers, wrist and forearms flex togrip the Feet and draw the body deeper into forward bends. Extended Extending the wristcan be used to form alock behind the backin twisting poses. Forearm & Hand 1 patmars longus 2 palmararch 3 flexor digitorum profundus 4 intrinsicmuseles (edéuetors and abéuctors) 7 | — pronator — Aexor digitorum superficial patra «extensor and abductor pollicis extensor ciitorum | entersor digit minis Siftatchests pronator ae supinator Movement Pronation Te pronator teres and pronator (quadratus muscles of the forearm contract, turning the paim down. Supination The biceps brachi and supinator muscles contract turning the palm up. Chapter23 Myofascial & Organ Planes ‘connective tissue sheath encapsulates and separates individual museles and organs. thin ayer of body uid coats these sheaths, facilitating the gliding of muscles ‘over neighboring structures. This fluid is apparent in the shiny appearance of muscles and organs during surgery. yofascial Pla The space between the muscles is ) called the myofascial plane Blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics lie in this space and within the connective tissue sheaths themselves. Blood vessels and lymphatics have ‘one-way valves that direc the flow ‘of body fluids tothe larger central vessels. Torin within the blood and Iymphatic uid are then transported ‘olymph nodes and organs such as ‘the ver, Facilitating ther removal The One-way Valv Sys Hassage stimulates ners and tis ule wthin the motel and ergan plans, Contraction and ‘elmaton of msdes curing theyooa practice asa sna effecton nerve Conduction and fad transport. The puming action ofthe mscles po pels body Tis through the one-nay {alvesystem ofthe vests, Fascia The fascial planes area lattice-tike mnatrx of thin sheets of connective tissue that cover the organs and sles. Sensory nerves are found cughout the various fascial planes nd ate stimulated by stretching the sciain yoga postures. This nerve timulation can evoke emotional and energetic releases during the practice of yoga This image illustrates the fascia planes and their movement in urdhva smukha svanasana, Chapter24 i The Breath Connection Regions ofthe brain suchas the brain- ‘stem are highly evolved for survival, ‘controling complex functions such as respiration with speed and precision that ‘far beyond the comprehension of the ‘conscious mind. Great instinctive power is ‘stored in these regions ofthe brain. Ha the Yogic breathing techniques “yoke” or connect the conscious mind tothe primal Instinctive regions ofthe brainstem, Athletes and marta arts practitioners access the breaths primal frce by tim ‘moments of exertion with forced exhala- tion. Yogi refine this by coordinating the rhythm ofthe breath with moverientsin | the asenas, generally couping inhalation with expansion and exhalation with deep- ening, Pranayama perfects this process. Inhalation and Exhalation ‘The diaphragms the prime mover for inhalation and exhalation. It's a thin hal-dome shaped muscle that separates the thoracic abdominal cavities. ‘Contracting the diaphragm expands the chest, creating a negative inspiratory pressutein the thorax, and raving air nto the lungs through the trachea. Contracting the diaphragm also gently massages the abdominal organs. Unike most other skeletal muscles, the diaphragm rhythmically contacts and relaxes under the control ofthe autonor phrenic nerve. We are unauare ofthe diaphragn, unless we consciously think about its function. nervous system, via the ‘Yoaic breathing techniques such as pranayama involve consciously contracting the ciaphragm and controlling the breathing, thereby connecting the conscious and unconscious mind. These images demonstrate the diaphragm contracting and relaxing. The lungs are elastic and expand when the diaphragm contracts during inhalation. Uke a balloon the lungs passively enpty during exhalation as the diaphragm relaxes. a ~_ Ujayi Breath When we breathe, the ir passes through the nasal sinuses and pharynx into the trachea and on t the lungs, caygenating the blood and removing carbon dioxide. The pharynx and nasal passages ar lined with blood-rich mucosa. The nasal sinuses crate turbulence, increas- ing the amount of ir contacting the mucosa, This process warms the at befor it passes into the lower parts of the resptatory tact. The glottis isa muscular aperture below the pharynx and nasal passages. Opening and closing the glottis regulates the low fair int the lower respiratory tract Normally we contro the opening and closing ofthe lotis unconsciously. ‘Yogic breathing techniques involve consciously regulating airfiow through the glottis. For example, we seal the glottis when performing Naliso that the negative inspiratory pressure generated by contracting the diaphragm draws the abdominal contents upward instead of drawing breath into the trachea Consciousty narrowing the opening ofthe glottis increases the turbulence ofthe air passing through the nasal and pharyngeal cavities This action increases the transfer of heat to the air fom the blond-rich mucosal ining, rising the temperature of the air above normal Increasing ae turbulence also creates an audible vibration siniar to that of lame leaing up froma fr. This process of increasing heat and creating vibration with the ars known as Ujay breathing and is fundamental to the practice of Pranayama or “Breath of Fire” (See Scientific Keys, Volume I for details on Nai and Pranayama). Accessory Muscles of Breath Accessing the force ofthe accessory muscles of breath expands the lung volume and increases the turbulence of arin the respi ratory passageways. As with postural muscles, we are generally not conscious ofthese accessory breath muscles until avakening them consciously. Focusing on contracting these muscles brings ‘them under conscious control with profound effets. The follow ‘ng pages illustrate tis process in siddhasana, vrabhadrasana 1, tadasana and utharasana, Thoracic Bellows Begin awakening the accessory muscles of breath by drawing the scapula towards the imine. Held this postion and then attempt toroll the shoulders forward by contracting the pectoral minor. This closed chain contraction its and opens the lower ribeage ikea bellows and expands the lung volume, Begin by practicing in siddhasana and then apply this technique to other pestures such astuists that constrict the volume ofthe ‘thoracic cavity. Accessory Muscles of Breath 1). straighten the tower back by contracting the erector spine and Guadratus lou. This rows the tower posterior ribcage downward 2). salance this action by gently contracting the rel abdomins. Tis crowsthe over anterior ib Cage dourwort and compresses the skdominal organs against the di phagm, dyicng Hs conection Sndstrengthening 3) Draw the shoulder blades togeth- erby contracting the rhomboid. This ‘opens the font of the ches. 4) maintain te contraction of the thoroids and snatanecuty con track thepecoralis minor and teno- dleldomastoi, This its nd opens the elcage tea ells Complete this process by pressing the hhands down on the knees to fully open the chest (by contracting the latissi- rus dors). Exhalation ae Access the breath’s primal force when moving into pos- tures. Gently contract the rectus abdominus,trensversus abdominus and intercostal muscles during exhalation. ‘Applying this type of contraction rhythmically connects the conscious and unconscious mind during movement. Synergy Train the accessory breathing musces so that they work synercistcally to expand and contract the thorax during overt. Increase the lung volume during inhalation by contracting the accessory breathing muscles in various combinations. For example, combine the rhombeids with the pectoralis ‘minor, or the rectus abdorinus with the quadratus lumbo- rum (iustrated herein tadssana). Expel the residual airin the lungs during exhalation by contacting the rectus abdominus, transversus abdominus and intercostal muscles, ‘Awakening the accessory breathing muscles san extreme- ly powerful technique. Begin wth very gentle contraction nd progress slowly and with great cae. Never force any vyoge technique, especially breathing. Always proceed with ‘ution under the guidance of an instructor. Chapter Bandhas are “locks” occuring throughout the body. The combination of opposing imuseles forms these “locks, stimulating nerve conduction an illuminating the chakras. la bandha Moola bandha contracts the muscles ofthe pelvic floor lifting and toring the organs ofthe pelvis including the bladder and genitalia. The pelvic flaor ‘muscles are recruited and avakened by contracting associated muscles such as the iliopsoes This focuses the mind onthe first chakra Simultaneously contracting other muscle graups accentuates moola bandha. For example, gently squeezing the knees together (by contracting ‘the adductor) increases contraction ofthe pelvic floor muscles. Pressing thehands together has the same effect. This phenomenon is known as dyana bandha Udyan bandha contracts the upper abdominals in the region approximately two inches below the solar plexus and focuses the mind on the thitd chakra, Jalandhara band Jalandhara bandha contracts the anter neck muscles, flexing the neck and drawing the chin to the sternum. Tis focuses the ‘mind onthe ith chakra. Chapter26 Chakras The chakras re the subtle energy centers ofthe body. Like pines, the Chakras pi a the speed of bgt, emanating the ears ofthe spectrum, each resonating with a particular frequency These colors combine to form the auras ‘that surround each ofus, connecting us with eachother and with the cosmos, bracial plexus There are seven to eight major and numerous minor chakrasin the body. Ther locations correspond to regions of the body where nerves collec and electrical, activity ishigh, such as the brachial an sacral plexi (major chakras) and the elbows and knees (minor chakras) ‘The flow of energy inthe chakras can become blocked hy fe events trough ‘heat ofthe atomic ners syste. For xa, when we Fabitolly asaumea defensive poste in response to negative simul we Bleck the ow fener the chakras, Hatha Yogs counteracts this and eilninates te chakras, stilaing ther to spn ret sacral plexus Xundatini awakening refers tothe “unblocking” ofthe flow of energy through and between the cakes. This process can ocr instantaneous from contact witha master ner or ote) who avakens thetdert’sawarenes af is Cr her potential. las, this accurs through ouch ut ean ocr th 9 Slanceor even through the mere presence ofthe master. Tiss know a Shak- ‘pata (the transmission of peycho siti energy). As human conscousness transtons ram the Pseant the Aaron Age, mor tid more peepee Sportaneouh experiencing varying degrees of Kundan sakenng Kundalini awakening i akin to tapping into a high voltage line and requires ‘careful preparation. Hatha Yoga prepares the practitioner and awakens the Kundalini a the same time. P utti n g it a | | [samc th orcs veghau te coset ten, bree eaten or ae together This sequence illustrates the process of combining muscles sequentially in the lunge pose: 2. Contract the Font eg hamstrings, drawing the body deeper into lunge, accentuating the itiopsoas stretch. 1. Position the body in lunge to begin stretching the tiopsoas. Easing into Downward Dog 1) rs image Wastes dourard facing og pose wth tight ham stig ts bow the pal of te tna ste pee ears {rarer ns pus the urbousral aca andbec ner so Oat {fetowertact osesSone of tonal ac pa 2) Bend the knees to release the hamstings and free the lower back. Cantract the iiopseas to ttt the pel- vis forward (anteversion) Ths action brings back the naturalarch ofthe lower back and draws the trunk to- words the thighs. poe 3) contrac the tees to etend the elbows, straightening teams. 4) Maintain the eanracion ofthe lopsaasto ithe pe inant. Ten conacte qadrrp scene rhe tes and aw the fear uth tc Conpctng the pose Optimizing Siddhasana ‘The ancient Chinese oracle the I-Ching contains fundamental instruction forthe practice of yoga inthe hexagram “Keeping Stil" (52 Kén). This hexagram resembles a vertebral unitof the spine. The text contains instruction for achieving stillness by stabilizing the spine from the sacrum tothe skull This section shows how to optimize sdhasana by sequentially activating various muscles as follows: SI Contract the psoas and quadratuslumborum ) Contractthe erectorspinaeto straighten the 3.) Draw the scapulae towards the midline by to stabilize the lumbosacral spine and ground the spine and move eneray upward ‘contracting the rhomboids. This ation opens the pele, chest. Balance this by closed chain contraction of the pectoralis otimizing Siddhasana 4) Contract the atissinus dorsi to further openthe chest Lftthesineby 5) Complete and balance the pose by adding the rectus abdorinus to activate sgl eortracting the ticeps, pressing the hans into the ines udyana band Appendix of Asanas ‘ado mukha svarasana ‘downward dos pose aho mutha viksasana, fullarm balance rchachandrasan half moon pose baddhakorasara houndangle pose ‘ ms * Pabiis tetasana chatranga andesara Atharrasaa capa vipa dandasana crane pose four in staf pose Bow poe oe aged verted sta pose 230 Appendix of Asanas padongustasana sleeping great te in hend pose padangustasana ‘reat toe pose parivrttatrikonasane revolved triangle pose parivrtta parsvokorasana revolved side analed pose i sie * eat a gt = _ Ze parivrttekapada sirasana ‘evolved head stand pose revolved crane pose persvottanesana Intense side stretch pose paschimottanasana Intense stretch to the west pose pO ¥ ~ Ze prasarita padottanasana purvettanasana salabhasana sarvangasana wide fet intense stretch pose intense stretch tothe east pose locust shoulder stand £. |: & Je 2 setubandha slddhasana supta padangusthasana B tadasana bridge pose the seer pose ying area toe in hand pose mountain pose 233 Append ix Of Asanas tlasana upavistha konasana ‘dha mukha svanasana sale pose front spits ‘upward facing dog pose i 4 Si | |e fan _ a, is sworn ee a: aes vatayanasana horse face pose virabhadrasana warrior virabhadrasana II wartior Virabhadrasana IIL warrior Qy wrishehikasana scorpion pose viksasana tee pose Index of Asanas A adho mukka svanasana (downward facing dog pose) 9, 107,135,138, 144, 175, 190, 226, 227,231 adh mukha vksasana (fllarm balanes) 154,173, 231 ardhachandrasana (half moon pose) 72, 78,231, 8 baddhakonasana (bound angle pose) 79, 82, 83, 87, 90, 9, 231, bakasana (crane pose) 83,84, 231 c chaturanga dandasana (four limb staff pose) 166, 168, 153, 162, 165, 231 D ‘dhanurasana (bow pose) 6 E ka pada viparitadandasana (one legged inverted staff pose) 18, 61 6 sarudasana (eagle pose) 54,56, 157, 167, 175,231 ‘gomukhasana B (cows face pose) 79, 139, 144, 149, 156, 181,193, 231, a Janu stsasana (head to knee pose) 72, 102, 232 x rounchasana (heron pose) 109 urmasana (tortoise pose) 128, 232 ” ‘marichyasana (sage pose) 18, 20, 238, smarichyasana (sage pose) 108, 120, 11, 160, 232 ‘marietyasana II (sage pose) 53, 95,103, 107, 111, 132, 232 ‘mariehyasana IV (sage pose) 72 " rnavasana (boat pose) 123, 232 P padangustasana (great toe pose) 67, 232 padangustasana 0 62 padrasana (lotus pose) 25,54, 69, %, 78, 94, 102, 200, 232 parivrtta parsvokonasana (revolved side angled pose) 87,233 parivrttatrikonasana (revolved triangle pose) 72, 82,117,119, 285 Parivrttakapada sirasana (revolved head stand pose) 82, 233 parsia bakasana (revolved crane pose) 87, 88,233, Parsvottonasana (intense side stretch pose) 77, 82, 156,174, 175, 233 paschimottanasana (intense stretch tothe west pose) 42, 16, 188, 205, 233, Pincha mayurasena (feather pose). 193 prasarita padottanasana (wide feet intense stretch pose) 123, 127,233 purvottanasana (intense stretch tothe east pose) 68, 118, 133, 148, 155,167, 172, 185, 188,197, 201, 204, 233, s salabhasana (locust) 22 sarvangasana (shoulder stand) 185, 189, 206, 234 setubandha (bridge pose) 42 siddhasana (the seer pose) 12, 90, 102, 126, 215, 216, 228, 229 supta padangusthasana 8 (Wing great toein hand pose) $3, 95, 108, 236 1 tadasana (mountain pose) 9,19, 128,132, 155,215, 219, 234, tolasana (seale pose) 18, 139, 143, 156, 236 trianga mukhaikapada paschimettanasane (three limbed face to extended leg pose) 21, 100, u ‘upavstha konasana (front splits). 87,88, 234 urdivadhanurasana (backbend) 55,73, 77, 84,99, 16, 18, 128, 135, 143, 144, 167,174, 15, 194, 236 urdiva mukha svanasana (upward facing dog pose) 135, 138, 144, 175,194, 211,234 Ushtrasana (camel pose) 63, 67,234 Uuthatasana (fete pose) 9, 27, 112, 220 utthanasana (standing forward bend) 12, 27,5, 66, 68, 100, 118, 128,215, 235 tthita hasta padangusthasana (extended hand to big toe pose) 52 utthita trikonasana (triangle pose) 46,63, 99, 117,126, 128, 161,166, 197, 201, 204,235, v vatayanasana (horse face pose) 73, 156, 173, 182,235 virabhadrasana (warrior!) 135, 136, 167 Virabhadrasana Il (warrior) 11,45, 47, 60, 62, 67,153,155, 160,172,175, 182, 218,235 Virabhadrasana IM (warrior I) 67, 103,235 \ishehikasana (scorpion pose) 52, 193, 235, vtksasana (tree pose) 39, 102,139 237 Index of Muscles A abdominals (see also transversus abdomins, internal and external obique, rectus abdominus) 118-126, (as antagonists) 131 (essyneraists) 122 abductor digit minimi 202 abductor policis 208, adductor group (se also pectineus, adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor magnus, gracilis) 68,79, 84,88, 9-90 (esantagorist) 71, 76,93, (as synerist) 81, 86, 03, adductor brevis 79, 89 adductor tongus..61, 79, 89 adductor magnus 84-88, 89 (essynergist) 66, 84 8 biceps brachit 31,38, 152, 172, 185-189, 209, 225, (esantagonist) 2, 137, 146, 171, 192 (ssynergist) 170, 180, 185 biceps femoris 5t, 103-105, 107, 111 (assynergist) 66, 126, 127 brachialis 185, 189 (essynergist) 185 c capitis (see semispinatis) ceive (see semispinalis) coracobracialis 152 238 o deltids (posterior, lateral, anterior) 47,152, 167-173, 175, 182, 183, 188 (asantagonist) 137, 146, 167, 169, 171, 178, 179, 187,192 (as synerist) 127,137, 142, 178, 179, 180, 187, 192 diaphragm 213,217 E erect spinae (se also spinalis, longissimus and iiocostais) 65, 115, 128- 129, 132-133, 217 (as agonist) 135 (Gsantagonist) 122, 127 extensor carpi radials brevis 206, extensor carpi radials longus 206 extensor digit mimi 206, 208 extensor digitorum 206,208 ‘extensor digitorum longus 202 extensor hallucs longus. 202 extensor pollicis longus 206, 208 external oblique 113, 118-120, 122, 124, (asantagonist) 122 (ssynergist) 122 external rotators. 94, 95 F flexor carpi radials 206 flexor carpi uinaris 206 flexor digitorum longus 203 flexor digitorum profundus. 206, 208 flexor digitorum superficialis 206,208 fiexor hallucs brevis 203, flexor halluis longus 203, 6 camel 91 sanellss 50 apstiocnemius 51, 105,203,205 (esantagorist) 98, 127 (2ssynerist) 106,205 luteus maximus 43,51, 63, 64-70, 73,74 86,87, 103, 105, (asantagorst) 59,60, 61, 76 (assynensist) 76, 106,133 luteus medius..39, 43, 51, 68, 69-7495, (os ntagorist) 81, 86,93 (essnergst) 76,83 luteus minimis 69,70 (esantagorist) 81, 86,93 (ossyergist) 71,53 saci (see also adductor group) 51,89, 98,103, (@santagorist) 106 8 hamstrings (see also biceps femoris, semitendonosus,semimembranosus) 42, 63, 96, 101, 103-111, 128,188, 194, 224, 226, 227 (2s agonist) 36 (@santagonist) 36, 59, 60, 61 76,98, 100, 127 (@ssynergist) 126, 205 iacs (see iiopsoas) ‘tiocastais 114, 128-129 itopseas 38, 39, 42,47, 51, 57-63, 64, 82, 91, 109, 123, 128, 133, 20, 224, 225, 226,227 (as antagonist) 42, 66, 106 (es syneegist) 76,81, 98, 127 infraspinatus. 31,151, 152, 174, 175, 176-177, 179, 181, 184 (@santagonist) 146, 174, 178 intercostals. 113,218, 219 internal oblique 113, 118-120, 122, 126, (asantagonist) 122 (es syneraist) 122 L Lotissimus dors} 38,115, 135-138, 173, 217 {asantagonist) 14, 169, 170, 179, 180 assynergist) 126, 131, 142, 166, 147,171,178, 192 levator scepulae 125,152, 157 (assynergist) 159 longissimus cervics 116,128, longus cgitus {assynergist) 199 longus oli (assynercist) 199 " smultifdis 116 ° obturator exteris. 50,91 obturator interns. 50, 91 e palmar arch 208 palmaristongus 208 ectineus 51, 79-83, 89 (@santagonisty 66 (as synetgist) 59, 60,61 239 240 Index of Muscles pectoralis major 113,133, 138, 146-149, 172,173, 182 (@santagonist) 137, 141,159, 169, 170, 171, 179, 180 Gs synergist) 137,142,166, 169,178,187 pectoras minor 113, 144-169, 157, 185, 216,217,219 (asantagonist) 161 (Gs synergist) 142, 166 peroneus brevis 202 peroneus longus. 202 Piniformis, 50, 91-95 (esantagonist) 81, 26 (essynergist) 71 pronator quadratus 208, 209 Dronator teres 206, 208, 209 psoas, psoas major (see lopsoas) a quadratus femoris $0, 91-95 {asantagonist) 71 (assynergist) 81, 86,91 aquadratus lumborum 39, 128, 130,132, 217,219, {asantagonist) 122 Gassynergist) 66 quadriceps (se also rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis, vastus laterals) 51, 63, 96-101, 123, 225,227 (asagorist) 36 (asantagonist) 36,42, 106 (as synergist) 76, 127,133, R rectus abdominis 38, 113, 118, 19, 120, 123, 128, 133, 217,218, 219, 221, 25 (essynergit) 127 rectus femoris (se also quadriceps) 39, 51,63, 96,97 99, 100, 133 (esantagorist) 66 (ssynergist) 59, 60,61 ‘homboid major 152, 157-158 (asantagonist) 141,157, 164 (assynergist) 142, 147 thomboid minor 152, 157-158, (asantagorist) 141,157, 164 (assynergist) 142, 147 rhomboids 115, 164, 149, 157-161, 166,217,219 rotator cuff (see also subscapularis, supraspinetus,infraspinatus, teres minor, teres major). 31, 151, 172, 174-182, 184, 190, s Sartorius 39, 51,102, 103, (asantagonist) 98 (essyneraist) 59,60, 61,106 semimembranosus. 51, 103-105, 108, 111 (assynergst) 66 semispinalis 114 semitendonosus 38, 51, 103-105, 108, 111 (ssynergist) 66 serratus anterior 148, 152,157,161, 162-166, (@santagonist) 159 serratus posterior 115 spinais 32, 128-129 splenius capitis 114 spleniuscervicis 114 soleus 203 sternodleidomastoid_ 38, 197-201, 217 (asantagonist) 142, 147 assymersist) 126, 142 subscapularis 34, 151, 152, 174-178, 181, (asantagonist) 174,179 supinator 208, 209 supraspinatus ‘31, 151,152, 172, 174-175, 177, 180, 182, 183 (as antagonist) 146 (Gas synergist) 170 T tensor fascia lata 43, 51, 68, 24-78, 95, (asantagonist) 81,86, 93 (essynergist) 59, 60, 61, 71, 93,98 teres major 151,152 teres minor 151,152, 1% (asantagonisty 178 (Gs synergit) 174, 179 thoreds (see semispalis) ‘ibialisanterior 202 tibialis posterior 203 twansverslis 32, 38, 129 ‘vansversusabdominis 118-119, 121 218,219, 221 trapezius 115, 139-143, 173, 15, 183, 201 (esantagonist) 141, 147,159, 164, 199 Gssynergist) 134,159) triceps brachii 31, 133,152, 184, 188, 190-194, 225, 227 (asantagonist) 170, 180,187 (Gs synergist) 126, 133, 137,146,172 v vastus intermedius (se also quadriceps) 96-87, 99, 100 vastus laterals (se alsa quadriceps) 96-97, 95, 100 vostus medialis (see also quadriceps) 90-97, 99, 100 mH LINIAY «238,99, JON i

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