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La anatoma del poder 9


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www.espacioculturalyacademico.com
GALBRAITH TIENDE AL PODER SOBRE LA MESA DE OPERACIONES
E INVESTIGA TODOS SUS MEANDROS MS OCULTOS PARA DEDU-
CIR, EN APRETADAS SNTESIS, LO QUE REALMENTE CONSTITUYE
SU ENTRAA MS ESENCIAL.
Jos Mara Gonzlez Ruiz, El Pas
John Kenneth Galbraith aporta a esta obra toda una vida de
estudio, ref lexin y experiencia sobre el tema, pues el poder
es una cuestin que ha atrado desde hace mucho el inters
del autor, quien aplica su reconocido talento para lograr una
exposicin atractiva y amena.
Galbraith examina los tres medios con que se impone el poder:
la amenaza, la compensacin o la persuasin. El autor aborda
las fuentes del poder, sus orgenes en la personalidad, en la
propiedad y en la organizacin. La organizacin y el ejerci-
cio estrechamente relacionado con ella del poder con-
dicionado son objeto de especial atencin, pues constituyen
las ms importantes manifestaciones modernas del poder.
Este libro resultar de suma utilidad para todos los que traten
de comprender el urgente y omnipresente problema del poder,
as como para quienes se aventuren a ejercerlo.
J OHN KENNETH GALBRAI TH
Uno de los economistas ms brillantes e inf lu-
yentes del siglo XX, fue profesor de economa
en las universidades de California, Princeton,
Cambridge, Bristol y Harvard. Su mayor
preocupacin no era el anlisis economtrico o
la teora econmica sino analizar las consecuen-
cias de la poltica econmica en la sociedad, de
forma accesible y eliminando gran parte del
tecnicismo propio de los economistas. Desempe-
cargos pblicos desde la poca de la segunda
guerra mundial, bajo el mandato de Franklin
D. Roosevelt, y fue nombrado por John F.
Kennedy embajador de los Estados Unidos en
la India. Entre sus obras destacan La sociedad
opulenta, El crash de 1929, Historia de la economa,
Breve historia de la euforia financiera y La cultura
de la satisfaccin, todos ellos publicados en Ariel.
Ilustracin de cubierta: Fanatic Studio/Age Fotostock
Diseo de cubierta: Mauricio Restrepo
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JOHN KENNETH GALBRAITH
B I B L I O T E C A
G A L B R A I T H
G
La anatoma
del poder
El dinero de los dems
Louis D. Brandeis
Historia del anlisis econmico
Joseph A. Schumpeter
Manas, pnicos y cracs
Charles P. Kindleberger
Robert Z. Aliber
Historia econmica de Espaa
Agustn Gonzlez
Juan Manuel Mats
Vendiendo prosperidad
Paul Krugman
Un viaje por la economa de nuestro tiempo
John Kenneth Galbraith
Historia del capitalismo
Michel Beaud
El crash de 1929
John Kenneth Galbraith
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@;R SMQR?RETMVE V @;MRER> D><RE<VE BDSR? SR @;MRER> >R >DGR<RE
V Hu o><V> <?R> Q;RE<R> >DE BR?>DEVHMSVS, B?DBMRSVS -@;R METH;6R,
EV<;?VHGRE<R, HD> MEP?R>D> SM>BDEMUHR>3 6 D?PVEM5VTMEu
hV BR?>DEVHMSVS R> HV T;VHMSVS SRH V>BRT<D Q>MTD, HV ME<RHMPRE4
TMV, HV QVTMHMSVS SR BVHVU?V, HV TR?<MS;GU?R GD?VH ; D<?D ?V>PD BR?4
>DEVH @;R SV VTTR>D V ;ED D G> SR HD> ME><?;GRE<D> SR BDSR?u oE
HV> >DTMRSVSR> B?MGM<M9V>, R><R VTTR>D TDES;TV GRSMVE<R HV Q;R?5V
Q>MTV VH BDSR? TDESMPED} R> ;EV Q;RE<R SR BDSR? @;R VE TDE>R?4
9V RE VHP;ED> ODPV?R> D TDG;EMSVSR> L;9REMHR> RH GVTOD G> TD?4
B;HRE<D 6 G;>T;HD>Du oE HD> <MRGBD> GDSR?ED>, >ME RGUV?PD, HV
BR?>DEVHMSVS R>< V>DTMVSV Q;ESVGRE<VHGRE<R TDE RH BDSR? TDE4
SMTMDEVSD, TDE HV TVBVTMSVS SR BR?>;VSM? D SR >;>TM<V? QRu
hV B?DBMRSVS D HV ?M@;R5V D<D?PV ;E V>BRT<D SR V;<D?MSVS,
;EV TR?<R5V SR DULR<M9D>, 6 R><D B;RSR MES;TM? V HV >;GM>ME TDESM4
TMDEVSVu cR?D, R9MSRE<RGRE<R, R>< V>DTMVSV SR GVER?V Q;ESVGRE4
<VH TDE RH BDSR? TDGBRE>V<D?MDu hV B?DBMRSVS HD> MEP?R>D> >;4
GMEM><?V GRSMD> RTDEGMTD> TDE HD> @;R TDGB?V? >;GM>MEu
!!3-ANATOMIA DEL PODER#ndd 21 16"!9"13 !9:!8
22
hV D?PVEM5VTME, HV Q;RE<R G> MGBD?<VE<R SR BDSR? RE HV>
>DTMRSVSR> GDSR?EV>, >R OVHHV B?METMBVHGRE<R TDE RH BDSR? TDE4
SMTMDEVSDu _R SV BD? >;B;R><D @;R, T;VESD >R U;>TV D >R ERTR>M4
<V ;E RLR?TMTMD SR BDSR?, R> B?RTM>D SM>BDER? SR ;EV D?PVEM5V4
TMEu pR>SR HV D?PVEM5VTME, TDGD RE RH TV>D SRH o><VSD, <MRER
<VGUME VTTR>D VH BDSR? TDESMPED, V SM9R?>V> QD?GV> SR TV><MPDu
Y HD> P?;BD> D?PVEM5VSD> <MRERE GV6D? D GRED? VTTR>D VH BDSR?
TDGBRE>V<D?MD V <?V9> SR HV B?DBMRSVS SR @;R R><E ME9R><MSD>u
o><D >;>TM<V ;EV H<MGV T;R><MEu s> TDGD R7M><R ;EV V>DTMV4
TME B?MGV?MV, BR?D ED R7TH;>M9V, RE<?R TVSV ;ED SR HD> <?R> ME><?;4
GRE<D> BD? HD> @;R >R RLR?TR RH BDSR? 6 ;EV SR HV> Q;RE<R>, V> <VG4
UME R7M><RE E;GR?D>V> TDGUMEVTMDER> SR HV> Q;RE<R> SR BDSR? 6 HD>
ME><?;GRE<D> TDER7D>u hV BR?>DEVHMSVS, HV B?DBMRSVS 6 HV D?PVEM5V4
TME >R TDGUMEVE RE B?DBD?TMDER> SM9R?>V>u pR RHHD SR?M9V ;EV 9V?MV4
UHR TDGUMEVTME SR HD> ME><?;GRE<D> BV?V HV MGBD>MTME SRH BDSR?u
oH VM>HVGMRE<D 6 >RBV?VTME SR HV> Q;RE<R> R ME><?;GRE<D> RE T;VH4
@;MR? RLR?TMTMD TDET?R<D SRH BDSR?, HV 9VHD?VTME SR >; MGBD?<VETMV
?RHV<M9V 6 HV TDE>MSR?VTME SR HD> TVGUMD> SR MGBD?<VETMV ?RHV<M9V
DBR?VSD> V HD HV?PD SRH <MRGBD TDE><M<;6RE HV <V?RV SR R><R HMU?Du
oE HD> B?MGR?D> GDGRE<D> SRH T?M><MVEM>GD, RH BDSR? >R D?M4
PME TDE HV 9MPD?D>V BR?>DEVHMSVS SRH _VH9VSD?u qV>M MEGRSMV<V4
GRE<R, >;?PM ;EV D?PVEM5VTME, HD> sB><DHR>, 6 TDE RH <MRGBD HV
kPHR>MV TDGD D?PVEM5VTME >R TDE9M?<M RE HV G> MEQH;6RE<R 6 S;4
?VSR?V SR <DSD RH G;ESDu pR >;> Q;RE<R> SR BDSR? ED R?V HV GR4
ED? >; B?DBMRSVS 6 HD> MEP?R>D> SR @;R BD? RHHD SM>BDEVu pR HV
TDGUMEVTME SR BR?>DEVHMSVS -HV SR HV c?R>RETMV qRHR><MVH 6 SR
;EV HV?PV HERV SR SM?MPRE<R> ?RHMPMD>D>3, HV B?DBMRSVS 6, >DU?R
<DSD, HV D?PVEM5VTME EMTV >;?PMR?DE HV T?RRETMV TDESMTMDEVSV,
HD> URERQMTMD> D HV TDGBRE>VTME 6 HV VGREV5V SR TV><MPD TDESMP4
ED, RE R><R G;ESD D RE RH D<?D, @;R, RE TDEL;E<D, TDE><M<;6R?DE
RH BDSR? ?RHMPMD>Du ^VH R> RH TDGBHRLD SR QVT<D?R> METD?BD?VSD> V
R><R <?GMED 6, RE P?VE GRSMSV, DT;H<VSD> BD? Hu cDSR? BDH<MTD,
BDSR? RTDEGMTD, BDSR? TD?BD?V<M9D, BDSR? GMHM<V? 6 D<?V> ?RQR4
?RETMV> >RGRLVE<R> DT;H<VE >MGMHV? 6 B?DQ;ESVGRE<R ;EV ME<R4
??RHVTME MP;VHGRE<R SM9R?>Vu q;VESD >R GRETMDEV, ED >R BR?>M4
P;R BRER<?V? RE >; EV<;?VHR5V ME<R?MD?u
%
gM ME<R?> RE R><D>
%u qDGD 6V D<?D> OVE >D><REMSDu b;M5 ED OV6 RE <DSV HV PVGV SR HV> TMRETMV> >D4
TMVHR> EMEPE <RGV G> MGBD?<VE<R EM, VH GM>GD <MRGBD, <VE P?V9RGRE<R DH9MSVSD TDGD RH
!!3-ANATOMIA DEL PODER#ndd 22 16"!9"13 !9:!8
23
GDGRE<D> >R TRE<?V RE HD @;R TDE <VE<V Q?RT;RETMV >R GVE<MRER
DT;H<Du
o7VGMEV?RGD>, B?MGR?VGRE<R, HD> ME><?;GRE<D> BD? HD> @;R
>R RLR?TR RH BDSR?, 6, H;RPD, HV> Q;RE<R>u s TDE<ME;VTME, BV>V?R4
GD> V HV QD?GV RE @;R RH BDSR? >R OV SR>V??DHHVSD V HD HV?PD SRH
<MRGBD 6 V >; ?RVHMSVS RE E;R><?D> SV>u cR?D, VE<R>, R> ERTR>V?MD
TDE>MSR?V? HV> QMEVHMSVSR> BD? HV> @;R HV> BR?>DEV> U;>TVE RH BDSR?
6 <VGUME RH R><VSD SR EMGD TDE @;R VUD?SV ;ED RH <RGVu
"
qDGD DT;??R TDE <VE<V> SR HV> TD>V> ?RHVTMDEVSV> TDE RH BD4
SR?, HD> QMER> BD? HD> @;R >R U;>TV >DE VGBHMVGRE<R BR?TMUMSD>,
BR?D ?V?VGRE<R RE;ETMVSD>u hD> MESM9MS;D> 6 HD> P?;BD> U;>TVE RH
BDSR? BV?V B?DGD9R? >;> B?DBMD> ME<R?R>R>, METH;6RESD, RE BV?<M4
T;HV?, >; B?DBMD ME<R?> BRT;EMV?MDu Y BV?V R7<RESR? V D<?D> >;>
9VHD?R> BR?>DEVHR>, ?RHMPMD>D> D >DTMVHR>u Y BV?V DU<RER? VBD6D V >;
BR?TRBTME RTDEGMTV D >DTMVH SRH UMRE BUHMTDu oH RGB?R>V?MD
TDGB?V HV >;GM>ME SR >;> DU?R?D> BV?V >R?9M? V >;> QMER> RTDEGM4
TD>uuu, BV?V PVEV? SMER?Du oH HSR? ?RHMPMD>D BR?>;VSR V >; TDEP?R4
PVTME D V >; BUHMTD SR ?VSMD D <RHR9M>ME BD?@;R TDE>MSR?V @;R
SRUR MEQ;ESM?HR> >;> T?RRETMV>u oH BDH<MTD U;>TV RH VBD6D, R> SRTM?,
HV >;GM>ME, SR HD> 9D<VE<R> BV?V BDSR? BR?GVERTR? RE >; B;R><Du
c?RQM?MRESD RH VM?R B;?D VH TDE<VGMEVSD, RH RTDHDPM><V U;>TV MGBD4
ER? RH ?R>BR<D V >; B?RQR?RETMV V HD> @;R TDE><?;6RE V;<DG9MHR> D
BD>RRE QU?MTV>u ><D> U;>TVE HV >;GM>ME V >; B?DBMD SR>RD SR
TD><R> G> UVLD> 6 GRED> ?RP;HVTMDER>u hD> TDE>R?9VSD?R> U;>TVE
>;GM>ME V >; TDETRBTME SRH D?SRE >DTMVH 6 RTDEGMTD 6 V HV>
VTTMDER> TDER7V>} HD> HMUR?VHR> D HD> >DTMVHM><V> U;>TVE ;EV >;4
GM>ME >MGMHV? V HV> >;6V>u oE <DSD> HD> TV>D>, TDGD >R VS9R?<M?
>;QMTMRE<RGRE<R RE HD> TVB<;HD> >MP;MRE<R>, HV D?PVEM5VTME HV
?R;EME SR @;MRER> <MRERE ME<R?R>R>, 9VHD?R> D BR?TRBTMDER> >MGM4
HV?R> QD?GV BV?<R ME<RP?VE<R SR HV DU<RETME SR R>V >;GM>ME,
SR HV U>@;RSV SR BDSR?u
BVBRH SRH BDSR? RE HV 9MSV RTDEGMTVu gRH9MHHR ju ]HGR?, oTDEDGMT cD8R? VES \R><RS
kE<R?R><>, RE cD8R? ME oTDEDGMT>, SM?MPMSD BD? iu [u `D<O>TOMHS -lV?GDES>8D?<O, oEPua
cREP;ME rDDJ>, ()#(3, BPu =%"u
!!3-ANATOMIA DEL PODER#ndd 23 16"!9"13 !9:!8
24
oH HREP;VLR TD<MSMVED TDGRE<V ?RP;HV?GRE<R HV> ?V5DER> BD?
HV> @;R >R BR?>MP;R RH BDSR?u _M >R TDE><?MR VH ME<R?> SR ;E MESM4
9MS;D D SR ;E P?;BD, >R SMTR @;R R>< >MRESD U;>TVSD TDE QMER>
RPD><V>} >M ?RQHRLV RH ME<R?> D HV BR?TRBTME SR ;E EGR?D GV6D?
SR BR?>DEV>, >R TDE>MSR?V V HD> MGBHMTVSD> RE H ME>BM?VSD> SM?M4
PRE<R> D R><VSM><V>u
_R TDGB?RESR <VGUME @;R HD> QMER> BD? HD> @;R >R U;>TV RH
BDSR? >R?E V GRE;SD VGBHMV 6 ?RQHR7M9VGRE<R DT;H<VSD> GR4
SMVE<R V><;<V> <R?PM9R?>VTMDER>u oH BDH<MTD @;R U;>TV DT;BV? ;E
B;R><D RE URERQMTMD SR HD> ME<R?R>R> BRT;EMV?MD> SR VSMER?VSD>
QV9D?RTRSD?R> SR??DTOV? RHDT;RETMV BV?V SR>T?MUM?>R V > GM>GD
TDGD ;E URERQVT<D? BUHMTD, METH;>D TDGD ;E SMHMPRE<R 6 VUERPV4
SD VGMPD SR HD> BDU?R>u oH RGB?R>V?MD VSRT;VSVGRE<R RS;TVSD
6V ED RGBHRV DU?R?D> BV?V MET?RGRE<V? >;> URERQMTMD>} >; QMEVHM4
SVS G> B?DQ;ESV R> >;GMEM><?V? RGBHRD, B?DGD9R? RH UMRER><V?
SR HV TDG;EMSVS 6 V>RP;?V? RH 7M<D SRH >M><RGV SR HMU?R RGB?R>Vu
oH QR?9MRE<R R9VEPRHM5VSD? R>< VUMR?<VGRE<R B?RDT;BVSD BD? HV
>VH9VTME SR HD> BRTVSD?R>, HHR9VESD V HD> BR?9R?>D> VH TVGMED SR
HV P?VTMV} VE<MP;VGRE<R >R >VUV @;R <REV HD> DLD> B;R><D> RE HV
UVESRLV SR TDHRT<Vu ]E TMEM>GD B?DQ;ESVGRE<R V??VMPVSD 6 >;GV4
GRE<R 9VHMD>D R> HV VB?DBMVSV 6 Q?RT;RE<R ?R>B;R><V V <DSV> HV>
TDEQR>MDER> SR HD> QMER> SRH BDSR?} >R R7B?R>V RE HV DGEMB?R>RE<R
B?RP;E<Va b; U;>TV ?RVHGRE<RNu
g;TOD GRED> VB?RTMVSD R> RH P?VSD RE @;R HV QMEVHMSVS SRH
BDSR? R> RH RLR?TMTMD SRH BDSR? GM>GDu
"
oE <DSV> HV> >DTMRSVSR>,
SR>SR HV> G> B?MGM<M9V> OV><V HV> D><RE>MUHRGRE<R G> TM9MHM5VSV>,
RH RLR?TMTMD SRH BDSR? R> >VUD?RVSD TDE ME<RE>MSVSu `RQMEVSD> ?M4
<;VHR> SR VTV<VGMRE<D G;H<M<;SR> SR>UD?SVE<R> SR VSGM?VTME,
SM>T;?>D> VBHV;SMSD>, B?RTRSRETMV RE TREV> 6 UVE@;R<R>, ;E B;R>4
<D RE HV TV?V9VEV SR V;<DG9MHR>, VTTR>D VH ?RVT<D? SR HV TDGBV4
V, RH >VH;SD GMHM<V? TRHRU?VE HV BD>R>ME SR BDSR?u o><D> ?M<;V4
HR> >DE VH<VGRE<R P?V<MQMTVE<R>u Y <VGUME HD >DE, SR>SR H;RPD, HD>
"u oH MESM9MS;D >VED @;R DU<MRER BDSR?, HD VGV, SDT<D? lV?9R6 `MTO -B>MTDVEVHM>4
<V SR [V>OMEP<DE, TM<VSD RE RH eR8 YD?J ^MGR> SRH ) SR ED9MRGU?R SR ()x=u rR?<?VES SR
jD;9RERH B?R>RE<V HV T;R><ME G> P?QMTVGRE<Ra oH HSR? SR T;VH@;MR? P?;BD SR ODG4
U?R>uuu, >MRE<R TDE RHHD ;EV VGBHMVTME TV>M Q>MTV SR > GM>GDuuu oH GVESD R> HV T;GU?R SR
;EV GDE<VVu oH VM?R @;R VHH >R ?R>BM?V R> SMQR?RE<R, 6 HV> BR?>BRT<M9V> @;R SR>SR VHH >R
SM9M>VE >DE SMQR?RE<R> SR HV> @;R >R 9RE SR>SR RH 9VHHR SR HV DURSMRETMVu -dE cD8R?a k<> eV4
<;?R VES <OR lM><D?6 DQ k<> m?D8<O !e;R9V YD?Ja \MJMEP c?R>>, ()%)I, BPu ((&u3
!!3-ANATOMIA DEL PODER#ndd 24 16"!9"13 !9:!8
25
VT<D> SR RLR?TMTMD, HV> ME><?;TTMDER> V HD> >;UD?SMEVSD>, HV> ?SR4
ER> GMHM<V?R>, HV TDG;EMTVTME SR SRTM>MDER> L;SMTMVHR>, HV SRTHV?V4
TME RGM<MSV VH QMEVH SR HV ?R;EME T;VESD HV BR?>DEV @;R R>< V >;
Q?RE<R SMTRa rMRE, R>D R> HD @;R OV?RGD>u pRH TDE<R7<D 6 SRH
RLR?TMTMD SRH BDSR? SR?M9V ;EV >RE>VTME SR 9VHV V;<DMES;TMSVu
oE EMEPE D<?D V>BRT<D SR HV R7M><RETMV O;GVEV >R OVHHV HV 9VEM4
SVS >DGR<MSV V <VE<D ?MR>PD} RE BVHVU?V> SR [MHHMVG lV5HM<<, RH
VGD? VH BDSR? R> RH VGD? V ED>D<?D> GM>GD>u pR HD @;R >R SR>4
B?RESR @;R RH BDSR? R> BR?>RP;MSD ED >HD BD? RH >R?9MTMD @;R
B?R><V V ME<R?R>R> BR?>DEVHR>, 9VHD?R> D BR?TRBTMDER> >DTMVHR>, >MED
<VGUME BD? > GM>GD, BD? HV> ?RTDGBRE>V> RGDTMDEVHR> 6 GV<R4
?MVHR> MEOR?RE<R> V >; BD>R>ME 6 RLR?TMTMDu
_ME RGUV?PD, ;EV T;R><ME SR SRTRETMV U>MTV MGBMSR VSGM4
<M? SRGV>MVSD VUMR?<VGRE<R @;R RH BDSR? R> SR>RVSD BD? > GM>4
GDu _R VTRB<V @;R ;E MESM9MS;D B;RSV U;>TV? BDSR? BV?V MGBD4
ER? V D<?D> >;> 9VHD?R> GD?VHR>, D BV?V B?DGD9R? ;EV 9M>ME SR HV
9M?<;S >DTMVH D BV?V PVEV? SMER?Du Y, TDGD >R OV VB;E<VSD, R> BR?4
GM>MUHR REGV>TV?V? ;EV QMEVHMSVS TDE D<?Va RH B?DBMD RE?M@;RTM4
GMRE<D B;RSR DT;H<V?>R <?V> RH >R?9MTMD V HV TDG;EMSVS, ;E >?SM4
SD SR>MPEMD BDH<MTD <?V> ;EV VBV>MDEVSV SRTHV?VTME SR RE<?RPV
VH UMRE BUHMTDu cR?D ED R> BR?GM>MUHR U;>TV? RH BDSR? >MGBHRGRE4
<R BD? RH R7<?VD?SMEV?MD BHVTR? @;R B?DS;TRu
&
_ME RGUV?PD, V;E@;R ED B;RSR TDEQR>V?>R HV U>@;RSV SRH
BDSR? BD? RH BDSR?, HV ?RVHMSVS R>, TDGD >MRGB?R, BV?<R SR HV
TDETMRETMV BUHMTVu _R SR>T?MUR Q?RT;RE<RGRE<R V HD> BDH<MTD>
TDGD OVGU?MRE<D> SR BDSR?, >MRESD HV R9MSRE<R MGBHMTVTME
SR RHHD @;R U;>TVE RH BDSR? BV?V >V<M>QVTR? ;E VBR<M<Du ]EV> RG4
B?R>V> VU>D?URE V D<?V>, ED BV?V DU<RER? GV6D?R> URERQMTMD>,
>MED BV?V DU<RER? RH BDSR? @;R RE<?VV HV SM?RTTME SR ;EV RG4
B?R>V GV6D? VEu ^VGUME R><D >R VSGM<Ru hD> BDH<MTD> R><VSD4
;EMSRE>R> >REVSD?R>, TDEP?R>M><V>, Q;ETMDEV?MD> SR PVUMER<R 6
B?R>MSRE<R> >VT?MQMTVE SR D?SMEV?MD ?M@;R5V, <MRGBD HMU?R 6 G;4
TOV> D<?V> TD>V> V HD> ?MPD?R> SR >; TV?PD BUHMTDu o> R9MSRE<R
@;R RH RLR?TMTMD ED R>BRTQMTD SRH BDSR? 6 RH VTTR>D V >;> ?M<;VHR>
TDE><M<;6RE BV?<R SR HV ?V5E @;R HR> MES;TR V RHHDu b;M5 >HD
&u jDOE nu iREERS6, ODGU?R SR ;EV TMR?<V TVESMSR5 RE >;> R7B?R>MDER> BUHMTV>,
R><;9D V B;E<D SR OVTR?HDu gR B?R>RE<D BV?V B?R>MSRE<R SMLD BD?@;R RE R>D R> SDESR
R>< HV VTTMEu sH OVUHV? SR VTTME >R R><VUV ?RQM?MRESD VH BDSR?u
!!3-ANATOMIA DEL PODER#ndd 25 16"!9"13 !9:!8
26
BV?V @;MRER> V> >DE ?RTDGBRE>VSD> >R OVHHVE VGBHMVGRE<R
DT;H<D> HD> BHVTR?R> SRH BDSR? BD? RH BDSR?u
&
]EV ?RQR?RETMV VH BDSR? ?V?V 9R5 R> EV<;?VH} BDTV> BVHVU?V>
OV6 @;R B?DS;5TVE ;EV ?RVTTME <VE VSGM?V<M9V D, Q?RT;RE<RGRE4
<R, <VE MESMPEVSVu ]E BDH<MTD B;RSR >R? 9M><D BD? ;ED> TDGD ;E
HSR? BDSR?D>D 6, RE TDE>RT;RETMV, RQMTV5} 9M><D BD? D<?D>, R> BRHM4
P?D>VGRE<R MEO;GVEDu oH BDSR? U;?DT?<MTD R> GVHD, BR?D HD>
Q;ETMDEV?MD> BUHMTD> TDE BDSR? BV?V B?R><V? ;E >R?9MTMD BUHMTD
RQMTV5 >DE G;6 U;RED>u oH BDSR? RGB?R>V?MVH R> BRHMP?D>D} <VG4
UME HD R>, >ME RGUV?PD, ;EV RGB?R>V GVH VSGMEM><?VSVu oE >;
RLR?TMTMD SRH BDSR?, HD> >MESMTV<D> SRQMRESRE MER7T;>VUHRGRE<R
HD> SR?RTOD> SR HD> <?VUVLVSD?R>} BR?TMUMSD> SR D<?V GVER?V, >R
OVHHVE RE B?DQ;ESD TDEQHMT<D TDE HV HMUR?<VS SR >;> GMRGU?D> 6 RH
UMRER><V? SR HD> RGB?R>V?MD> 6 RH BUHMTD RE PRER?VHu
g;TOD SRBRESR, R9MSRE<RGRE<R, SRH B;E<D SR 9M><V, SR HV>
?RVTTMDER> SMQR?RETMVHR> @;R >;?PRE RE V@;RHHD> T;6V >;GM>ME >R
U;>TVu oH BDH<MTD @;R TDE>MP;R ;EV ?RQD?GV QM>TVH @;R ;ED VB?;R4
UV OV RQRT<;VSD ;E L;MTMD>D RLR?TMTMD SRH BDSR?} BV?V @;MRER> SR4
URE BVPV?, R> D B;RSR >R? V?UM<?V?MD, METH;>D SR>GR>;?VSDu hV VS4
GM?VTME BD? RH RLR?TMTMD SRH BDSR? @;R >;>TM<V ;E E;R9D
VR?DB;R?<D ED R> TDGBV?<MSV BD? HV> BR?>DEV> T;6V B?DBMRSVS HME4
SV TDE HV BM><V SR V<R??M5VLRu
hV ?RVTTME VH BDSR? R> <VGUME, RE MGBD?<VE<R GRSMSV, ;E
HRPVSD SR >; BV>VSDu lV><V ED OVTR G;TOD, HD> <?VUVLVSD?R> ER4
P?D> SR o><VSD> ]EMSD> 6 HD> >MR?9D> UHVETD> SR HV `;>MV MGBR?MVH
R?VE QD?5VSD> V >DGR<R?>R V HV 9DH;E<VS SRH TVBV<V5, VGD D <R??V4
<REMRE<R GRSMVE<R HV VBHMTVTME SRH H<MPDu cDSR? >MPEMQMTVUV BD4
SR? TDESMPED SR ;EV R>BRTMR BV?<MT;HV?GRE<R SDHD?D>V 6 >VEP;M4
EV?MVu oH G;ESD OV <REMSD <VGUME GMHR> SR VD> SR S;?V
R7BR?MRETMV TDE HV MGBD>MTME TDESMPEV HHR9VSV V TVUD BD? HV D?4
PVEM5VTME GMHM<V?, R7BR?MRETMV @;R VE ED OV QMEVHM5VSDu o> R><V
OM><D?MV HV @;R HR OV SVSD VH BDSR? >; R>TVHDQ?MVE<R ?RB;<VTMEu
sSRG>, TDGD BD><R?MD?GRE<R 9R?RGD> TDE SR<VHHR, P?VE
BV?<R SRH RLR?TMTMD SRH BDSR? SRBRESR SR ;E TDESMTMDEVGMRE<D
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!!3-ANATOMIA DEL PODER#ndd 26 16"!9"13 !9:!8
27
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B;RSR >R?9M? ;E L;MTMD PRER?VH @;R >R VBHM@;R V <DSD BDSR?u
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!!3-ANATOMIA DEL PODER#ndd 27 16"!9"13 !9:!8