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Descarga de Archivos en SCRIBD.

Scribd (pronunciado skrbd) es un sitio web para compartir documentos que permite a los
usuarios publicar documentos de diversos formatos e incrustarlos en una pgina web
utilizando su formato iPaper. Scribd fue fundada por Trip Adler en 2006.
2
Los competidores
ms notorios de Scribd son Docstoc, WePapers e Issuu.
3

ndice
[ocultar]
1 Historia
2 Premios y reconocimientos
3 Cronologa
4 Finanzas
5 Tecnologa
6 Recepcin
7 Crtica
8 Controversia
9 Formatos de archivo admitidos
10 Vase tambin
11 Referencias
12 Enlaces externos
Historia[editar]
La idea de Scribd fue originalmente inspirada cuando Trip Adler estuvo en Harvard y tuvo una
conversacin con su padre, John R. Adler sobre las dificultades de la publicacinde artculos
acadmicos. Se asoci con los cofundadores Jared Friedman y Tikhon Bernstam y asistieron
a Y Combinator en Cambridge en el verano de 2006. Scribd fue liberado desde un
apartamento de San Francisco en marzo de 2007 y creci rpidamente en trfico. En 2008,
figuraba como uno de los 20 sitios de redes sociales ms visitados segn Comscore.
4
En junio
de 2009, Scribd lanz Scribd Store.
5
Poco despus se rescindi el contrato con Simon &
Schuster para vender libros electrnicos en Scribd.
6
Ms de 150 editores profesionales como
Random House, Wiley, Workman, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Pearson, Harvard University
Press y Stanford University Press estn ahora asociados con Scribd. ProQuest comenz
publicando disertaciones en Scribd en diciembre de 2009. En octubre de 2009, Scribd lanz su
lector de marca para las compaas de medios con New York Times , Los Angeles
Times , Chicago Tribune , The Huffington Post, TechCrunch y MediaBistro.
7
Ahora ms de 100
compaas de medios utilizan lectores de marca Scribd para incrustar material de origen en
sus historias. En agosto de 2010, las noticias comenzaron a hacer "un boom" y los
documentos y los libros empezaron a ser virales en Scribd incluyendo el volcado
de Proposicin 8 y la demanda de HP, Mark Hurd, que se mueven en contra de Oracle.
Actualmente Adler es el presidente de Scribd, donde es el responsable del producto y de la
direccin estratgica de la empresa. El BusinessWeek llamado Adler es uno de los "Mejores
Jvenes Empresarios Tech de 2010".
8

Premios y reconocimientos[editar]
En septiembre de 2009, BusinessWeek nombr a Scribd como una de las "Iniciativas ms
interesantes del mundo".
9
En diciembre de 2009, Forbes nombr a Scribd como "Una de las
10 iniciativas ms populares". Fast Company nombr a Scribd como "Uno de los Top 10 ms
innovadores por las empresas de medios" en Febrero del 2010. En mayo de 2010, Scribd fue
reconocida como "Una de las populares Empresas de San Francisco" por Lead411.
10
El 1 de
septiembre de 2010, el Foro Econmico Mundial anunci la compaa en un Seminario
Tecnolgico para el ao 2011. Despus del premio otorgado por el Foro Econmico Mundial,
la revista Time nombr a Scribd como una de las "10 empresas nuevas que cambiarn su
vida".
11

Cronologa[editar]
En febrero de 2010, Scribd anunci sus primeros planes mviles para libros
electrnicos y telfonos inteligentes
12
En abril de 2010 Scribd agreg una nueva caracterstica
llamada "Readcast",
13
que permite el intercambio automtico de documentos
en Facebook y Twitter.
14
Tambin en abril de 2010, Scribd anunci su integracin en los plug-
inssociales en la red Facebook, durante la conferencia de desarrollo de Facebook f8
15
Scribd
realiz un nuevo diseo el 13 de septiembre de 2010, convirtindose, segnTechCrunch, en
"la red social para la lectura."
16

Finanzas[editar]
La compana fue inicialmente fundada con un presupuesto de 12.000 dlares
estadounidenses cedidos por la empresa Y Combinator y recibi ms US$ 3,7 millones en
junio de 2007 provenientes de Redpoint Ventures y The Kinsey Hills Group.
17

18
En diciembre
de 2008, la compaa otorg US$ 9 millones, como parte de una segunda ronda de
financiacin, dirigida por Charles River Ventures, con re-inversin de Redpoint Ventures y
Kinsey Hills Group, y contratando como presidente a George Consagra, form BeboJDO y lo
gestion como director general de Organic Inc.
19
Consagra qued en Scribd y convirti
en CEO de buen guiador en agosto de 2010.
David O. Sacos, formador de PayPal COO y fundador de Yammer y Geni, se uni a la junta de
directores de Scribd en enero de 2010. Scribd contrat a Robert Macdonald, ex jefe de prensa
y colaborador de editores en Google en julio de 2010 como vicepresidente senior de desarrollo
de negocio y abri una oficina en Nueva York.
20
Scribd tambin utiliza Google AdSense para
la generacin de ingresos.
21
Tambin obtiene ingresos de ventas a partir de la tienda online de
Scribd. En agosto de 2010 comenz con los servicios de testeo de servicios premium en fase
beta.
Antes del aporte de US$9 millones, Scribd era valorado en US$ 10 millones. Su valoracin
actual es probablemente mucho mayor.
3

Tecnologa[editar]
Scribd usa formato iPaper, que es un formato de documento rico similar al PDF construido
para la web, que permite a los usuarios incrustar documentos en una pgina web.
22
iPaper fue
construido con Adobe Flash, lo que le permite ser lo mismo en diferentes sistemas operativos
(Windows, Mac OS y Linux) sin necesidad de conversin, siempre y cuando el lector tenga
instalado Flash (aunque Scribd ha anunciado soporte no Flash para el iPhone).
23
Todos los
tipos de documentos principales se pueden formatear en iPaper, por ejemplo documentos de
Word, presentaciones de PowerPoint, archivos PDF,
documentos OpenDocument de OpenOffice.org XML y archivos PostScript.
Todos los documentos de iPaper estn alojados en Scribd. Este permite que los documentos
publicados sean privados o pblicos a la comunidad ms grande de Scribd. El visor de
documentos de iPaper tambin puede ser embebido en cualquier sitio web o blog, haciendo
simple la integracin con los documentos en su formato original, independientemente del
formato de archivo.
Scribd iPaper requiere que las cookies de Flash estn habilitadas, que es la configuracin
predeterminada en Flash.
24
Si los requisitos no se cumplen o no hay ningn mensaje, el rea
de visualizacin se presenta de color blanco o gris.
Scribd lanz su propio API para aplicaciones externas/de terceros, sin embargo, slo utilizan
unas pocas aplicaciones esta API
25
Su modelo de ingresos se ha ganado la cobertura de
numerosos blogs como TechCrunch.
El 5 de mayo de 2010, Scribd lanz la mayor implementacin de HTML 5 hasta la fecha (2012)
en la Web 2.0 celebrada en San Francisco
26
TechCrunch inform que Scribd est migrando
desde Flash a HTML5. '"Jared Friedman, el co-fundador de Scribd y el director oficial de la
tecnologa dice: 'Somos el resultado de tres aos de desarrollo de Flash y las apostamos de la
compaa con HTML5, porque creemos que HTML5 es una experiencia de lectura mucho
mejor que Flash. Ahora, cualquier documento puede convertirse en una pgina Web.'"
27
En
julio de 2010 Publishers Weekly escribi un artculo de portada en Scribd titulado "Apostando
la Casa en HTML5.
28

Recepcin[editar]
Scribd ha sido elogiado por varios peridicos y ha sido apodado como el potencial "YouTube
de los documentos" o el "Youtube de los libros".
29

Entre los usuarios notables de Scribd se incluyen el senador de Virginia Mark Warner,
30
el ex
candidato a gobernador de California, Meg Whitman, New York Times, el reportero de
DealBook Andrew Ross Sorkin, el preportero de All Things D Kara Swisher, la Comisin
Federal de Comunicaciones (CFC) de EE.UU., la Cruz Roja, UNICEF, el Foro Econmico
Mundial, el Banco Mundial, la Ford Motor Company, Hewlett-Packard y Samsung.
Actualmente Scribd tiene ms de 50 millones de usuarios y alberga cientos de millones de
documentos. Los documentos de Scribd estn incorporados ms de 10 millones de veces a
travs de la web y se llevan a cabo ms de 1,8 millones de bsquedas en el sitio web de
Scribd cada da.
31

Crtica[editar]
En varias ocasiones, Scribd ha sido acusado de infraccin de copyright. En marzo de 2009,
Scribd un sistema de gestin de derechos de autor y realiz actualizaciones en el sistema,
incluyendo la adicin de OCR. The New York Times inform en mayo de 2009, que Scribd
albergaba obras piratas de autores como Ursula K. Le Guin.
32

En septiembre del 2009, el escritor estadounidense Elaine Scott afirm que Scribd "roba
descaradamente los beneficios de las obras con derechos de autor de innumerables
autores."
33
Sus abogados, Joe Sibley y Kiwi Camara buscan obtener una indemnizacin de
Scribd supuestamente por "atroces infracciones de los derechos de autor."
34

35
El 11 de mayo
de 2009, Motoko Rich, escribiendo en el New York Times, inform en que en el hosting de
Scribd existen obras pirateadas. Sibley Camara present una demanda colectiva en contra de
Scribd, acusndolo de violacin de copyright calculado con fines de lucro.
36
La demanda fue
lanzada en julio de 2010.
37

En 2007, un ao despus de su creacin, Scribd ha tendo 25 notificaciones DMCA.
38
Desde
junio de 2010, las acusaciones hacia Scribd relativas a la violacin de derechos de autor
superan los 66.000.
Controversia[editar]
En marzo de 2009, se filtraron en Scribd las contraseas de varios clientes de Comcast. Ms
tarde, estas fueron retiradas, cuando The Times public la noticia.
39

40

41

En julio de 2010, GigaOm inform de que se haba subido y filtrado en Scribd el guion de la
pelcula The Social Network, pero fue rpidamente bajado tras la peticin de Sony DMCA.
En agosto de 2010, Scribd comenz con las pruebas de los servicios premium en estado beta,
incluyendo los archivos de Scribd. Esta prueba fue recibida con un fuerte rechazo de la
comunidad, debido a los cambios que Scribd realiza en sus polticas.
English.
Scribd /skrbd/ is a digital library, featuring a subscription service with premier books
including New York Times bestsellers and classics.
Launched in 2007 by Trip Adler and Jared Friedman, Scribd also features written works
contributed by users around the world and is headquartered in San Francisco, CA. Backed
by Y Combinator, Charles River Ventures, and Redpoint Ventures, Scribd is a major website
with more than 80 million active readers coming to the site every month.
[2]

Scribd's subscription service is available on iOS and Android smartphones and tablets, as well
as the Kindle Fire, the Nook, and personal computers for a monthly fee of $8.99, and lets
readers have unlimited access to more than 100,000 books from over 900 publishers,
including Harper Collins, RosettaBooks, and Workman.
[3]

Contents
[hide]
1 History
2 Timeline
3 Financials
4 Technology
5 Reception
o 5.1 Accusations of copyright infringement
o 5.2 Controversies
6 Supported file formats
7 See also
8 References
9 External links
History[edit]
The idea for Scribd was originally inspired when Trip Adler was at Harvard and had a
conversation with his father, John R. Adler, about the difficulties of publishing academic
papers. He teamed up with co-founders Jared Friedman and Tikhon Bernstam and they
attended Y Combinator in Cambridge in the summer of 2006.
[4]
Scribd was launched from a
San Francisco apartment in March 2007 and quickly grew in traffic. In 2008, it ranked as one of
the top 20 social media sites according to Comscore.
[5]
In June 2009, Scribd launched Scribd
Store,
[6]
and shortly thereafter closed a deal with Simon & Schuster to sell ebooks on
Scribd.
[7]
Over 900 publishers including HarperCollins, Workman,RosettaBooks, Random
House, Wiley, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Pearson, Harvard University Press and Stanford
University Press are now associated with Scribd. ProQuestbegan publishing dissertations and
theses on Scribd in December 2009.
In October 2009, Scribd launched its branded reader for media companies with The New York
Times, Los Angeles Times, Chicago Tribune, The Huffington
Post, TechCrunch andMediaBistro.
[8]
Over 100 media companies now use Scribds branded
reader to embed source material into their stories. In August 2010, news stories began to
break and documents and books began to go viral on Scribd including the overturned Prop
8 and HPs lawsuit against Mark Hurds move to Oracle Corporation.
In October 2013, Scribd officially launched the first global subscription service for digital books,
often called the "Netflix for ebooks",
[9]
giving readers unlimited access to Scribd library.
[10]
The
company also announced a partnership with major publishing company HarperCollins.
[2]
The
official statement revealed that the "majority" of the HarperCollins US and HarperCollins
Christian catalogs will be available in Scribd's subscription service. Chantal Restivo-Alessi,
chief digital officer at HarperCollins, explained to the media that the deal represents the first
time that the publisher has released such a large portion of its catalog.
[11]

As of December 2013, Adler is the CEO of Scribd, where he is responsible for the product and
strategic direction of the company. Adler was named in BusinessWeek's "Best Young Tech
Entrepreneurs 2010" list.
[12]

Timeline[edit]
In February 2010, Scribd unveiled its first mobile plans for e-readers and smartphones.
[13]
In
April 2010 Scribd launched a new feature called "Readcast",
[14]
which allows automatic sharing
of documents on Facebook and Twitter.
[15]
Also in April 2010, Scribd announced its integration
of Facebook social plug-ins at the Facebook f8 Developer Conference.
[16]

Scribd rolled-out a re-design on September 13, 2010 to become, according to TechCrunch,
"the social network for reading".
[17]

In October 2013, Scribd launched its ebook subscription service, allowing readers to pay a flat
monthly fee in exchange for unlimited access to all of Scribd's book titles. They also
announced a partnership with HarperCollins.
[18]

Financials[edit]
The company was initially funded with US$12,000 from Y Combinator, and received over
US$3.7 million in June 2007 from Redpoint Ventures and The Kinsey Hills Group.
[19][20]
In
December 2008, the company raised US$9 million in a second round of funding, led
by Charles River Ventures with re-investment from Redpoint Ventures and Kinsey Hills Group,
and hired as president George Consagra, former Bebo COO and managing director of Organic
Inc.
[21]
Consagra left Scribd and became CEO of Good Guide in August 2010.
David O. Sacks, former PayPal COO and founder of Yammer and Geni, joined Scribds board
of directors in January 2010. In January 2011, Scribd raised its largest round, bringing in an
additional $13M. The latest round was led by MLC Investments of Australia and SVB Capital
and included several previous investors.
[22]

Technology[edit]
In July 2008, Scribd began using iPaper, a rich document format similar to PDF built for the
web, which allows users to embed documents into a web page.
[23]
iPaper was built withAdobe
Flash, allowing it to be viewed the same across different operating systems (Windows, Mac
OS, and Linux) without conversion, as long as the reader has Flash installed (although Scribd
has announced non-Flash support for the iPhone).
[24]
All major document types can be
formatted into iPaper including Word
docs, PowerPoint presentations,PDFs, OpenDocument documents, OpenOffice.org
XML documents, and PostScript files.
All iPaper documents are hosted on Scribd. Scribd allows published documents to either be
private or open to the larger Scribd community. The iPaper document viewer is also
embeddable in any website or blog, making it simple to embed documents in their original
layout regardless of file format. Scribd iPaper required Flash cookies to be enabled, which is
the default setting in Flash.
[25]

On May 5, 2010, Scribd announced that they would be converting the entire site to HTML5 at
the Web 2.0 Conference in San Francisco.
[26]
TechCrunch reported that Scribd is migrating
away from Flash to HTML5. "Scribd co-founder and chief technology officer Jared Friedman
tells me: 'We are scrapping three years of Flash development and betting the company on
HTML5 because we believe HTML5 is a dramatically better reading experience than Flash.
Now any document can become a Web page.'"
[27]
In July 2010Publishers Weekly wrote a cover
story on Scribd entitled "Betting the House on HTML5."
[28]

Scribd has its own API to integrate external/third-party applications.
[29]

Since 2010, Scribd has been available on mobile phones and e-readers, in addition to personal
computers. As of December 2013, Scribd is available through the app store on iOS and
Android smartphones and tablets, the Kindle Fire, and the Nook.
Reception[edit]
Scribd has been praised by several newspapers and magazines, including The New York
Times, Fast Company, Forbes, and The Wall Street Journal.
[30]
In 2013, the company was
dubbed the "Netflix for ebooks"
[9]
by Wired, and is a known pioneer of the "all-you-can-read"
model for ebooks.
[31]

According to Scribd, more than 80 million readers from over 100 countries use the site on a
monthly basis. Their library includes more than 100,000 subscription books from 900+
publishers, and over 40 million documents and books have been uploaded to the site. Scribd
readers have access to books by famous authors like Kurt Vonnegut, Paolo Coelho, and Meg
Cabot.
Notable users of Scribd include Virginia senator Mark Warner,
[32]
former California
gubernatorial candidate Meg Whitman, New York Times DealBook reporter Andrew Ross
Sorkin, All Things D Reporter Kara Swisher, the U.S. Federal Communications
Commission (FCC), Red Cross, UNICEF, World Economic Forum, United Nations Economic
Commission for Europe, The World Bank, Ford Motor Company, Hewlett-
Packard, Samsung and the Hasmonean High School Living Torah.
Accusations of copyright infringement[edit]
Scribd has often been accused of copyright infringement. In March 2009, Scribd launched a
"copyright management system" and has made upgrades to its system including the reported
addition of OCR. The New York Times reported in May 2009 that Scribd was
hosting pirated works by authors such as Ursula K. Le Guin, J.K. Rowling, and Stephen
King.
[33]

In September 2009, American author Elaine Scott alleged that Scribd "shamelessly profits from
the stolen copyrighted works of innumerable authors."
[34]
Her attorneys Joe Sibley and Kiwi
Camara sought class action status in their efforts to win damages from Scribd for allegedly
"egregious copyright infringement."
[35][36]
On May 11, 2009, Motoko Rich, writing in the New
York Times, reported on Scribd's hosting of pirated works. Sibley Camara filed a class action
lawsuit against Scribd, accusing it of calculated copyright infringement for profit.
[37]
The suit
was dropped in July 2010.
[38][39]

In 2007, one year after its inception, Scribd was served with 25 Digital Millennium Copyright
Act (DMCA) takedown notices.
[40]
The total number of DMCA notices that have been served to
the company is unknown, but, on 8 January 2013, a single author Steven Saylor notified Scribd
of 17 unauthorized uploads of his copyrighted work.
[41]

Controversies[edit]
In March 2009, the passwords of several Comcast customers were leaked on Scribd. The
passwords were later removed when the news was published by The New York Times.
[42][43][44]

In July 2010, GigaOM reported that the script of The Social Network movie was uploaded and
leaked on Scribd; it was promptly taken down per Sonys DMCA request.
[45]

Following a decision of the Istanbul 12th Criminal Court of Peace, dated 8 March 2013, access
to Scribd is blocked for Internet users in Turkey.