c

c

c

PRUEBA DE HIPÓTESIS
|  ||  
|  | 

|           
  !"! #    !"  !$   
%!!& %  
  !" !&   !!$     
!"! '!(! )    
#!(! 

•  

cc  

c
c

º  

INDICE.
c
c
 cc  
c

  
cc 
ccccc 
 !cc c cc  

c 
 

c  c"c   #c 
! cc  $ c"c    c%
# cc &  c c
&
 cc c' 
!
c c c c c    

c  c   $ c c   !&c 
c c c' 
c$cc  

c c cc()c *c+ 
c,-.c/ 
01c1cc2ccc34c1c5cc67 
,-.cc68
 
.c6 
 ! 9&cc6
c

p p ppp   

pp p 
  

p  p p  
p
p   

p
p    

cc  

c
c

º  
TEORIA DE DECISION ESTADISTICA

Objetivos.
'c Conocer los principios básicos de las pruebas de hipótesis.
'c Como utilizar las pruebas de hipótesis para comprobar una media o
proporción.
'c ¦as suposiciones de cada uno de los procedimientos de prueba de
hipótesis, como evaluarlos y las consecuencias si se infringen seriamente.

Decisiones estadísticas
|     
        
 
  
  
   
 

 

     
      |   
     
    
 
     

            

    

  
       
           
    

        

 
  

Hipótesis estadísticas 
  
          

! 

  "    

   #     

      

       

       
|    
  
      
      
   
  

Hipótesis nulas
|    
 
   
      

    
 
 
   
 
     

       
    
 
         
    !     $%& 
      

    
 " #   
                 

  
!             
   
'  
     
 
 "(       
     
 
È  

p p ppp   

pp p 
  

p  p p  
p
p   

p
p    

cc  

c
c

º  

Hipótesis alternativas

Ú                    
     
     

     $%&       
  
$%)*%& 
+%&,            
È    
          
  
-   
               

       

  
      
     
         

  
 
    !       
  


     
    

" 
          

 
    

   
    
   ! 
   

  
     
"    

.%     


  
/0      
      

      
        
 

, 
  
  
                
   
               

  
      
   
           
             
       
    

Errores tipo I y tipo II

-              
                 
    

 
1-   

 

c
c
c
rETODO¦OGIA DE ¦A PRUEBA DE HIPOTESIS
HIPOTESIS NU¦A Y A¦TERNATIVA 

c 
c34c1c 5c3c:-;c:c<3c=>c?-:>cc:c4c
3c @-c :?:c 1c 3c 4:c c ,->c 3c 5c :c 4c c 
,::c1c:ccA3cc:c@c?3:1c1:31->ccA3c<?:cA3c 
c -1c 1c 1c c 1c '+c <->c c A3c c c :c -1c ::c
::c 
c 5c 1c A3c c @-c 4:c c <3c c c :?::c 1c c -c
1-c 5c 3c c    
-c c 3c 1c 3c A3>c c c 1c
-1cc=-4cc
c
; ´   

p p ppp   

pp p 
  

p  p p  
p
p   

p
p    

cc  

c
c

º    

cc1cA3ccc:3c:c ?-:c1c c -3>cc 5c 3cc:4c
:c 0-c 1c c 4:c c 1=:c 1c -3c c 3;c c 5:c ?:c 
4c1cc:c1c1cc?:c1=ccA3cc31c41cc 
c 1c c 1c 1c c -3c 1:c A3c c 5c c ?>c :c 54@c c 
?-:cA3c14cc:c 

-c A3c c :?:c 3c 5c 3>c -40c c 1-c 3c 5c 
cA3c14cc:ccc5c3ccc?c c     
; c 
3ccc5c3È ccc1-.c
c
c 

; ´   

REGIÓN DE RECHAZO Y ACEPTACIÓN.  

c 143:c -3c c 1c 1=:c c 1c -3c c 11c c 1c <>c 3c 1c 
:5;c(c:c-1c<c1c:=:*cc3c1c::c  

cccccccccccccccccccccccc   

(!"  $
'  !! 

(!"  $ 

(!"  $
'  !!

c
c 

cc1=:c1c34cA31ccc::>cc:5:cc5c3c

p p ppp   

pp p 
  

p  p p  
p
p   

p
p    

cc  

c
c

º   

cc1=:c1c34cA31cc c<c1c :5;>c31c:5;c c 5c 3c 
cc:c::3cA3cc-1c4:cc1c'+c<-c
c 
c<c1c:5;cc:-c1c c c 1c1=:c1c34c:c -3c:c 
411c 1c c c :c 1c A3c c 5c 3c c :c c -@c 44c
A3c c c c c c c 5c 3c c ?c c c >c c 3c c 1c 
1=:c 1c 34c A31c 1c 1c c <c 1c :5;>c c 5c 3c c :5;c 
A3cccc:c411c1cccc5c3cc:c
c
c 
c 5c c c c ::3c 41c c :5;c c 5c 3c
31ccc1cc?-:c1cc-3cBc3?:c1:c1cA3cc?>c 
c:5;cc5c3cc
c 
cc-1<=c1c34c1c5>cc5c3cc:5;c:31cc1:c
-c 3<c A3c c -@c 44c A3c c :c A3c c 5c c 
c 
-4<>ccc1c:5;cc5c3cc:-34cA3cc:c
c
c
VA¦OR CRÍTICO DE¦ ESTADÍSTICO DE PRUEBA.  

c<:c34:ccc-1<=c1c34c1c5c1:cc1-1cA3c 
c 44c c A3c c 5c 3c c :>c :11c c ?-:c :41c c
-3c
c
RIEGOS DE ¦A TOrA DE DECISIONES A¦ UTI¦IZAR ¦A rETODO¦OGÍA DE ¦A PRUEBA. 

c3;cc1=:c1c-3cc-c1:c4cc@-c4:>c 
Bcc<c1c <c3c::3cA3:1cc:c c -1<=c1c34c
1c5>c31c:-c1cc1c.ccccccccc
c
c
c 
cccccc:31cc:5;cc5c3cÈ 
c1c:ccc
c14=c:5;c c4411c1cA3ccc3ccc6ccCc
cc
ccccccc:31ccc:5;cc5c3cÈ c1c?cc 

c14=c:5;c c4411c1cA3ccc3cccccEc
c
c
c
c 
cc1c<?::c(C*c c4411c1c:-c3ccc>c11cccCcc(c 
c <<c ?c -D:3*>c c 1-c :-c c 1c <?::c 1c 1=:c 1c 
34c 1:->c c c c c c :c c 1:1c c c 1c <c A3c @c
p p ppp   

pp p 
  

p  p p  
p
p   

p
p    

cc  

c
c
13cc:ccc:5;cc34c1c5>cc<c1c:-c3cccc>cCc 
@c1:-c4,c3c:c
c 
?:c1c:?;cc:--c1cc 4411c1c3cccc(6c2cC*cc
1-c:?:c1c:?;cc -3:cc677Fcc:?:c1c:?;c 
13:ccc1c:?;cc:43cc1c:?;c
c
c 
c:?:c1c:?;>c6c2cC>cBcc4411c1cA3cc5c3cÈ cc
c 
c:5;c:31cc:ccc14c:5;ccc1c:?;c1c3c34c1c
c
5cc(6IC*c677Fc
c
c  
c4411cc1c:-3cc1cccc1cc-1c1cEc(c 
c<<c-D:3c4*cc1?:c1ccc>cc:3c31c:c-1cc 
::cC>cc411c1c:-c3cc1ccc11c1cc1?:cA3cBc 
ccc50:ccc1c@-c4:c -cc-c?:c:c
1?:c<1cA3cA3G>ccc1?:cA3cBcccc50:cc 
c 1c @-c 4:c c <1>c Ec c A3Gc c ,->c c c -1c 
4:c11cc1c7c<->cBc3cA3Gc411c(E*c1cA3c113;:c 
c -1c A3c c 5c :-41c 1c '+c c c c c c 1?:c c c c
50:ccc1c@-ccA3G>cc411c1cA3cc:-c3cccc 
c -ccc -1>cc c -1c4:ccc11c1c'Hc<->c31cc
3c4411c1c:-c3ccccc::3cA3cc-1c4:cc1=c
1c'+c<-c
c       

cc:--c1cc4411c1c3cccc(6IE*cc
1-c:c1c3c34c1=:c
c
c c     

ccc4411c1cA3cc:5:cc5c3c
c:31cc?cc14=c:5;c
c
c 
   
      
´ 
      c c 4c c 3c c 
31c1c1c1:c4c(c:5;È cc:5;cÈ *cA3c31c-cc
:3A3c34c1c5c11c1cc1:c:?:>c31c1=c:-c
3c1c1cc1c>cc4c4c3c1cc1cc1c::3c::c
c
c 

3:cc
c
c
c
c
c    

c

 
ccccccccccccccccÈ c#  ccccccccccÈ c9 
c
cc
cc
c cc:5;cccccccÈ cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc1:c::ccccccccccccccc
c cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc ?;cI6ICccccccccccccccccccc(cc*JEc
p cp ppp   

pp p 
  

c:5;ccccccccccccÈ ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc:c::c 
p  p p  
p
p 
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc(cc*JEcccccccccccccccc:J6cIEc  

p
p   

º   

cc  

c
c

º  

c 
c ?-c 1c 13:c c 411c 1c :-c 3c c c c :c c 3-c c 
-Gc 1c c -3c c c <>c c -3c <1c -c 1:c :3c
1?:cA3Gccc50:cc@-c4:cc3cc1c
Cc11>c3-cc-Gc1c c -3c13:@cEc c=cc :-cc1c1c c 
34c c 1:c A3c c 5c 3c c ?c 
c -4<c -c Bc 3c =-c 
c3c:3>ccc?:cc1:c1cA3cc<1c14ccc-3c-1c
c
PRUEBA Z DE HIPOTESIS PARA ¦A rEDIA (ɐ CONOCIDA) 

31cc::cc1:c@1>c)>cccc4:cc3c143:c->c
31c3;c c34c $cc c-Gc1c c -3ccc4c<1c:-ccA3c 
<c?:cc-c1c=-c:c c:3:c1?cc      
c1-cc1?:cA3cBccc-1c-c®cccc-1c4:cKc
:31cc::cc1:c@1c)c
c
c
c  c$cc  

c c cc !"#$#"%&'(
c
c
c   

c

cc
cc
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c 
c1-1cccc@1c1cc-1>cccA3c$ccc1?:cA3c 
Bcc®ccKcc311c1cc@1c
c
c 
01c1cc::ccc34c1c5c
c 
cc:=:ccBc:-cc$c1;1c(c1:>cc311c1c
1:c@1*c
c
c

p p ppp   

pp p 
  

p  p p  
p
p   

p
p    

cc  

c
c

º  

Por ejemplo: 

c 31c 3;c 3c c 1c <?::c 1c 7%>c c -Gc 1c c <c 1c :5;c c 1c 
7%3c A3c c <c 1c :5;c c 11c c 1c :c 1c c 143:c (c c
1-c    *>cc11cc7%cc1cc<3cc1c8%c:1c3c 
c<c1c:5;c1c78%ccc:1c:c1cc143:c-cc:-c31cc
3c@c:3-31c78%c4,ccc:=:c?cc3c@c:3-31c1c7/H%c4,cc 
c ::c 3c c :31c :c c 4c 1c 143:c -c 1;1c 
:3-3>ccc:=:cA3c11cc<c1c:5;cc::ccI6/'c 
cLc6/'c
c 
cc1c$c-cA3cLc6/'c-cA3cI6/'c1:cA3cc®c@c-3c,1c1c 
cKc'+c5;1>cccA3c=c -3c:c44cA3ccc3c1cc 
cÈ ?3c11c  

cccccccccccccccccccccccc    

)*  

78%c 

78%c     

7c
L6/'c
I6/'c 
<c1c:5;c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc <c1cc:5;ccccccccccccccccc<c1c:5;c
c
#c::c
c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc'+cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccMc
c
c 
cc>cc<c1c1:c.c
c 
:5:cÈ cc$cNcI6/'Oc
cc$cPcIc6/'Oc 
cc:>cc:5:cc5c3c
c
p p ppp   

pp p 
  

p  p p  
p
p   

p
p    

cc  

c
c

º  

3<c A3c c -3c 1c 8%c :,c 1c :c 1A3c 3c -1c -3c 1c ®c JH8%c
<-cA3cc1:c@1c1cc4:cc1c6%c<-c;1cc:3:cc
c
c
$cJc®IcKcJcH8%I'+cJc6%7c  

c
cc c
c  

c 
3c A3c c 1=:c 1c 34c $c Jc 6%7c c :3c c I6/'c c 6/'>c 31c c 
:5;cÈ c
c
c
c   

(!"  $
'  !! 

(!"  $ 

(!"  $
'  !! 

r todo del valor Ȃp para la prueba de hipótesis    

c        

      +  
c 
           
; 
 
c
c
c
c
c 
cI>cA3cc-31cc1-cc1c<?::c41>c 
ccc-@cA3GcccA3cc31c:5;c;   

c<c1c1:cc:5;c; cc-01c1cc2c.c
p p ppp   

pp p 
  

p  p p  
p
p   

p
p   

! 

cc  

c
c

º  

c 
ccc 
ccc2cc-cc<3cA3cC>cc:5:cc5c3c 
ccc 
ccc2cc-cA3cC>c:5:cc5c3c
c
c 

ccc2cc4,>c:c; 

 c
c
c 
c:-1c -,cc -01c1cI>c31c4ccc 1c -1cc <3cc 
'+c<-cc1=:c1c34c3c:-c31c3cc$c1c-@c6%7cc31c 
c:5;c c 5c 3c -@cA3c6%7cc -cA3cc c::c3c1c -@c
6/'cccNcA3ccc::c?c1cI6/'c 
c3;cc-01c1cc2ccc34c1cc1c:>c:3cc4411c
1c4c3c1=:c1c34c$c<3cc-@cB-cA3c6%7c311c1c1:c 
@1c :c :c 1c 3c 143:c -c 1;1c c c 4>c c 
:c::3cc4411c1c3cc$c-cA3c6%7c,3c:cc4411c
1c3cc$c-cA3cI6%7c-3cA3cc4411cA3c1c3cc$c?ccI
6%7cc1c77''+c c4411c1c3cc?cc6%7cc7/8ccc4411c
1c3ccc4c1c6%7cc6I7/8Jc77''+cccccc2cc34c1c:c 
c 77''+c L77''+J76'c 1c c ?-c c 4411c 1c 3c 31c <3c c -@c 
B-cA3cc41cc76'c -c76'cc-cA3ccCJc77%>cc:5;cc
5c3c
c
c
c
c 
 cc  c

c 
c c cc  

c  $  c c
c 
 cc#
c2cc
c c
c cc5c3È ccc5ccÈ c
6c 

c 
::0ccc1c<?::cCccc-Gc1cc-3>cccc1c<?::c
8c
c c:?:c1c:31c:cc-:cc1cc<c1c:-cccc
c cccc4-c
c -cc1=:c1c34ccc143:c-c1c 
c
c 
c 
:cc1c:3ccc1c1=:c1c34cc::3ccc2cc
c%c -cc1:c1=:cc4;:cc::3c1-c 
ccc2cc
c -cc<3cC>cc:5:cc5c3È cccc2cc-cA3ccC>c:5:cc
c 5c3c:31cc?c.cQ   ,  -  

;   
c  
   

       

+    c
c
c
c 
:5:c3c5c3c3;1cc-01c1cIcOc
c

p p ppp   

pp p 
  

p  p p  
p
p   

p
p   

 

cc  

c
c

º  

Ejemplo:

c 
1c c <c 1c 3c 3c 1c :-1c @1c R3c 1-c c c -c 1c 
cc1c3c1cc-1?:1c13ccD-c-c:c:ccc1c3c
-11c4:cc1c%c-3ccc1ccB:c>c3cA3c 
c 1:c @1c 1c c 4:c c 1c 68c -3c ::c 3c -3c 1c 8%c 
1c 13c 3c 1c 1c 3c 5c c -1c -c c 1c %6c -3c 3:c c
-01c 1c ::c c 1c c B:c c -:1c :-c c 1-c c Bc 
1:c1cA3cc-c1cc-1cccc3c1cc5c-1?:1c13c 
c-c:ccc3cc-1c4:cc1c%c-3c
c
6c c5c3c1:cA3cc-1c4:cc5c:-41c:c:cc
1c%c-3ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
c
c
c
È .cKJc%c
È .cKScc%c
c 
1c::c3c-Gc1cc-3ccJ8%cc,c3cc1c<?::c1c77%cc
(1:>cCJ77%*c 

::c c 1=:c 1c 34c 1c 3c A3c ::c )>c 31c 3;c c
143:c-ccc1=:c1c34c$c 
:cc1cc::3c®ccJ%6c1cc:3:c
c
$cJc®IcKcJc%6I%cJc8%7c  

c
cc c
c  

c 
c:cc4411c1c4c3c1=:c1c34c$Jcc-@cB-cA3c
8%7c 311c 1c 1:c @1c :c :c c :c 1c 3c 143:c -c 
1;1c 31c ::3c c 4411c 1c 3c c $c -c A3c 8%7c ,3c :c c 
4411c1c3ccc$c-cA3I8%7ccc1cA3cc4411c1c3cc$c 
c14,c1cI8%7cc77'8ccc4411c1c3ccc14,c1c8%7cc7//+c 
cc>cc4411c1cA3c3ccc:-c1c-@c8%7cc1c6I7//+J77'8c 
=>cccc1cc34cc1c77'8cLc77'8cc<3cc7768c
c
c 
3c A3c c c 2c c <3c c 7768PCJ77%c c :5;c c 5c :3c A3c 
Bc 1:c 1c A3c c -c 1c c c 1c 3c 1c c 5c -1?:1c :c 
:cc3cc1c-11c4:c1c%cc-c1cc-1c1cc:c 
5cc-cA3cc-c1c
c
p p ppp   

pp p 
  

p  p p  
p
p   

p
p   

 

cc  

c
c

º  

CONC¦USION:

c
¦     
  
  
   

      
  
   
 

      
 c ::c     
 
  

      

c

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
BIB¦IOGRAFÍA. 

&
 cc "cc c 
! c  "cTc
 
c 
ccU!  
cc68+I8Hc
c 


 c c c 
  c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c

p p ppp   

pp p 
  

p  p p  
p
p   

p
p   



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