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THE MEASURE OF MAN HUMAN FACTORS IN DESIGN HENRY DREYFUSS ce . see tr won (tes saree 4 ‘tty ete NOISE ca zr TEMPERATURE. (aeenes) S205 aegren Fabvenei avd contined silence ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA — STANDING ADULT MALE ACCOMMODATING 95% OF U.S. ADULT MALE POPULATION es 339 12 182 20 Cc Lie. aed} ‘ifs sae Acs | 23 span—_63.5" okimbo— 349° 66 HENRY DREYFUSS Atl | 76.5 total 6 740" r a $e ie ea" a4 we : T¢ 23 = 3 “ y > fiiet! 3 et Ligieye |e L Ee ‘sy z = = 46 su os 5.0 fet S66 Lire 18.2 2 sas (20. Foun. ° 138: 63 2 2 t $ reo || gp coun g 2? ae ? ike ! 4097 Cs 383 fas 302 Apes 366 31 4 + 23 ree 46 “ 40. AR hea winter 2 2 thing dynamic link system 30 33 shown 38 f 2.7 32 abse-b 42 shoe weight 1619.8. ‘span 70.8" ‘kimbo 30.4" Lae weight 208.9 La. ‘spon 76.6" ‘okimbo_42.4" ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA ~ STANDING ADULT MALE la ‘ACCOMMODATING 95% OF US. ADULT MALE POPULATION 50.%tile 97.5 %tile es— 46-4 sg TSH Pao 10 £747] | 76.5 totot a = 7208 eae fT 69.1 ~ ‘ 5o4 22 ‘4 Pe Fas e / 6 644 = 7 ~ . aa Tt a At? 78, a “ 4 eu sou a8 La t 69s) sao. Be Tee see or] 6.0) us 546 * - we ~ at 503 45: » ' 7.7- ' \ wet 3 ofr NY oF . 28 os4 x av 9 409 C8. ‘ eo 393 65} Nay bs 3e2! oo Se 734 360] aes \e se ; aN \, sas! KS Ba) a ” X a 238 of 82 Re ‘s 204 ae s “ c 6 aN ae 3 . st \ 13 98 t comer! ronge | ce ztox 40 46 ae normal ¢ of H Tegs stonding voties 27 3 ao ss 38 ho — 428 datum, Le 26 shoe 7 IF ios: a ha a3 arctic chest cre. 34.4" chest cite. 30.7 chest cire.439" shoe waist circ. 27.1" waist circ. 31.7" pr circ, 38.8" hip circ. 33.7" ip elre.—— 37.7" hip elre.— a2" © 1966 HENRY DREYF i ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA — STANDING ADULT FEMALE {ACCOMMODATING 95% OF US. ADULT FEMALE POPULATION 50. %ti eo 428 28 cast 25 q sete i awl 82, i yn! ser, sos? (CY e ¢ a = _ « “ 16.8 } 2 as [ae | us 22 ae 197 Lg ar fp Tool 20 430 is han ae ¥ au eat Beye is . “JL we Fas 120: I At & fut woe 5 : 103 ‘ Z toe L 8 HT, a ose 8a To 357] = m= re4 per x s00] 704 aq 2 4 2 253 2 i s ‘| Bae! nal 12 . me vee 40 37 as s ; 1 dynamic. Vink wyetem 2 20 a2 J 8 8 = atu 3 36 40. weight 950 8. weight 134.9 L0, M1980 toon 58.8" Spon 647" Spon 70.2" skimbo—3 kimbo 307" ckimbo— seo" Ii) ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA — STANDING ADULT FEMALE ACCOMMODATING 95% OF U.S. ADULT FEMALE POPULATION easy head movement a normal ¢ of leg standing o* datum bust __ 48.0 waist waist hip__33.0" hip 46.0" ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA - MALE AND FEMALE CHILOREN top figure in-box is dato for boys, lower figure is for girls, ond one figure opplies to both. Age HW. AB C DEF GH I J KLMNOPQRS TUVWXYZ 6 o es Tezpomss Se S4S7I5716.1 [82]z9] |szesfe. [5] pease Feels] fesves Hi3|te7|s.t|\aa|3-lena|iaa|se| tet is|'silte| [Sasl2a3| te. [re|s. ler] [281 85), | a iigleosttez|iss|33|sislisz2|e, | |iz9/27| |37|!22| eelze| |seatsasiir, |relsaize| zal aa 16 Jess|ii8.|11.3)t9.9)149|145/3. (2aail4sise| |i2iji2e| |S7|117| 9.}7 | jssajzaa|iss|73)5. leo. 15 Jeseiiz2 uu. jeoalisslis2|3s|si [te 7/so| liee|izs! |az|tol 27[z5| _[ssalzea) si |z2 Jesaiirs.|""" lis7|taa|ias 3. [2ss|ia2|sa! i3| 8. || [33.23 se Bs ia hcalis2lts.1jtasiaziea7}iaifso],, nal 23)72|5, [s2i|28:|i6. [z4/siJ6a) e2|ta3/&. (geste, [57 3216] [seazealts. [73\5. ler 1s (eos) 26] iss] eesiasiee] _[h. lo7| eelea| boatzsalissiza|s. [es] Jseei(60,taz|9. [tas] fsziisee7) [tt it Isuslozalis. |72\5. /65| a io (e54 esliog|iz, [aleals.er3ha, fs) [os] lost Sale| iesalias|r3 {6 ss. Solos |trs|iaaiiss™!\ete® [5%] [ioe log] 83/9) Bosieesiiar tales, 11 a2) z]slesiea}iz7ls, pele sehocioz Ison es2|esalta. [z3)5. Iss5| 75/104 |'6.6|I34|129|°- fassiias 6 7/"*105| leal?® fosalas.i|i¢4| 7 fa ee 10 (es) ZHIIa5 ep 20] Eesizasiia. 73/5, [sa3| Toltoa) Bs 24a [71 a) 9 (24) eafiar Bsas 57) Jos zrjes7|issir2|e. 3 fs2.| ealta.| le3a|115 [a ralesalis. [ alSs( 28) 6. lie slaas] 504) saltos|ias| tia [57] ir. [23's . 8 Joo Sritoaltea|"S| M4 27 P27) 11 ]34) 82] 92 5 peelzea|iea|r lea) f4az! 53 [107], 6[108) lzrsiio-|57] iesijze.ifz, [ra [5. 7 Jara| 81-103)"5|109|!°5|28|2tsl107 es feszier7|I3 [eslas) 6 [ss alia lasleselzi]its [zi lea las Aalto. las" |ei."|ns [aala, 3 oa|n 7, [aa 5 (82 23/5,| Paseeaiio [eelee 38]r04] lesstissl las) 4 [rool Seliog esi] 19.1/10-Jer|aa, 3 SO %TILE YOUTHS 585] 6 mo. favz [2421 1 mo. 0 [138] ern * sable hi, O=choirht. Il limit of color diseriminetion (Varies with color @ light intensity.) BASIC VISUAL DATA visual limit | monocular eosy heod lefteye ——-\ Vision imit of movement, as'maiionga-} ‘symbol recognition yee Sea nce o areas} ge \ opt.eye ‘gccurate fotatton Seeing crea 30-60 normal viewing angles Fight eye to prevent reflection on eye: glosses oveid light sources in these areas. visual limi max left eye a rotaiton locate emergenc; controls within $0" color limit ae easy head movement ‘upper limit mox. heod of visual field movement. o so-ss* OP max. eye rotation opt. viewin 3e° zone for ° ¢ displays, opteeye rotation in. cut off F COeKpITS. iy limit of eotor discrimination 30° 3.5% men @ 0.2% women cannot be relied upon for signal detection 54.0% U.S. population over 6 yeors of age wear glasses. 'A 4" min.focal distance ~ age 20. 8 75" min. focal distance “age 40. € IS" min occeptable reading distance for dispioys © late" normal viewing dist. ~cathode ray tubes. E 20%min. recommended distance for display: F 6 4 2e7max.dist. s1d. displays based on reach 40" min. focal distance ~ age 60. ‘no dist. limit if display is designed to accord. 35 Is best for color discrimination, > 66 is poor. Il PEDAL BAR FOR USE BY EITHER FOOT FOOT MEASUREMENTS AND BASIC FOOT CONTROLS ACCELERATOR TYPE PEDAL, ‘90-160 normal operating position. 975 %lile female’ {foot is approx.equal insize foav.man. overage mon shown for scale preter ths type foot pu buttons. e 5.25" oph min locating Stl \pivat here provides treadle eve for blind teaching Getion for fine foot control. potural ongle for right foot ORAKE TYPE PEDAL > oops DALE ORaKE TYPE | S min eet |- random operation Ss min. 6% i foot ns 2*min. a*opt|= sequential operation =I foot 4.25" 4.75" pedal spacing min. pedal opt. pedal. Foot PUSH BUTTONS reter bal of foat to erent, feel aperation. ~(D)—.s*-2" da. Som pecapetn, “CD pedal force F Greonlyif Both hands are occupied footbutons 4 Ib. min.-no resting foot. Gre susceptible to accidental activation, tolbimin.- i foot reste 20 b.max.ankle move.oniy| RIGHT FOOT~ AV. MAN 20-50 1b. leg movement S2s‘arctic boot] “set FOOT PUSH BUTTONS Sao] soot width] =— 42 average sf min.cisph, Pemin bovis 2ghmax oF mon: ——= de sel Eat econ TH ‘ot a t2 min. ——l fotinimin foot ress. uz) | ee view men WOMEN shoe | 28 percentites-~| 25%] sox [ors | 25%] som [975% eng Bee fcottength | 96" | 105 | ua | 6 | 96 | 10s ‘nkle width footwidth | 357] ae | 42] 31 | 36] 40 instep length 69" | 7.6 8.3 heelwigh | 2."] 26 | 29 = ‘ankle wiaih | 27°] 30 | 33 = heel width © 1960 HENRY DREYFUSS lst ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA — ADULT MALE STANDING AT CONTROL BOARD rer S 720" std. door ht. curiliory pan min. calling eae ee ‘ unimportant displays Mere ® ) ) AGES recommend manual & moving pointer ‘COUNTERS ‘99 % accuracy in reading Use for exact data only. rate: 2 nos. per sec. max. read left to right, ‘nos. increase——— Qoingup (2) =] equal + deum spacing yseblonk tobe amin. tla £775 ) stockwis zeros. 42 Pioincrease frame to be same color as drums minimize frame. shadows Teast eaunt nos. to snap into posi ‘SCALES “/fumericel progressions 3 index POINTERS max. index ease tip wiats —_t net emaler thon fot greater = nin length {han the major tiptocenter Index. NUMERALS AND LETTERS ll nos, & letters to read vertically. Sa.n. prefer files on a Bingte tine, -aBpane! tit future or — PW “188 mela GRA sta ‘Bae'minoe cond. req, sroke ratio: 1 Dockground contrast Lin) Wind ‘pointer color | Min.tight #1 ft. minu(in) max.(in) [0958 [.018S. fo match critical markings... [oass].oges [sess [015] | paint bolonce | 'aiees- instrUction mes [021 §] 0868 ‘oass[ ons} | tomatch dialface moving morkers... [081s ].0a¢s| 8 equals viewing distance in feet S$ equals viewing distance in feet MULTI- REVOLUTION OIALS SIGNAL LIGHTS: DIAL ARRAY inter diols label on top 25"dia. good | orderof opt. pointer position Errore inreading are Nigh orwithin. Hoetght ior check‘réading limit to 2 pointers seronere | min.si ace 75, - 2nd, for 360° me Szdia. sid, choice ‘seole Tsmaster or Fett, ‘emerg.signol dork background increases ef flashing 17 flosh rote min. 4 A signals —— 3-5 persec. brightness oatime: 2 -ssignal Ge see in. us opt, long scale” ‘use sub-dia! meron aie sizes ingicater os for precision | use green for satisfactory eter ont covalder ently counter for ‘expand a use fed for unsatisfactory. th Sroct date Giat Intervet. | use amber for impending focslumes. @symmeiry. unsatisfactory, manuals to have eelative positions © 1960 HENRY OREYFUSS BASIC CONTROL DATA BALL GRIPS. ROTARY KNOBS ‘use ("for non critical settings. Bee 2 ne eal seltings 378tmin. 25 low force| torque: 4.5 In-0z. max. < ("dia. 00 in-oz. max. > I"dio, HIGH TORQUE KNOBS for 5 finger grab 7 max. profiles for force: 5 avoid 3 min Sand 6 Beongs. arming minapoce HOE, torque: 50 in. 1b. max. PUSH BUTTONS 25 min. finger —~j 75-125 fin i25-20 iE Bin E 31 1b ma 3-2 foot iy 4-20 1b. -f os nef io-20 1b: if foor ‘Tests onit. 125 min. ~ (0 max defl.-no gloves 28-216 gloves, 5 -2.0 sho vo 240 boots * not required © 1080 HENRY pReyrue® ‘< sorrotate > sorrotate| CYLINDRICAL GRIPS. lever handles rab bors and ifting handles ovoid finger otching also side clear. BAR KNOBS: Se Eon sin. || Sea tee TAzsmin, Se! . Simin. max: 3.0max. resistonce: 12 or min. - 48 o2.mex 3. of positions: 24 max Use robnd knob forrototion > 160" CRANKS for rotations more than 90° Lsttingers —]s75hend vom, | SE taper | roote i fend: | 5 fingers Bie, | ietnond St, min. radius 20,0" max." heavy load ‘45 max.-min-(oad, high speed resistance: 5 Ib.mox. “< 3,5" (0d. fotb.max. ~ Se" rad. PUSH BUTTONS — TOUCH SYSTEMS prefer vertical buttons, fig. 8 A I? opt 20°mOx. a-unor. 7] PSB +d A [as fe 4 operation rat 3 per see. i FLUSH PULLS for door, drawers etc. opening width: GANGED KNOBS sequential order assoc. displays "opt. serrate orknurl zimin refer inno. Spokes v i smi 2omox. 120+ resiston {ototion Sieiatee foavoid 30 Ibmox.-ihang — p2fting 30 IB.mox.— ehanas hands, TOGGLE SwiTcHES 125 min preter 5 = 25 min rr a78. & Fy ai {0 oz. min. 40 o2.max ‘Sin 2% mot. ‘min.~ gloves. or prefer 2 settings to 3 or 4 y BASIC CONTROL DATA,PART 2 ‘OPEN OR J HANDLE T HANDLE note: prefer ‘or stirrup hondles fo ovoid post 3i3pie ‘inn Hd on a0 aStoves bat, aS loves w= 125 up 0 15 1b w= 5'min.for over 40 Ib -S*min. for over 40 Ib side clear: 2 ¢ to wall side clear: 2" to wall AIRCRAFT HAND WHEEL FINGER RECESS PULL finger tip « 12-16" full finger: L25 mir curve to prevent finger tip 5" Catching of knees full finger 2 fing 7 fullfinger:2"min., 2° glove TRIGGERS PISTOL GRIP FOR TOOLS 25mine.Smox. break edges | &onsider shock mtg if recoll -38R. THUMB WHEELS SLIDE SwiTcHES ‘ ic it concave flat oe a Si 2min St conven gnc “EL ae ‘87 opt ‘serrations. iy 25 trovel ‘a ‘shorp serrotions’ note: avoid markings on whee! which are obscured by fingers ach HENRY DREYFY: ie RING PULLS Stingers Bfingers 1Omin, a Fieer FINGER TIP RECESSED PULL length of recess 3.5 for 4 fingers LEGEND SWITCHES 101045 o2. resistance 75min} Lin iSmox [zs * 78min* displ. ‘max Fttush itprotected cA Bsmox —_dorriers ~ ""25mox. *.56 ifnot recessed _if gloves ROCKER SWITCHES 75 min. 137 opt. STmin ‘BTopt. rockers can replace toggles they give o visual cue of operation Serration on surface not required lil ACCESS OPENINGS “INDICATES DESCRIPTION APPLIES TO DATA TABULATED BELOW ‘empty hand werk Cy | “Bedsior® | arose] Sage | exes manhole | clothes se LO J mintowrist [3559 sss0 | ose Frinove | preter pe clothes O | + ++ |srs0|szs0 |ezs0 26°10. | 30°to ceiing ond | gry | gato | see Ly [eevcted nna | 545 | asae | ra0s fsereata | wre | 220 | 320 Oo so | eo | aso tt |iese | 2esa | 3250 inserting object to wrist won noten | 021s | 22420 sexze sing oi seek Bier x i one Fond wag norh | roxse| — | — soccng sect two Ronde 7 OH anette tteog bey batch | ooxee | — | Tereach | feoch* 6-25"| vision | vision | vision m7 Toomey Fou crow thu | 20431 | 22x36 | 30430 om toebow| — [eetbed | otc 7 | | desea | re prone oecess | 27 | 20x20 | sone amtosrouieer] — | 30 | 50 we baw be cotwok [wees | wera | wars wt | ar] sq. | 0.5 sq. FINGERS normal pass | 22x76 | 30x80] 30x80 F bore |" gloves one finger | testy | ‘is"p poss sidewoys| 13x76 | 15 x20| 19x80 recessed pashbatton [0-980 | — 2oxae | 26x66 asiot | — to floor] to floor pressure hatch twist occess | 2.0 | 2.5*> eg: hold screw Foor @|o}o} O|O}o head nt | 20t0z4| 30x70 | 30x70 x60 head erect | 201024] 30x60) soxe0 Hipiplole|o)o/ojo|5)0/0/0/8\/0 pore | ovg. [orctic x70 | toes] toes occess shoe | boot to pedal | 4.sxns |a7xi2.7| 63x53 two men focing | 30x76 Bexa0 4 Tae eoch other 108. ore | militar bore y two men hheod passage] . passing | 42 x76 | 54x60 | 60x00 ost | us obreast toas| tose © i966 HENRY DREYFUSS [TTeomenrionas srracnr evan ERG. Go women 1 re"may oe neo) re lid) ‘THREE POSTURE WORK CHAIR EXECUTIVE AND CASUAL CHAIR KIGH CHAIR FOR STAND 6] RaULRoAD SEATING ‘AUTOMOBILE, TRUCK @ TANK a A) 1966 HENRY DREYFUSS imma | HERB il CONSOLES BICYCLES BICYCLING POSTURE-RACING, ADULT MALE sowrie LIOPSOAS MUSCLE Il GeicrcLE-ToP view tT BICYCLING POSTURE CRUISING, JUVENILE GROUP 14,118 8 6 YR. OLD BOYS pense view \ iy Je 35 as 4° 30¢FoR 6.0. ROL I5* FOR IA YR OLD sons 078 fi-tronsr 07s © 966 HENRY DREYFUSS | Samermen. FRONT VIEW XM Sel u J nl BICYCLING POSTURE- CRUISING ADULT MALE BICYCLE TOP View hl ENVIRONMENTAL TOLERANCE ZONES parts of air) l Sper Mees o, os" Cg Ve wr enerretotes noise TEMPERATURE (deciveis ) S30°F (degree Fahrenheit) ‘ovoid continued silence toma ELECTRICITY 60 CYCLE THE BAND BETWEEN THE CIRCLES INDICATES THE ZONE FROM COMFORT TO THE TOLER- ANCE LIMIT. OUTSIDE THIS LIMIT GREAT DISCOMFORT OR PHYSIOLOGICAL HARM IS EN- COUNTERED. OTHER FACTORS NOT SHOWN AND TO BE CONSIDERED ARE: INFRA-RED RADIATION, ULTRA-SONIC VIBRATIONS, NOXIOUS GASES, DUST, POLLEN, CHEMICALS @ FUNGI. ©) 1966 HENRY DeEYFSS THREE BASIC HUMAN BODY TYPES EXTREME VARIATIONS OF THE AVERAGE MAN INTHE USA, MOST MEN FALL SOMEWHERE IN BETWEEN THESE TYPES, ALL VALUES ARE TYPICAL RANGE MEASUREMENTS. [ | AVERAGE MAN t STATURE: 69. 30 iy" 288 te ECTOMORPH MESOMORPH ENDOMORPH © 1966 weney owerruss |B) is2) THREE BASIC HUMAN BODY TYPES EXTREME VARIATIONS OF THE AVERAGE MAN IN THE USA, MOST MEN FALL SOMEWHERE IN BETWEEN THESE TYPES. ALL VALUES ARE TYPICAL RANGE MEASUREMENTS, aeane hace MAN cy STATURE: 68.1" AVG, “ me er. SesTaTURE SMALL MAN ECTOMORPH MESOMORPH ENDOMORPH ul COMPARISON OF THE 2.5 PERCENTILE U.S. ADULT MALE IN SUMMER ATTIRE AND THE 97.5 PERCENTILE IN HEAVY WINTER CLOTHES. ‘A DESIGN WHICH INCLUDES THESE 2 MEN WILL ACCOMMODATE 95 PERCENT UNDER MOST CLIMATIC CONDITIONS, dimensions include oll types of Army geor, heavy winter flying clothes (A.F.), ond civilian work and street clothes ressure suils and heoted suits are nol included. 5 975 PERCENTILE dote on arctic clothing is uncompressed. loor—no slump L2*normal slump 10.5 sofety hat 9.0 helmet 2.5 PERCENTILE NO arctic parka hood 65.4" 10 floor 213" enould wigth re arctic 16.5 shoulder 23" orctic sit 16.2 hip width 70 sitting 132 sitting 5.9 knee wisth Lo heel ht 13 heel nt ‘arm spon___ 65.5" ‘orm akimbo spon 349° totat welgnt 1317 Ib, total weight va COMPARISON OF 2.5 PERCENTILE U.S. ADULT MALE IN SUMMER ATTIRE AND THE 975 PERCENTILE IN HEAVY WINTER CLOTHES. 26.0" erctic, uncompressed 132 seot width 16 shoulder wisth (65 elbow width 405" head to seo! __ 36" head to seot_ 122 chest depth gr 188 ertcwcomorensed na — 975 PERCENTILE Le to.8 shoe -| L143 boot =! mn RICTION- WASHER: PLANS FOR AN ARTICULATING TEMPLATE OF THE AVERAGE MAN SCALE: I"= 4" (1/4 FULL SIZE ) RECOMMENDED CONSTRUCTION: (A) CUT FIGURE COMPONENTS FROM CLEAR ACRYLIC PLASTIC ABOUT 0.40 TO 0.62" THICK, SMOOTHING EDGES. (B) USE SPACER WASHER TO REDUCE SCRATCH MARKS ON TEMPLATE AND TO PROVIDE UNIFORM FRICTION. SEVEN ARE REQUIRED ABOUT .004" THICK AND.375" DIA. RIVET COMPONENTS TOGETHER USING , GROMMETS WITH HOLES ATLEAST .094 DIA.FOR MARKING PIVOT POINTS. MOVE- MENT AT THE JOINTS SHOULD BE SNUG BUT FREE. ALSO NOTE OVERLAY PATTERN, TO GIVE FREE ARM MOVEMENT AND MAXIMUM STABILITY ON THE WORKING ‘SURFACE. NOTE: FIGURE IS DESIGNED TO ACCOMMODATE ‘SEATING AND STANDING POSTURE WITH- ‘OUT ALLOWANCE FOR SLUMP ORSHOES. PIVOT POINTS WERE CHOSEN FOR EASE OF CONSTRUCTION AND USE. THIS FIGURE MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED FOR RESALE. © 1966 HENRY DREYFUSS