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EL TIEMPO PASADO PERFECTO (THE PAST PERFECT TENSE)


Este tiempo verbal se forma con el pasado del verbo modal Have (HAD /hd/) ms el Participio Pasado (3ra. forma) de un verbo principal y se usa para describir una accin que ocurri antes que otra accin sucediera. Por lo tanto este tiempo no se usa en forma independiente, pues siempre va junto a una oracin expresada en pasado simple. De dos acciones pasadas, la que cronolgicamente ocurri primero debe ir en el Pasado Perfecto. Escuche, lea y aprenda Hans left at 8:15. You phoned at 8:25. Hans had already left when you phoned this morning. /hns had ordi lft wen i: fund is m:rni/ Hans ya haba partido cuando t llamaste por telfono esta maana The show started at 10:30. Paul arrived at the theater at 10:40. The show had already started when Paul arrived at the theater. /e shu had olrdi st:rtid wen p:l arrivd at e ater/ El espectculo ya haba comenzado cuando Paul lleg al teatro. The old man died at 11:25. The ambulance arrived a few minutes later. By the time the ambulance arrived, the old man had already died. /bai e tim e mbiulns arrivd e uld mn had olrdi did/ Cuando la ambulancia lleg, el viejo ya haba fallecido. Al igual que en el Pasado Contnuo, las expresiones de tiempo que acompaan al Pasado Perfecto, son aquellas clusulas compuestas por WHEN + S + PASADO SIMPLE: When you phoned this morning; When Paul arrived at the theatre; By the time the ambulance arrived. Compare: They were having lunch when you called. /i we:r hvi lntch wen i: k.ld/ Ellos estaban almorzando cuando t llamaste. (La accin no haba concluido) They had already had lunch when you called. /i had olrdi hd lntch wen i: k.ld/ Ellos ya haban almorzado cuando t llamaste. (La accin ya haba concluido) En la primera oracin, la accin expresada por el Pasado Contnuo todava se estaba realizando (They were having lunch) cuando la segunda accin ocurri (when you called), mientras que en la segunda oracin la accin expresada por el Pasado Perfecto ya haba concludo (They had already had lunch) cuando la segunda accin ocurri (when you called). La forma negativa se expresa con HAD NOT (o HADNT /hdnt/ ) ms un Participio Pasado y la forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de HAD con el sujeto. (Recuerde que en las oraciones negativas debe usar yet en vez de already). En las preguntas introducidas con una palabra interrogativa como what, where, how, etc., se debe seguir el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples. Lea, escuche y aprenda: Hans had not left yet when you phoned this morning. /hns had nt lft yt wen i: fund is m:rni/ The show hadnt started yet when Paul arrived at the theater. /e shu hdnt st:rtid yt wen p:l arrivd at e ater/ The old man hadnt died yet by the time the ambulance arrived. /i uld mn hdnt did yt bai e tim e mbiulns arrivd/ Had Hans left already when you phoned this morning? /had hns lft olrdi wen i: fund is m:rni/ Had the show started yet when Paul arrived at the theatre? /had e shu st:rtid yt wen p:l arrivd at e ater/ Where had they lived before they moved to Santiago? /war had i lvd bif:r i m:vd tu santigou/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT HAD YOU DONE? /wt had i: dn/ (Qu haba hecho ud.?)

EXERCISES Ex. 1. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verbs in the Past Perfect tense. 1. Mary already to the cinema when I arrived. (go) 2. They already the discussion when we entered the room.(start) 3. Bob just typing the report when the general called him to his ofce.(nish) 4. When the police arrived, the thief already . (disappear) 5. She said she there several times before. (be) 6. As soon as he opened the door, he noticed that someone his TV set. (steal) 7. The policeman told us that we the wrong road. (take) 8. They arrived only ten minutes after John . (leave) 9. By the time the remen arrived, the neighbours already the re. (put out 10.Mary already to bed when we arrived home last night. (go) Ex. 2. Complete the following sentences using the verbs provided either in the Simple Past or in the Past Perfect Tenses. 1. Robert (be) a taxi driver before he (become) a businessman. 2. Mr Smith (feel) a little better after he (take) the medicine. 3. The teacher (give, already) the test results when I (get) to class. 4. The detectives (leave) the place after they (collect) enough evidence 5. It was raining hard, but by the time the meeting (be) over, the rain (stop) 6. The show (begin, already) by the time we (get) to the theater, so we quietly (take) a seat in the back. 7. Millions of years ago, dinosaurs (roam) the earth, but they (become,already) extinct by the time man rst (appear) 8. The students (see, never) any of Renoirs paintings before they (visit) the art gallery. 9. Gloria almost missed her plane. All of the other passengers (board, already) by the time she (get) to the boarding gate. 10.Yesterday at a restaurant, I (see) John Palmer, an old friend of mine. I (see, not) him in years. At rst, I (recognize, not) him because he (lose) at least fteen kilos. Ex. 3. Change the following sentences into a) the negative, and b) the interrogative. Remember in the negative you must use YET instead of ALREADY. 1. Tom had already left the ofce. 2. Theyd already spent all the money. 3. Paul had already sent her a fax. 4. Jane had seen that movie twice. 5. The children had already had supper. 6. Mrs Bentley had gone to bed already.

Ex. 4. Ask questions using question words like What, Where, When, How, How long, etc. 1. John had eaten three sandwiches that evening. 2. Dr. Black had studied at Harvard University. 3. The engineer had graduated from UCLA in 1945. 4. Paul had sold his house the previous year. 5. The plane had taken off from JFK Airport at 23:25 6. Hed worked in the Army for 29 years when he became a general. 7. Theyd spent over US $ 3.000 before they arrived in Tokyo. 8. Bill had made the same mistake three times. 9. John had visited them that evening. 10. The girl had studied French at school.

Ex. 5. Translate the following sentences into English 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Ellos no haban estudiado all por mucho tiempo. Yo no haba visto un partido de crcket antes. Habas comido esto anteriormente? Por qu no habas escrito a nosotros antes? Ella no haba ledo ese libro an. Ellos haban visitado otros pases antes de venir a USA. Dnde haban estado ellos esa maana? Ella haba trabajado duro por mucho tiempo. Ella nunca haba estado en el extranjero antes. El dijo que haba estado muy ocupado ese da.

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