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Direct Speech (El estilo directo)

Cuando queremos informar exactamente de lo que otra persona ha dicho, utilizamos el


estilo directo. Con este estilo lo que la persona ha dicho se coloca entre comillas ()
y deber ser palabra por palabra.
Ejemplos:
I am going to London next week, she said. (Voy a Londres la semana que viene,
ella dijo.)
Do you have a pen I could borrow, he asked. (Tienes un bolgrafo que puedas
prestarme?, l pregunt.)
Alice said, I love to dance. (Alice dijo, Me encanta bailar.)
Chris asked, Would you like to have dinner with me tomorrow night? (Chris
pregunt, Te gustara cenar conmigo maana por la noche?)

Reported Speech (El estilo indirecto)


El estilo indirecto, a diferencia del estilo directo, no utiliza las comillas y no necesita
ser palabra por palabra. En general, cuando se usa el estilo indirecto, el tiempo verbal
cambia. A continuacin tienes un explicacin de los cambios que sufren los tiempos
verbales.
A veces se usa that en las frases afirmativas y negativas para introducir lo que ha
dicho la otra persona. Por otro lado, en las frases interrogativas se puede usar if o
whether.
Nota: Ten en cuenta tambin que las expresiones de tiempo cambian en el estilo
indirecto. Fijate en los cambios de tiempo en los ejemplos ms abajo y despus,
encontrars una tabla con ms explicaciones de los cambios de tiempo en el estilo
indirecto.
Direct Speech
Present Simple
He is American, she said.
I am happy to see you, Mary said.
He asked, Are you busy tonight?
Present Continuous
Dan is living in San Francisco, she said.
He said, Im making dinner.
Why are you working so hard? they
asked.
Past Simple
We went to the movies last night, he
said.

Reported Speech
Past Simple
She said he was American.
Mary said that she was happy to see me.
He asked me if I was busy that night.
Past Continuous
She said Dan was living in San Francisco.
He told me that he was making dinner.
They asked me why I was working so
hard.
Past Perfect Simple
He told me they had gone to the movies
the night before.

Greg said that he hadnt gone to work the


day before.
Did you buy a new car? she asked.
She asked me if I had bought a new car.
Past Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous
I was working late last night, Vicki
Vicki told me shed been working late
said.
the night before.
They said that they hadnt been waiting
They said, we werent waiting long.
long.
He asked, were you sleeping when I
He asked if Id been sleeping when he
called?
called.
Present Perfect Simple
Past Perfect Simple
Heather said, Ive already eaten.
Heather told me that shed already eaten.
We havent been to China, they said.
They said they hadnt been to China.
I asked her whether shed worked there
Have you worked here before? I asked.
before.
Present Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous
Ive been studying English for two
He said hed been studying English for
years, he said.
two years.
Steve said, weve been dating for over a Steve told me that theyd been dating for
year now.
over a year.
Have you been waiting long? they
They asked whether Id been waiting
asked.
long.
Past Perfect Simple
Past Perfect Simple (NO CHANGE)
Id been to Chicago before for work, he He said that hed been to Chicago before
said.
for work.
Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous (NO CHANGE)
She said, Id been dancing for years
She said shed been dancing for years
before the accident.
before the accident.
Nota: Cuando hablamos de algo que no ha cambiado (que sigue siendo cierto) o de algo
en el futuro, no es necesario cambiar el tiempo verbal.
Greg said, I didnt go to work yesterday.

Ejemplos:
Im 30 years old, she said. She said she is 30 years old.
Dave said, Kelly is sick. Dave said Kelly is sick.
We are going to Tokyo next week, they said. They said they are going to Tokyo
next week.
Ill cut my hair tomorrow, Nina said. Nina said she is cutting her hair tomorrow.

Modal Verbs (Los verbos modales)


El tiempo verbal cambia en el estilo indirecto tambin con algunos de los verbos
modales.
Nota: Con would, could, should, might y ought to, el tiempo no cambia.
Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

Will
Ill go to the movies tomorrow, John
said.
Will you help me move? she asked.
Can
Debra said, Allen can work tomorrow.
Can you open the window, please?, he
asked.
Must
You must wear your seat belt, mom
said.
She said, You must work tomorrow.
Shall
Shall we go to the beach today? Tom
asked.

Would
John said he would go to the movies the
next day.
She asked me if I would help her move.
Could
Debra said Allen could work the next day.
He asked me if I could open the window.
Had to
My mom said I had to wear my seat belt.

She said I had to work the next day.


Should
Tom asked if we should go to the beach
that day.
She asked me what we should do that
What shall we do tonight? she asked.
night.
May
Might/Could
Jane said, I may not be in class
Jane said she might not be in class the
tomorrow.
next day.
May I use the bathroom, please?, the
The boy asked if he could use the
boy asked.
bathroom.
Nota: A continuacin tienes una tabla donde puedes observar los cambios que sufren las
expresiones de tiempo cuando usamos el estilo indirecto.
Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
today
that day
tonight
that night
this week/month/year
that week/month/year
tomorrow
the next day
next week/month/year
the following week/month/year
yesterday
the day before or the previous day
the week/month year before or the
last week/month/year
previous week/month/year
now
then/at that moment
Otros cambios
here
there

Mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm
Cambios en los tiempos

Cambios de los tiempos verbales en el Reported Specch. El verbo principal


retrocede un tiempo verbal: si en directo tenemos: "I live in Italy". She said.
En reported speech: "She said that she lived in Italy".

Direct Speech
Present
"I work in Argentina"
"I am doing my job"
Past
"We saw a good film on TV"
"I was dancing with Mary"
Present Perfect
"I have done this before"
"I have been doing this for two
years"
Future
"I will visit my mother"
"I will be flying to Spain"
Future Perfect
"I will have arrived there by 5 pm"
"I will have been selling books for
two years"

Reported Speech
Past
He said that he worked in Argentina
He said that he was doing his job
Past Perfect
He said they had seen a good film on TV.
He said he had been dancing with Mary
Past Perfect
She said that she had done that before
He said that he had been doing that for two
years
Conditional
He said that he would visit his mother
He said that he would be flying to Spain
Conditional Perfect
He said he would have arrived here by 5 pm
He said that he would have been selling books
for two years

Cambios en tiempos modales

Direct Speech

Reported Speech
Can
Could
"I can stay here until Sunday"
He said he could stay there until Sunday
May
Might
"I may go fishing next weekend" He said that he might go fishing next weekend
Will
Would
"I will stay here!"
He said that he would stay there
Must
Had to
"I must work everyday"
He said he had to work everyday

Referencias al tiempo y lugar

Direct Speech
Reported Speech
now
then, at that moment
today
that day
tonight
that night
last night
the previous night, the night before
tomorrow
the next day, the following day
yesterday
the previous day, the day before

this week
next week
last year
here

that week
the following week, the week after
the previous year, the year before
there

Cambios en las preguntas

Direct Speech

Reported Speech

What
"What are you looking for?"
He asked what I was looking for
Where
"Where can we go tonight?"
She asked where they could go that night
When
"When did they go to India?" He asked when they had gone to India
Who
"Who told you that?"
He asked me who had told me that
How
"How old are the twins?"
He asked how old the twins were
Why
"Why did Carla leave so early?"He asked why Carla had left so early
Which
"Which skirt did you choose?" She asked me which skirt I had chosen
Whose
"Whose dog is missing?"
He asked whose dog was missing
Yes-no questions
"Are these your glasses?"
He asked me if those were my glasses
"Isn't that Jen's boyfriend?"
She asked me if that wasn't Jen's boyfriend

Verb usuales 1

Verbo

Ejemplo
"John is not here right now."
tell
She told me that John wasn't there then.
"Mum came to see you today."
say
He said that mum had come to see me that day.
"Please, give this letter to Penny."
ask
He asked me to give the letter to Penny.
"OK, OK. Yeah. I broke that window."
admit
He admitted that he had broken the window
"Yeah, of course. I will give you the money"
agree
He agreed to loan me some money
"Oh, not now. I am too busy at this moment."
answer
She answered that she was too busy at that moment
"Hey guys! Don't you want to go to the beach with me?"
invite
He invited us to go to beach with him
complain"Oh, no. I have this terrible toothache again!"

He complained of a toothache

Verb 2

Verbo

Ejemplo
"I could help you with that math problem if you want"
offer
She offered to help me with the math problem
"It's a nice day. We could go to the country and have a picnic"
suggest
Bill suggested that we have a picnic
"I want to see the manager of this company immediately!"
demand
The man demanded to see the manager of the company
"Excuse me, Madam. Could I use your telephone for a minute?"
request
He requested permission to use the woman's telephone
"Hey Bill. Don't forget to mail this letter today!"
remind
Jack reminded Bill that he had to mail a letter that day
"The house is white. It has three bedrooms and a beautiful garden"
describe
He described his house
"I must tell you something Jane... I love you with all my heart"
confess
He confessed that he loved her
"It was your fault that I couldn't arrive on time"
blame
The girl blamed the boy for her arriving late
Veb 3

Verbo

Ejemplo
"Sir, I think we should have a meeting this afternoon"
propose
He proposed having a meeting that afternoon
"I won't do this job any longer"
refuse
He refused to continue working
"Congratulations Jack. Your performance was excellent!"
congratulate
He congratulated Jack on giving a good performance at the theater
"Hi everybody"
greet
Bill greeted everybody as he entered the room
"This is my mother. Her name is Nancy"
introduce
He introduced me to his mother
"Don't drink so much or you'll get drunk"
warn
Bill warned Jack not to drink too much
"You must take me there!. Come on. I really want to go there!"
insist
She insisted that she wanted to go
"You... damned fat cow!. You ate all my cookies!"
insult
She insulted her friend calling her a 'fat cow'

Verb 4

Verbo

Ejemplo

"I am very sorry for having insulted you in that way"


She apologized to her friend for having insulted her
"Thank you so much for your help, Mary"
thank
Jack thanked Mary for her help
"Come on. It was not my fault. You are accusing the wrong person!"
protest
The girl protested against the unfair accusation
"If you don't give me the money, I will kill you"
threaten
The robber threatened to kill the man
"If you don't want to have problems with your health, you should stop
advise smoking"
His doctor advised him to stop smoking
"Could you tell me where the main library is?"
inquire
She inquired how to get to the library
"I really think that the work you are doing is excellent"
praise
Bill's boss praised him for the work he was doing
"I don't know what you think, but I didn't break that window"
deny
Billy denied having broken the window
apologize

Verb 5

Verbo

Ejemplo
"Don't worry. I will finish my work on time"
assure
He assured me that he would finish his work on time
"Come on. You'll have a great time a the party. Let's go!"
persuade
Jack persuaded Bill to go to the party
"Instead of going to France we should go to Brazil on vacation. It's cheaper,
convince nearer and warmer"
She convinced her husband to go to Brazil instead of France
"Oh please, Mom, please, let me go. I promise I'll be back before
beg
midnight!"
She begged her mother to let her go the party
"I don't think it is a good idea to fly now. The conditions are dangerous"
dissuade
The man dissuaded him from flying under those weather conditions
"I am terribly afraid of storms"
confide
He confided his fear of storms to his companion
"I think you should take these shoes. They are very nice and have a good
recommendquality"
The sales girl recommended that I buy those shoes
"Look what you have done!. You broke the vase!. You must be more careful
scold
with things in the house"
Jack's mother scolded him for breaking the vase
Verb 6

Verbo
order
accuse
explain

Ejemplo
"Fire!!"
The sergeant ordered the soldiers to fire at the enemy
"I saw you when you stole my money!"
The man accused his colleague of stealing his money
"I couldn't call you because there was no phone nearby"
He explained why he couldn't call me

"By the way, I am a bit tired after this trip"


Bill mentioned that he was tired after the trip
"Jane, how elegant you are tonight!"
compliment
The man complimented Jane on being so elegant that night
"Come on. Don't quit now!. You are about to win the game"
encourage
Bill's father encouraged him to continue with the game
"It is cold and it is raining. I think you shouldn't go out tonight"
discourage
Mary's mother discouraged her from going out that night
"Don't feel so bad. It is not so terrible to fail an exam. You'll pass it next
console
time!"
Bill's companion tried to console him for having failed the exam
mention