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INGLES NAUTICO

Carlos Duclos
cduclosm@wanadoo.es

Septiembre 2004 V 1.1


PROLOGO

Navegaba en un Catamarn fabricado en Australia y surgi la


necesidad de consultar con el astillero constructor ciertas
dudas sobre el grillete giratorio de la cadena del ancla.

En los diccionarios, en cuanto consultamos temas tcnicos de


cierta profundidad, no encontramos la respuesta y como ya me
haba ocurrido en otras ocasiones, desempolv los apuntes del
viejo profesor de la Facultad y encontr la solucin.

Esto me hizo pensar en la necesidad de contar con ellos a bordo


en un formato ms manejable que el enorme archivador con olor a
rancio y amarillas fotocopias.

Decid armarme de paciencia y empezar a informatizarlos, pero


rpidamente, me di cuenta, que los aos no pasan en vano y menos
en un sector que evoluciona tan rpidamente como el nuestro. Los
apuntes se haban quedado obsoletos ,adems las imgenes tampoco
me servan, por este motivo y por la mala calidad de las
fotocopias.

Pens entonces que poda emplear como armazn los apuntes


mencionados y gran parte de sus vocabularios, reemplazar lo
anticuado y ampliar muchos temas, investigando en la biblioteca
mas grande del mundo Internet-.

Me sorprendi nada mas empezara investigar, la cantidad de


artculos interesantes que encontr y la calidad de los
grficos, por lo que, ilusionado, me puse manos a la obra en el
mes de Junio y ahora que acaba septiembre, tengo suficiente
material recopilado como para montar lo que he llamado versin
1.1.

La primera conclusin que he sacado, es, que de momento, mi


ingles ha mejorado bastante y adems, el objetivo primero de
tener un formato mas manejable, lo he cumplido.

Quiero que se entienda por tanto, que no soy un erudito en


Ingles, si no mas bien alguien muy interesado en aprender y que
mi labor ha sido de recopilacin, montaje y edicin de datos y
de paso, mientras lo hacia he aprendido mucho.

En la portada, esta mi direccin de correo electrnico por si


algn lector encuentra fallos que seguro que los hay, sea tan
amable de comunicrmelo, adems cualquier sugerencia ser
bienvenida, ya que, pretendo hacer versiones mejoradas con mas
captulos.

Carlos Duclos Ingles nutico


Repartir entre amigos y compaeros, copias en CD de esta
versin, por que uno de los placeres del conocimiento es
compartirlo y con esa nica intencin los regalo, espero que se
hagan de estos muchas copias pues ser seal que han interesado.

Buena proa para todos.

Guadacorte , septiembre de 2004

Carlos Duclos Ingles nutico


INDICE

CAPITULO PAGINA
1 CONSTRUCCION NAVAL 5
2 TEORIA DEL BUQUE 31
3 DIMENSIONES , TONELAJE Y DIRECCION 53
4 TIPOS DE BUQUES 58
5 MOVIMIENTOS DEL BUQUE 85
6 NAVEGACION 90
7 MANIOBRAS 94
8 ANCLAS Y CADENAS 99
9 FAENAS DE ANCLAS Y FONDEO 114
10 PRACTICOS 124
11 MATERIAL DE CUBIERTA 146
12 ASTILLEROS 162
13 SEVIMAR 178
14 BALIZAMIENTO 185
15 FARO, BUQUES FARO ,ENFILACIONES 196
16 DERROTEROS 203
17 CARTAS DE NAVEGACION 216
18 AVISOS A LOS NAVEGANTES 219
19 CONVENIOS IMO 224
20 REGLAMENTO DE ABORDAJES 305
21 DOCUMENTOS 326
22 SOCIEDADES DE CLASIFICACION 339
23 COMUNICACIONES 343
24 BANDERAS Y SEALES 355
25 ESTIBA 364
26 BODEGAS Y ESCOTILLAS 381
27 CABOS Y NUDOS 384
28 ARBOLADURA Y JARCIA 395
29 APAREJOS Y MOTONES 404
30 DISPOSITIVOS DEL PUENTE 410
31 METEOROLOGIA 456
32 MAREAS 472
33 MAQUINAS 476
34 TIMON Y SERVOMOTOR 502
35 LA HELICE 516
Anexo I P&O Nedlloyd dictionary 520
Anexo II SMCP Standard marine communication phrases 679
Anexo III USCG Navigation rules 874
Anexo IV ISPS code 1097

Carlos Duclos Ingles nutico


Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

CAPITULO 1 CONSTRUCCION NAVAL

Vocabulary and abbreviators used in draws


Aboard A bordo
Accommodation Acomodacin
Accommodation ladder Escala
Accommodation ladder AL Escala real
Action of rudder Efecto del timn
Adjustable Adj Ajustable
Advance Traslado (curva de evolucin)
Afloat A flote
Aft A popa
After end AE Extremidad posterior
After draught AD
After peak Pique de popa
Alleyway Pasillo
Amidships Cruja
Air tight AT Estanco al aire
Angle bar Angular de hierro
Angle Ang Angulo
Angles Angulares
Apron Contraroda
Arrangement Arrgt Disposicin
Arched Quebranto, arqueado
Archimedess law Principio de Arqumedes
Assembled Assm Montado, ensamblado.
Astern A popa
Athwartships De una banda a otra.
Autogenous welding Soldadura autgena
Balanced rudder Timn compensado
Ballast tank Bal Tk Tk de lastre
Bar Barra ,perfil
Bar keel Quilla maciza
Base line Bl Lnea base
Battens Serretas
Beam Bao
Beam bracket Cartabn de bao
Beam- length ratio Razn manga eslora
Beam-draught ratio Razn manga calado
Bean ends Balance grande
Behavior of a ship in waves Comportamiento de un bq.
entre las olas
Bending moment Momento flector
Bending stress Esfuerzo de flexin
Bilge Pantoque
Bilge blocks Picaderos del pantoque
Bilge keel quilla de balance
Bilge planks Tablazn del pantoque

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

Bilge strake Traca de pantoque


Bilges Sentina
Bilgeway Anguila
Block coefficient Coeficiente bloque
Board Tabla tabln
Body plan Plano de formas del casco
Boiler room BR Sala de calderas
Bottom Fondo
Bottom board Palmejar
Bottom plating Planchas del plan
Boundary layer Capa limite
Boundary Bdry Limite
Bow rudder Timn de proa
Bracket Bkt Cartabn
Bracket frame Cuaderna armada
bracket knee Cartabn entre cuadernas y
bao
Bracketless system Construccin sin cartelas
Bulkhead Bhd Mamparo
Bilge keel Bil.K Quilla de balance
Bridge deck B.Dk Cubierta de puente
Break Saltillo
Broaching Atravesarse a la mar
Broadside Costado
Building slip Grada de construccin
Bulb angle Angular con nervio
Bulbous bow Bulbo
Bulkhead Mamparo
Bulkhead stiffeners Refuerzos de mamparo
Bulwark stanchion Barraganete
Bulwarks Amuradas
Bulwarks Regala
Burden Porte, peso muero, tonelaje
neto
Butt welded BW Soldado a tope
Butt strap BS Cubrejuntas
Butt joint Unin a tope
Butt weld Soldadura a tope
Buttock lines Secciones verticales
C. Block C. de bloque
C. Fineness C. de afinamiento
C. midship c. de la cuaderna maestra
Cable locker Caja de cadenas
Camber Brusca del bao
Capacity plan Plano de capacidades
Cargo battens Serreta
Casing Guardacalor
Caulked Calafateado
Ceiling Chapas del plan de bodega

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

Cellular double bottom Doble fondo celular


Center girder Quilla vertical
Centre board Orza quilla abatible
Centre Keel Ck Sobrequilla
Centre plate gilder Quilla vertical
Chain locker Caja de cadenas
Chart room Cuarto de derrota
Chart room Derrota
Coal bunker Carbonera
Coaming Brazola
Compressed air Com Aire comprimido
Air
Compartment Comp Compartimiento
Coefficient Coeficiente
Cofferdam Cofferdan
Collision bulkhead Mamparo de colisin
Companion Tambucho
Counter Bovedilla de popa
Cowl ventilator Ventilador
Curve of bending moment Curva de momentos flectores
Cutwater Tajamar
Damping effect Efecto amortiguador
Davit Pescante
Davit Pescante
Deck Dk Cubierta
Deck beam Bao cubierta
Deck head Parte inferior de la cubierta
Deck plating Forro cubierta
Deck stringer Trancanil
Deep tank DT Tanque profundo
Depth Puntal , profundidad
Discharge Disch Descarga
Diameter Dia Dimetro
Derrick Pluma de carga, Puntal
Docking winch Maquinilla
Double bottom DB Doble fondo
Down by the head Aproado
Down by the stern Apopado
Down to her marks Se ha llegado al calado
mximo
Drain Drn Drenaje, desague
Draft Calado
Draught Calado
Draught marks Escala de calados
Duct keel Doble quilla
Electric welding Soldadura elctrica
Electrode Electrodo
Endurance Autonoma
Engine and boiler casing E&BC Guarda calor

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

Engine room Eng Rm Sala de maquinas


Even keel Aguas iguales
Expansion joint Junta de expansin
Experimental tank Canal de experiencias
Feet Ft Pies
Fine lines Finos de proa
Fitting out Buque en proceso de equipado
y terminacin
Flare Abanico de la amura
Floodable length Eslora inundable
Floor Varenga
Forces acting on turning Fuerzas que actan en la
evolucin
Fore hold Bodega de proa
Fore peak Pique de proa
Forecastle Castillo
Forefoot Pie de roda
Foremast Palo del trinquete
Frame Fr Cuaderna
Frame spacing Clara entre cuadernas
Framing Cuadernaje, armazn
Freeboard Francobordo
Freeing port Porta
Fresh water allowance Permiso de agua dulce
Fresh water load line Lnea de carga de agua dulce.
Full lines Lneas llenas (del casco)
Funnel Fun Chimenea
Furniture Equipo
Galley Cocina
Gangway G Portaln
Garboard strake Traca de aparadura
Garboard strake Traca de aparadura
Gate valve GV Vlvula de compuerta
Gear Equipo, aparejo
Guards rails Baranda
Generator Gen Generador
Gudgeon Hembra del timn
Gunwale Tapa de regala
Gusset Consola

Half breath plan Plano de las lneas de agua o


flotacin
Hatch H Escotilla
Hatch coaming Brazola
Hatchway Escotilla
Hawse pipe HP Escoben
Hawsepipe Escoben
H-bar Viga de seccin H
High tensile steel HTS Acero de gran resistencia

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

Head ledge Brazola transversal


Hogging strain Esfuerzos de quebranto
Hold Bodega
Hull Casco
I bar I Viga de seccin I
Inclination while turning Inclinacin durante la
evolucin
Inch In Pulgada
Insulation Insul Aislamiento
Inner bottom Fondo interior del doble
fondo
Intercostal plate Plancha intercostal
Jack staff Torrotito
Joggled Jog Aboquillado
Keel K Quilla
Keel blocks Picaderos del centro o de la
quilla
Keelson Sobrequilla
Knee Cartabn, Codillo, escuadra,
Angular, curva
Knee bracket Soporte consola
Launch, to Botadura
Launching Botadura
Launching ways Imadas
Law of similitude Relacin de semejanza
Length between LBP Eslora entre perpendiculares
perpendiculars
Length overall LOA Eslora total
Length Eslora
Lifeboat Bote salvavidas
Light port Portillo
Light ship Buque vaco
Lightening hole LH Aligeramiento
Lightening Aligeramiento
Limber holes Imbornales de varenga
Load lines Lneas de carga
Load draught LD Calado en carga
Load lines disk Disco de mxima carga
Locker Paol
Longitudinal bulkhead Mamparo longitudinal
Longitudinal strength Resistencia longitudinal
Longitudinal stress Esfuerzo longitudinal
Loss of ship Perdida de buque
Lower deck Cubierta inferior
Main deck Cubierta principal
Main frame Cuaderna maestra
Main mast Palo mayor
Main strength deck Cubierta resistente principal
Make up, to Disposicin

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

Margin line Lnea margen


Manhole MH Registro
Margin plate Plancha margen
Margin plate Plancha margen
Mast Palo
Mast step Carlinga del palo
Masthole Fogonadura
Mess Comedor de tripulacin
Middle draught Calado en el medio
Midship frame Cuaderna maestra
Mild steel Acero dulce
Mizzen mast Palo de mesana
Molded breadth MB Manga de trazado
Model experiments Modelo experimental
Molded Depth MD Puntal de trazado
Monkey island Magistral
Mould loft Sala de galibos taller de
plantillas
Oak Roble
Ocean going vessel Buque de altura
Ordinates Ordenadas
Orlop deck Sollado, segundo entrepuente
Oscillations of ships Oscilaciones de los buques
Overhaul, to Revisar, repasar.
Paint locker Paol de pintura
Panting Pandeo.
Panting beam Angular trasversal de
refuerzo a proa
Pay, to Embrear
Periodical survey Reconocimiento peridico.
Pillar Puntal de bodega
Pillars Puntales
Pine Pino
Pintle Macho del timn
Pitch damping Amortiguacin de las
cabezadas.
Pivoting point Punto de giro
Plan Plano
Plank Tabln
Planking Tablazn
Plate Plancha
Platform Plataforma, cubierta sin
arrufo
Poop Toldilla
Poop deck Cubierta de toldilla
Portholes Portillos
Pounding Pantocazo
Promenade deck Cubierta de paseo
Propeller Hlice

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

Propeller frame Paso de la hlice


Propeller thrust Empuje del propulsor
Pup room Cuarto de bombas
Quarter deck Alczar de proa
Quarters Qtrs Alojamientos
Rail Tapa de regala, pasamanos,
barandal
Raised quarter deck Saltillo de proa
Rake Lanzamiento o inclinacin
Ratlines Flechaste
Requirements Necesidades
Reversed frame Invertido de cuaderna
Rigging Jarcia
Riveting Remachado
Rudder Rud Timn
Rudder frame Estructura del timn
Rudder post Codaste
Rudder stock R Stk Mecha del timn
Sagging strait Esfuerzo de arrufo
Scantling Escantillones, dimensiones
Scupper Imbornal
Seam Costura
Seaworthiness Estado del bq en condiciones
para navegar
Seaworthy En condiciones para navegar,
navegabilidad.
Settling tank Tanque de decantacin
Shaft tunnel Sh Tun Tnel del eje
Sheathing Revestimiento (de madera en
la cubierta)
Sheer Shr Arrufo
Sheer line Lnea de Arrufo
Sheer of gunwale Arrufo de regala
Sheer plan Plano longitudinal
Sheer strake Traca de cinta
Shell Sl Forro del casco
Shell plating Planchas de costado
Shelter deck Cubierta de abrigo
Shering stress Esfuerzo cortante o de
cizalla.
Shipyard Astillero
Shoe plate Pie de roda
Side girder Vagra
Sounding tube S T Tubo de sonda
Side lights Luces de costado
Side stringer Palmejar
Skylight Lumbrera
Slamming Pantocazo
Sliding ways Gradas

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

Slip Grada
Spar deck Cubierta de construccin
ligera
Staging Andamiaje
Stanchion Stanch Candelero
Stations Estaciones u ordenadas
Staunch Estanco
Stay Stay
Stem Roda
Stem Roda
Stern Codaste
Steeering gear St Gr Servomotor
Stern Frame Codaste doble
Stern tube Bocina
Sternframe Codaste doble que incluye el
vano de la hlice y soporte
del timn
stiffener Stiff Endurecer, refuerzo,
contrafuerte
Stocks Gradas de construccin,
picaderos
strakes Tracas
Stress Esfuerzo
Stress panting esfuerzo de pandeo
Stringer Stg Vagra
Stringer plate Stg Pl Trancanil
Stringer Vagra
Strum box Aspiracin de una tubera de
achique
Summer load line Lnea de carga de verano
Summer tanks Tanques de verano en un
petrolero
Switch-cupboards Cuadros y trasformadores
elctricos
T bar T Viga de seccin T
Tactical diameter Dimetro tctico
Tail end shaft Eje de cola
Tank Tanque
Thickness Thks Grosor, espesor
To draw Calar
Top sides TS Costado de la obra muerta
Topping lift Amantillo
Transon Estampa, Espejo de popa
Transverse strength Resistencia trasversal
Transverse stress Esfuerzo trasversal
Trim Asiento ,trimado
Tropical fresh water load Lnea de carga tropical de
line agua dulce.
Truck Perilla galleta

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

Tunnel Tnel
Turning centre centro del circulo de
evolucin
Turning circle Curva de evolucin
Turning turtle, to Poner quilla al sol
Tweendeck Entrepuente
Vertical Keel VK quilla vertical
Unseaworthy Que no rene condiciones para
navegar
Volume of displacement volumen de desplazamiento
Waist Combes, cubierta en el centro
Water ballast Agua de lastre
Water borne A flote en el agua
Waterline coefficient coeficiente de flotacin
Watertight bulkhead Mamparo estanco
Watertight WT Estanco
Waterways Trancaniles
Weather deck Cubierta de intemperie
Web frame Bulrcama
Well deck Cubierta de pozos
Wetted lenght eslora mojada
Welded Wld Soldado
Wetted surface superficie mojada
Wheelhouse Caseta de gobierno
Whistle Silbato
White head Incandescente
Windlass Molinete
Wing costado
Wireless room Telegrafa
Yawing dar guiadas
Zee bar Z Barra en Z

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 1 Construccin naval
Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico
Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

The Hull

The hull is the framework of the vessel, together with all deck
houses and plating.

The principal structural part of the hull is the keel, which runs
from from stem at the bow of the ship to the stern post. The keel
is joined to the stem and to the stern post.

First type of keel used in iron ship was the bar keel, but later
was substituted by the flat plate keel. Connected to the flat
plate keel and inner bottom is the centre girder, and if the keel
has two centre gilders is called a duct keel.

Structural parts of the hull


The hull is the main body of the ship below the main outside
deck. The hull consists of an outside covering (or skin) and an
inside framework to which the skin is secured. The skin and
framework are usually made of steel and secured by welding.
However, there may still be some areas where rivets are used. The
steel skin may also be called shell plating.
The main centerline structural part of the hull is the keel,
which runs from the stem at the bow to the sternpost at the
stern. The keel is the backbone of the ship. To the keel are
fastened the frames, which run athwartship. These are the ribs of
the ship and gives shape and strength to the hull. Deck beams and
bulkheads support the decks and gives added strength to resist
the pressure of the water on the sides of the hull.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

Skin or shell plating


The skin, or shell plating, provides water-tightness. The plates,
the principal strength members of a ship, have various thickness.
The heaviest plates are put on amidships. The others are put on
so that they taper toward both ends of the ship (from the keel
toward the bilge and from the bilge toward the upper row of
plates). Using plates of various thickness reduces the weight of
the metal used and gives the vessel additional strength at its
broadest part. The plates, put on in rows from bow to stern, are
called strakes. They are lettered consecutively, beginning at the
keel and going upward.
Strake names
The bottom row of strakes on either side of the keel, are called
garboard strakes. The strakes at the turn of the hull, running in
the bilge, are bilge strakes. The strakes running between the
garboard and bilge strakes are called bottom strakes and the
topmost strakes of the hull are sheer strakes. The upper edge of
the sheer strake is the gunwale.

Keelson: The keelson is a longitudinal girder running parallel to


the keel, and attached to the centre girder.

Floors: The floors are vertical plates running athwarship at


intervals on no more than 10 feet. They are between the outer and
inner bottom and usually have holes cut in them for purposes of
lightening.

Beams: The beams run athwartships from side to side of the vessel
and are fastened to the frame by the beam-knees.

Names of decks
The decks aboard ship are the same as the floors in a house. The
main deck is the first continuous watertight deck that runs from
the bow to the stern. In many instances, the weather deck and the
main deck may be one and the same. Any partial deck above the
main deck is named according to its location on the ship. At the
bow it is called a forecastle deck, amidships it is an upper
deck, and at the stern it is called the poop deck. The term
weather deck includes all parts of the forecastle, main, upper,
and poop decks exposed to the weather. Any structure built above
the weather deck is called superstructure.

The decks of a ship corresponds to the floors of a building,. The


names of decks are:
Main deck: Is the principal deck of the ship, which for
structural reasons is an essential part of the hull.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

Second deck, third deck etc. are other decks below the main
deck, numbered in sequence from top side down, or in
passenger ship are lettered.
Boat deck is a deck designed as a promenade for passengers.

Special names for decks are used, aboard special types of ships:

Flush deck is a upper deck extending continuously over the


length of the ship without erection such as forecastle and
poop.
Shelter deck is a continuous deck above main deck.

Bulkheads

The interior of the ship is divided by the bulkheads and decks


into watertight compartments. A vessel could be made virtually
unsinkable if it were divided into enough small compartments.
However, too many compartments would interfere with the
arrangement of mechanical equipment and the operation of the
ship. Engine rooms must be large enough to accommodate bulky
machinery. Cargo spaces must be large enough to hold large
equipment and containers.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

Bulkheads are important elements of transverse strength. They


increase the safety of the ship as in case of collision the
damage and flooded may be confined to one compartment.

The names of different bulkheads are as follows:


Collision bulkhead
After peak bulkhead
Fore engine room bulkhead
After engine room bulkhead

Besides these bulkhead, there are additional bulkhead spaced


uniformly and depending its number on the length of the ship.

Cofferdam

Cofferdam is the space between bulkheads to prevent leakage in


oil tanks to the engine room.

Names of tanks

Ship have an outer and inner bottom and the space between then is
divided into many tanks used for oil storage, fresh water or
ballast.

All tanks have pump and drain connections for pumping out and for
transferring fuel or water from one part of the ship to another.

Tanks at the extreme bow and stern used for ballast or trimming
ship fore and aft are called peaks tanks.

The main tanks in a vessel are:

After peak Tanque pique proa


Deep tank Tanque Profundo
Double bottom tank Tanque De doble fondo
Fore peak tank Tanque Del pique de proa
Fresh water tank Tanque De agua dulce
Fuel tank Tanque De fuel
Lubricating oil tank Tanque De aceite lubricante
Oil settling tank Tanque De decantacin
Storage tank Tanque De reserva
Trimming tank Tanque De asiento
Water ballast tank Tanque De lastre
Wing tank Tanque Lateral

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

Longitudinal framing system

Basically, the framing consists of two systems of structural


members relatively large number of closely spaced longitudinals
, and relatively small number of widely spaced, but deep and
heavy transverses. The latter are slotted to permit the passage
of the longitudinals consist of inverted angles with the toes of
the angles welded to the plating.

The longitudinal system of framing is well suited to tanker


construction since a double bottom is not fitted in the cargo
spaces of a tanker and the bulk liquids carried can be
accommodated without difficulty. The difficulty of stowing dry
cargo in this maze of framing precludes the use of this framing
system for freighters.

Winch deck houses

Are found on board almost every ship. The desire of having


maximum deck space, led to attempts at having cargo of the main
deck as well as various ventilating shats for the holds, and the
remaining winches for operating the loading gear, installed on a
separated deck, the so called winch deck .These winch decks are
provided on deck housed, each of which is placed between the
hatchways. Generally ,the winch deck is even greater than the
deck house, specially if the hatchways can be closed with steel
hatches, for instance, the Mc Gregor type. Other advantages are
that the winches on such a winch deck house will practically not
be exposed to any deck wash, and that the men in charge of the
loading and unloading will have a good view in the holds and run
considerably less risk than other main deck.

The winch deck house ,generally houses the lockers in which the
various parts of the cargo gear, such as block and runners, can
be stored, while it further contains the switch-cupboards for the
winches. If there is any space left, hence in the case of large
deck houses, a laundry or and office is installed.

Hull plating

The outer surface of the hull is built of steel plates or shell


plate which are welded or riveted to each other and to the main
internal structural members of the hull. The plating covering the
bottom is known as outer bottom plating and that covering the
sides is generally known as the side plating. The thickness of
the plates varies with their position in the hull, the thickest
or heaviest being usually found over the bottom at the deck edges
amidships. In the larger warships armour plating made of thick
slabs of specially toughened and hardened steel is secured to the
side plating of those parts of the hull within which are situated
the more vital items of her equipment, such as the magazines,

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

shell rooms, and propelling machinery; this armour plating


usually runs from a few feet below the waterline to upper-deck
level and across the decks.

The short sides of each plate are


called ends and the long sides the
edges. Plates are joined end to form
a panel of plating which runs forward
and aft and is known as strake . The
joint between the ends of any two
plates in a straker is known as butt,
and that between two strakes is know as
a seam.
The straker near the upper deck is the
sheer strake.

For identification purposes, the strakes are lettered. To the


garboard strake corresponds the letter A. Also the plates in the
same strake are numbered starting aft.

Corrugated Bulkhead

Corrugated or fluted bulkheads are


very commonly used aboard modern
tankers. The purpose of the
corrugations is to eliminate or
reduce the number of bulkhead
stiffeners necessary. This objective
is accomplished by an increase in
effective depth due to corrugations.
However, the latter must be arranged
horizontally in both transverse and
longitudinal bulkheads to coincide
with the direction of more important structural stresses.

The tanker is able to take advantage of these bulkheads, due to


their function as liquid carrier. Freighters would lose more due
to the difficulty to stowage than the saving in weight warrant.

In recent years there has been ,however, a partial swing back to


the use of flat bulkheads in tankers due to two serious
difficulties:
1. Tankers have experienced troubles at the junction of the
bulkheads, resulting in cracks and leakage.
2. These structural hard spots or stress raisers have caused
accelerated local corrosion of a serious nature.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

Bilge keels

Many vessels are provided with bilge-keels, whose function is to


reduce the rolling angle of a
rolling vessel in stormy
weather, and which are
therefore often termed
rolling chocks.

Bilge keels have no influence


on the rolling period, but
owing to their damping effect
sometimes considerably reduce
the rolling angle, in
consequence of which
travelling by sea becomes
less unpleasant to the
passengers, and the riveted
or welded joints of vessels loaded with ballast are severely
strained.

The damping effect of the bilge keels is of supreme importance,


particularly in case of warships. It enables the guns to be laid
more effectively, while the possibility of the lower edge of the
armoured part of the hull remaining submerged is increased.

The correct position of the bilge keels is mostly determined in


the experimental tank by observing the lines of the water flowing
past the vessel. The bilge keels are fitted in accordance with
these lines of flow in order to minimise their resistance with
vessel under way. They are nor allowed, however, to project
outside the continued line of the side plating or that of the
flat of the bottom, since in that case they would sustain early
damage.

Watertight subdivision

Fundamentally a ship is made seaworthy by virtue of her buoyancy


and stability, and in the event of damage, the preservation of
these properties by adequate subdivision of the ship into a
number of separate watertight compartment is an essential feature
design.

To preserve her buoyancy, a considerable volume of the ship above


the waterline must be watertight, so that loss of buoyancy due to
flooding of compartments below water level is counteracted by a
gain of buoyancy above the original waterline. This watertight
volume above the waterline is termed the reserve of buoyancy
and in war ships it may be as much as the watertight volume below
water.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

The stability of a ship is intimately connected with her buoyancy


but it does not follow that her stability will be preserved
throughout the time during which her buoyancy is maintained. A
loss of buoyancy may well result in a disproportionate loss in
stability, and in the ship becoming unstable before losing all
her reserve of buoyancy. This fact alone, without a detailed
explanation of stability, is sufficient to indicate the essential
importance of proper subdivision in limiting flooding to correct
heel or trim caused by damage.

The load of the transverse members

The transverse members of ships comprise: floors, bilge brackets,


frames, beam-knees and beams, all of which cooperate with the
plating of the shell, inner bottom and decks. These transverse
members partly form a continuous frame, partly a frame whose
continuity is interrupted by hatch ways or casings, the beams
been supported by the coaming-plates. At some individual points
of the length the bulkheads provide a very considerable
transverse strength; they influence in the strength of other
transverse members will be discussed in a subsequent section.

With regard to one portion of the ship, having the length of one
frame space, one of the above mentioned transverse frames will
have to resist various loading forces and the consequent bending
moments.

The hull of a ship

In former times, it was customary to build ships entirely of


wood; oak and pine chiefly used for this purpose. In our days
however, seagoing vessels are exclusively constructed of steel,
this material is employed in various shapes such as bars ,angles,
bulb bars, plates, etc, as may be required, and the separate
parts are joined together by riveting or welding.

As the rivets are placed in their positions while in a state of


white head, their consequent cooling , helps to make these
connections all the more rigid.

The framing of a ship may be based on one or other of several


existing methods :

The transverse system, the longitudinal system or some


intermediate system, which is more or less a combination of the
two.
We may say , that the majority of the worlds ocean going
merchant vessels of the present day are built on the transverse
system of framing, with cellular watertight bulkheads to satisfy
the requirements of any classification society.

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Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

Sufficient longitudinal strength is afforded by longitudinal


guiders called deck-stringers, according to their position in the
ship, and also by the rigidity of the double bottom, the
construction of the main strength deck and the shell plating.

As the presence of side stringers in cargo holds is generally


considered undesirable, they may be dispensed, if the shell
plates are given sufficient additional thickness to make up for
the loss in longitudinal strength.

The frames, deck beams and bulkheads are usually made of bulb
angles. In ordinary shipyard practice the frames are joggled, so
as to allow all strakes of the shell plating, inners as well as
outers , to be placed in direct contact with the frames. This
also applies to deck beams and deck plating, and to floors and
plating of the inner bottom. The building of a ship is commenced
with the laying of the flat plate keel.

To the centre line of the flat plate keel is them riveted or


welded a vertical plate called centre girder, which runs the full
length of the ship from stem to stern post.

The centre girder forms part of the cellular double bottom.


Transverse plates called floors are placed at right angles to the
centre guirder to which they are joined at equal distances apart
in both sides. They generally extend as far as the turn of the
bilges.

In the spaces between the floors are joined longitudinal plates


at regular distances apart.

Large holes have been cut out in floors and intercostals in order
to reduce the weight of material and for communication purposes.
The cellular double bottom is finished by a complete covering of
plates, the outer shell plating or inner bottom and the marginal
plates forming the sloping tanks sides at the bilges.

Are the frames are now erected, the lower end of each frame is
furnished with a large tank knee for the connection to the
marginal plate, while similar deck knee brackets serve for the
connection of the upper ends to the deck beams.

When stem, and stern post, frames, deck beams and bulkheads have
been fixed in position, the ship is said to be in frame and the
putting of the side and deck platings may be started.

Transverse watertight bulkheads extend from the flat plate keel


right up to the deck, thus dividing the hull into separated
compartments, and the double bottom into a number of separate
tanks on either side of the centre girder.

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Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

These tanks are principally intended for the carriage of water


ballast, but some of them may also be available for holding fresh
water or fuel oil.

If required pillars are placed in the centre line of the vessel


or at in the corners of hatch coamings. They serve to support the
deck structure, thereby also contributing to the general strength
of the hull.

Ship may be constructed on various other systems to make them


specially suited for the carrying of some particular kind of bulk
cargo, such as , ore, oil, grain, coal etc, or they may be built
exclusively for general cargo, mostly carried in bags, bales,
cases, casks, etc.

The hull of a screw steamer or motor vessel of ordinary size and


type is divided by transverse watertight bulkheads into seven
separate compartments:

Fore peak and after peak.


Four cargo holds.
Engine rooms.
Boiler rooms.

In general cargo ships a close ceiling formed of planks covers


the bottom of the holds from wing to wing, while large battens
that are fastened to the frames, at some distance apart protect
the cargo from contact with the ships side.

Shell plating is arranged in fore and aft strakes. The joints are
made watertight.

Wake
In its passage through the water, the ship imparts motion to
neighbouring fluid particles. The aggregate motion of these
particles constitutes what is known as wake. The wake is
usually regarded as positive when
follows the ship and negative when
moving in the opposite direction.
The wake strength at any point is
equal to the difference between its
speed, indicated by a cuentmeter or
pitot tube carried aboard ship, and
the speed of the ship through
undisturbed water. Thus, if we
denote the speed indicated by the
meter by V1 and the ship speed by
V, the wake speed is V-V1. In
practice it is customary to express the wake speed as a fraction

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

of the speed V1 or of the ship speed V. The former method was


introduced by D.W. Taylor and is used in the US and in countries
of continental Europe.

General effects of flooding

If the underwater shell of a ship is torn open by a collision or


other cause ,that portion of the ship to wich the sea as access
will fill with water to the level of the sea outside. This will
have the following two general effects:

a)Sinkege and trim. The ship will settle bodily into the water by
an amount which will depend on the quantity of water which enters
the ship. At the same time, unless the flooded compartments are
near amidships, the ship will trim by the head or by the stern as
the case may be. The effect of both sinkage and trim may be to
reduce the freeboard of the deck to which watertight bulkheads
are carried. If this deck is brought below the level of the sea,
water may enter the undamaged compartments (as the bulkhead deck
is not required to be watertight) and cause a progressive
flooding which will continue until the ship founders through loss
of buoyancy.

b)Effects on transverse stability. The flooding of one or more


compartments will in general change the
transverse stability of the ship. When the
ship is flooded, both KB and BM change. KB
increases because of the increased draft,
and, if the trim is large, there is a
further increase in KB due to trim. BM on
the contrary decreases because of the loss
of the moment of inertia of the flooded
part of the waterplane. Futher ,the remaining BM increases
slightly due to the greater width of the new and higher
waterplane. Lastly, if the trim is considerable, it will further
increase BM, if the trim be by the stern, or reduce it, if by the
bow.

External parts of the hull


The waterline is the water-level line on the hull when afloat.
The vertical distance from the waterline to the edge of the
lowest outside deck is called the freeboard. The vertical
distance from the waterline to the bottom of the keel is called
the draft. The waterline, draft, and freeboard will change with
the weight of the cargo and provisions carried by the ship. The
draft of the ship is measured in feet and inches. Numbered scales
are painted on the side of the ship at the bow and stern.
The relationship between the drafts at the bow and stern is the
trim. When a ship is properly balanced fore and aft, she is in

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

trim. When a ship is drawing more water forward than aft, she is
down by the head. If the stern is too far down in the water, she
is down by the stern. If the vessel is out of balance laterally
or athwartship (leaning to one side) she has a list. She may be
listing to starboard or listing to port. Both trim and list can
be adjusted by shifting the weight of the cargo or transferring
the ships fuel and water from one tank to another in various
parts of the hull.
The part of the bow structure above the waterline is the prow.
The general area in the forward part of the ship is the
forecastle. Along the edges of the weather deck from bow to stern
are removable stanchions and light wire ropes, called life lines.
Extensions of the shell plating above the deck are called
bulwarks. The small drains on the deck are scuppers. The
uppermost deck running from the bow to the stern is called the
weather deck. The main deck area over the stern is called the
fantail or poop deck. The flat part of the bottom of the ship is
called the bilge. The curved section where the bottom meets the
side is called the turn of the bilge.
Below the waterline are the propellers or screws which drive the
ship through the water. The propellers are attached to and are
turned by the propeller shafts. A ship with only one propeller is
called a single-screw ship. Ships with two propellers are called
twin-screw ships. On some ships (especially landing craft) there
may be metal frames built around the propellers (called propeller
guards) to protect them from damage. The rudder is used to steer
the ship.

Draught marks

Draught marks are the numbered scaled painted on the sides of the
ship at the bow and stern. These marks are marked in feet or
decimetres, and the bottom of each numeral shall indicate the
draught to that line.

The numerals are 6 inches in height, and in this way , it is


possible to estimate by eye any draught. For instance, if the top
of number is exactly at the water, the draught will be the
indicate number and six inches.

Procedure for reading draft marks


Draft marks are numbers marked on each side of the bow and stern
of the vessel. Draft marks show the distance from the bottom of
the keel to the waterline.
The draft numbers shown in are 6 inches high and 6 inches apart.
The bottom of each number shows the foot draft mark.

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Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

Trim

Is the difference between the draughts at the bow and stern.

When the ship is properly balanced fore and aft, she is in trm;
when she is out of trim she is said to be: down by the head or
down by the stern.

Freeboard

Freeboard may be broadly defined as the height that the sides of


a floating vessel project above the water. The maximum waterline
to which a ship can load is governed by the freeboard marks which
are permanently marked on the vessels sides at amidships.

The first record of assigned freeboard was an entry in Lloyds


register book of 1.744, and it appears that the draught was
determined by owner as being that which he considered suitable
for his ship for a particular trade. In the year 1.835, the
Committee of Lloyds proposed a freeboard of 3 in. Per foot of
depth of hold as a guide for safe loading. This came to be known
as Lloyds Rule and was widely used.

Eventually, as the results of the efforts of Samuel Plismsoll,


the 1.876 Merchant Shipping Act was introduced. Plimsoll has left
his name on the record of freeboard assignment. He was not a
technical man and produced no proposals as to the method to be
employed in assessing
freeboard. He was a Member
of Parliament and agitated
in parliament that all ship
should be surveyed and that
regulations should be
introduced so that ship and
could not be overloaded.
This Act required that all
British ship and also all
foreign ships leaving a
British port should be
marked at amidships with a
deck line indicating the
position of each deck above
waterline and also a
circular disc 12 in. In
diameter with a horizontal
line 18 in. In length drawn
through this circle. This
disc was to be placed to
indicate the maximum load

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

line to which the owner intended to load his ship.

The letters at each side of the disk are the initial letters of
assigning authority ,for example L R means Lloyds Register

Samuel Plimsoll is forever associated with the Load Line - still


often referred to as the Plimsoll Line - which is now marked on
the sides of all ships to indicate the safe level
to which they can be loaded.

In 1876 the marking was made compulsory on


British ships, although it was not until nearly
twenty years later that the actual position of
the Line was fixed by law. What is sometimes
forgotten is the bitter opposition that Plimsoll
aroused within the shipping industry. It is said
that one disgruntled captain, who felt his
freedom to operate his ship unfettered was being
interfered with, showed his contempt by painting
the Plimsoll Line on the funnel of his vessel.

Samuel Plimsoll, a politician and humanitarian, campaigned to


improve the working conditions and safety of seafarers in the
late 19th century. His efforts resulted in the adoption of the
P P

Load Line (sometimes called the Plimsoll mark), which is still


used today to prevent ships from being overloaded.

Until 1871, it was actually illegal for British seamen to refuse


to go to sea even on the grounds that the ship they were sailing
on was unseaworthy. In 1866, four successive crews refused to
serve on a ship called the Harkaway on the understandable grounds
that even at anchor in a calm sea the ship took on more than one
metre of water a day. They were sent to prison.

It was not until the 19th century and the advent of mass
emigration to North America, with a tremendous increase in trans-
Atlantic passenger voyages, that the clamour arose for "something
to be done". One reason for this, certainly, was the fact that
for the first time ordinary people were sailing great distances
in large numbers - and were exposed to the dangers of the sea. In
1841, one of the new breeds of trans-Atlantic steamers, the
President, sailed from New York with 136 people on board, was
seen once and then vanished. Her captain had privately described
her as a "coffin ship" but it is significant that he still
sailed, which exemplifies the fact that after centuries of
unaccountable disappearances, groundings, collisions, founderings
and other disasters, seafarers themselves had become fatalistic.

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Capitulo 1 Construccin naval

During the 19th century, mass emigration, especially from Europe,


P P

meant that more people went to sea than ever before, this time as
passengers rather than as seafarers. Throughout the century there
were numerous disasters involving passenger ships and it was the
fate of the passengers that led to demands for improved safety.

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Capitulo 2 Teoria del buque

CAPITULO 2 TEORIA DEL BUQUE

ING ESP
Bilging Inundacin
Block coefficient Coeficiente bloque
Buoyancy Flotabilidad
Centre of buoyancy B C Centro de empuje o de carena
Centre of flotation CF Centro de flotacin
Centre of gravity G G Centro de gravedad
Coefficient of fineness Coeficiente de afinamiento
Couple Par
Couple arm GZ Brazo de par
Crank ship Buque con poca estabilidad
Couple moment Momento de par
Density Densidad
Displacement W Desplazamiento
Efficiency of hull Rendimiento del casco
Efficiency of propeller Rendimiento de la hlice
Emersion Eversin
Flooding Inundacin
Free surface SSLL Superficie libre
Fresh water allowance Fa Permiso de agua dulce
Heel Escora
Heeling experiment Experiencia de estabilidad
Heeling moment Momento de escora
Inclining experiment Experiencia de estabilidad
Inch trim moment ITM Momento para variar el
asiento una pulgada
Immersion Inmersin
Metacentre M M Metacentro
Metacentre height GM Altura metacentrica
Permeability permeabilidad
Period of roll Periodo de balance
Pitching cabeceo
Right a ship, to Adrizar un buque
Righting arm Brazo adrizante
Righting lever GZ Palanca o brazo adrizante
Righting moment Momento adrizante
Shift of centre GG Traslacin del centro de
gravedad.
Sag Arrufo
Hog quebranto
Sinkage Inmersin
Stiff ship Buque rgido, duro.
Tender ship Buque falso, blando
Tipping centre Centro de flotacin
Tons per inch inmersion TPI Toneladas por pulgada.
Wake Estela

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 2 Teoria del buque

Trim Trimado
Waterline Lnea de agua
Waterplane A Superficie de flotacin.
Wedge of emersion Cua de emersion/inmersion
/inmersion

Basic Ship Stability Explained

A ship, if she is not to sink, must remain buoyant, but if she is


to float the right way up, must also have the vital quality of
positive stability. And this characteristic must remain present
in all circumstances, whether the ship is at rest or moving about
in a seaway under the influence of wind and waves. When she is
inclined by wave action, a stable ship will always return to an
upright condition. An unstable ship, when affected by an external
force, would capsize. And it is also important to note that the
volume of the immersed body of the ship will alter as she drives
through successive waves, with her stability constantly in a
state of change. At sea, stability is a dynamic condition.

A ship is designed to remain in a stable condition by such basic


methods as putting the greatest weights low down in the hull and
restricting the amount of top hamper. But it is possible to
provide too much stability, in which case the vessel will tend to
roll so violently that she would be uncomfortable to sail in, and
risk damaging cargo. But the naval architect who is designing the
ship must also bear in mind that the conditions aboard a ship are
constantly changing. The design of the ship and the constant
weights of engines and equipment and structure will remain
unaltered, but as fuel and water is consumed during the voyage,
the positive stability of the ship will gradually decline.
Similarly, on a ship designed to carry cargo, the weight and the
disposition of this will affect the ship's stability at every new
port, and this needs to be constantly monitored.

Also to be considered is the ship's longitudinal stability, not


that the ship is likely to turn end over end, but once again, the
disposition of weights will govern the way the ship sits in the
water - her "trim". If, for instance, there was too much weight
forward, the propellers and rudder would be less than effective.
If trimmed too much aft, then the bow would be too light and the
underside of the bow could be damaged by "slamming" into oncoming
waves. Stability is generally ideal if the lateral motion - the
vessels propensity to roll - is gentle.

Stability is maintained by moving water around the vessel's


ballast tanks, to ensure that the ship stays upright, and does
not adopt a heel to one side or the other if the cargo is loaded
asymmetrically, or if fuel is taken from a tank on one side of
the ship. Water ballast is frequently carried to maintain

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 2 Teoria del buque

stability in an otherwise empty ship. In a cargo ship loading in


several ports for discharge in several others, after a long sea
passage, the stability has to be computed for all stages of the
voyage so that there is adequate stability at all times, even
with the variable tonnage of cargo and after nearly all the fuel
and other consumables have been used up as the end of the voyage
approaches. Large amounts of deck cargo or heavy lifts could
adversely affect the stability and would require to be
compensated with extra ballast.

Stability is put at risk if there are too many half empty or


"slack" tanks aboard the ship, which allows water surfaces to
slosh to one side. If a ship is holed, loss of stability could
cause the vessel to turn completely over. Modern vessels employ
various cross flooding arrangements so that the ship remains
upright, with positive stability, if water gets aboard.

External Forces.

Ships are inclined by various external forces:


Wave action,
Wind,
Collision,
Grounding,
Shifting of onboard weights, and
Addition or removal of weight.
Any inclination of a ship can be termed heel, but inclinations
are broadly defined as heel, list, or roll depending on the
duration and nature of the forces causing the inclination.
Heel - The term heel is specifically applied to noncyclic,
transient inclinations caused by forces that may be removed
or reversed quickly. Such forces include wind pressure,
centrifugal force in high speed turners, large movable
weights, etc.
List - A list is a permanent, or long-term inclination,
caused by forces such as grounding or off center weight
that are not likely to be removed suddenly.
Roll - When an inclining force is suddenly removed, a ship
does not simply return to its upright position, but
inclines to the opposite side and oscillates, or rolls,
about its equilibrium position for some time before coming
to rest. The natural rolling period is a function of weight

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 2 Teoria del buque

and buoyancy distribution. Rolling is cyclic in nature and


is induced or aggravated by short duration, repetitive or
cyclic forces, such as wave forces.

Stability

Stability is the tendency of a floating object to remain at rest


in a certain position. It demands that, when the ship is inclined
by some external force, the vertical through the centre of
buoyancy (normal to the surface of the liquid in which floating)
pass above the centre of gravity of the body. When it does so,
both its weight and the force of buoyancy tend to right the ship
to its original position.

As a first requirements in the practical application of stability


principles by a ships officer, full information concerning his
vessel should be at hand. This should include the following:

1.-A scale or table showing the displacement and deadweight


tonnage , freeboard, tons per inch immersion, and moment to
change trim 1 inch for any draft.

2.-A curve or table of metacentres, showing the height of the


metacentre above the keel at any draft.

3.-A curve of righting levers, the so-called stability curve


for two or three different conditions of lading, or GM values.

4.-Height of the centre of gravity above the keel (KG) in the


light condition, this condition to be particularly defined as to
tanks full or empty, and location and weight of fuel and stores
on board.

5.-Dimensions- length, breadth, depth of hold, etc., and the


docking plan, and the capacity plan.

Stable equilibrium

A ship is said to be in a stable equilibrium when, if she were


inclined by some external force, she would try to return to the
up right. If we consider figure a , we shall see that this
condition will exists when :

1. For small angles of heel, the ship has a positive GM, that is
G below M.
2. For any angle of hell, the righting level, GZ, is on the low
side of the ship.

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Capitulo 2 Teoria del buque

Neutral equilibrium:

A ship, if heelded by some external force, would have no tendency


either to return to the upright, or to heel further over is said
to be in neutral equilibrium. We can see fig b that this will
occur when G and M coincide, so that there is no GM or GZ.

Unstable equilibrium

We say that a ship is in unstable equilibrium when, if inclined


by some external force, she would try to heel still further.
Figure c shows that this will occur when.-
1. For small angles of heel, the ship has a negative GM.
2. For any angle of heel, the righting lever, GZ, is on the high
side of the ship.

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Capitulo 2 Teoria del buque

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 2 Teoria del buque

Loading Instructions

Specific loading instructions are provided to help operating


personnel avoid loading the ship so that her stability is
dangerously low or the hull girder is overstressed. The most
basic instruction is that ships shall not be loaded so heavily
that their load line (merchant) or limiting draft marks (naval)
are submerged. Detailed loading instructions are given in the
trim and stability booklet for merchant ships or the damage
control book for Navy ships. In certain types of ships, such as
container ships, RO/RO ships, barge carriers, and ferries,
improper loading can easily reduce stability to dangerously low
levels. In other ships, such as tankers and ore carriers,
improper loading can seriously overstress the hull. Transient
conditions created while loading or unloading can also degrade
stability or overstress the hull.

Density

It is the mass per unit of volume. For stability purposes, it can


be regarded as the weight in ounces of one cubic foot of
substance.

Specific gravity

This is the ratio between the density of a substance and the


density of fresh water.

Specific gravity= density of substance / density of fresh water.

Coefficients of Form.

Coefficients of form are dimensionless numbers that describe hull


fineness and overall shape characteristics. The coefficients are
ratios of areas or volumes for the actual hull form compared to
prisms or rectangles defined by the ships length, breadth, and
draft. Since length and breadth on the waterline as well as draft
vary with displacement, coefficients of form also vary with
displacement. Tabulated coefficients are usually based on the
molded breadth and draft at designed displacement. Length between
perpendiculars is most often used, although some designers prefer
length on the waterline. Coefficients of form can be used to
simplify area and volume calculations for stability or strength
analyses. As hull form approaches that of a rectangular barge,
the coefficients approach their maximum value of 1.0.
The following paragraphs describe the most commonly used
coefficients.

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Capitulo 2 Teoria del buque

Block Coefficient. The block coefficient (CB) is the ratio of the


B B

immersed hull volume at a particular draft to that of a


rectangular prism of the same length, breadth, and draft as the
ship .

Midship Section Coefficient. The midship section coefficient (CM) B B

is the ratio of the area of the immersed midship section (Am) at B B

a particular draft to that of a rectangle of the same draft and


breadth as the ship:

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 2 Teoria del buque

Waterplane Coefficient. The waterplane coefficient (CWP) is the


B B

ratio of the area of the waterplane (AWP) to that of a rectangle


B B

of the same length and breadth as the ship:

where

Prismatic Coefficient. The longitudinal prismatic coefficient


(CP) is the ratio of the immersed volume to the volume of a prism
B B

with length equal to the ships and cross-section area identical


to the midship section:

where

If length between perpendiculars and length on the waterline are


equal (as they are for Navy ships), the prismatic coefficient is
equal to the block coefficient divided by the midships section
coefficient. The prismatic coefficient thus indicates the

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 2 Teoria del buque

longitudinal distribution of the underwater volume of a ships


hull. For a given length, breadth, draft, and displacement, a low
(fine) CP indicates a hull with fine ends. A large (full) value
B B

for CP indicates a hull with relatively full ends. For this


B B

reason, the prismatic coefficient is sometimes called the


longitudinal coefficient.

The vertical prismatic coefficient (CVP) is the ratio of the


B B

immersed hull volume to the volume of a prism having a length


equal to the ships draft and a cross section identical to that
of the waterplane:

The vertical prismatic coefficient is equal to the block


coefficient divided by the waterplane coefficient and indicates
the vertical distribution of the underwater volume. A full CVP B B

indicates a concentration of volume near the keel and a fine CVP, B B

a concentration nearer the waterline. Since the longitudinal


distribution of the ship's displacement greatly influences the
resistance at a given speed, the prismatic coefficient is widely
used in resistance and propulsion calculations. Typical values
for the Coefficients of Form of various ship types are shown in
table

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Capitulo 2 Teoria del buque

Hydrostatic curves .

All of the hydrostatic properties to be calculated are derived


from the following fundamental characteristics of the immersed
hull form at each given even keel waterline. Such properties
form the so-called hydrostatic curves and are typically plotted
as a function of the ship's draft as shown in next figure

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Capitulo 2 Teoria del buque

Properties of the Waterplane.

The following properties of each waterplane are required:


1. Area of the waterplane (Aw). The waterplane area is
B B

required to determine the change in mean draft when small


weights are loaded or discharged.

2. Center of flotation (CF or F). The CF is the centroid of


the waterplane, also called the center of area of the
waterplane. It is required for the calculation of changes

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Capitulo 2 Teoria del buque

in draft at bow and stern as a result of loading,


discharging, or shifting weights aboard the ship. The CF is
located on the centerline because the port/starboard
symmetry of the waterplane. Its longitudinal position with
respect to the midship section or another reference point
must be calculated. This distance is called the
longitudinal center of flotation, or LCF.
3. Longitudinal moment of inertia (IL). This property of the
B B

waterplane is its second moment of area about a transverse


axis passing through the center of flotation. It is
required for longitudinal stability and trim calculations.
4. Transverse moment of inertia (IT). This is the second
B B

moment of area of the waterplane about its centerline. It


is required in the calculation of initial transverse
stability.

Properties of the Immersed Volume of the Hull. Quantities


associated with the immersed volume are the following:
1. Volume of displacement (V). This is the immersed volume
itself, called the volume of displacement because it is
a measure of the volume of fluid displaced by the
floating ship. As we will see later, it is a fundamental
property of the hull form because the weight and mass of
the ship are equal respectively to the weight and mass
of the water displaced. The molded volume is calculated
directly from the offsets of the molded form. Volumes of
the shell and appendages like bilge keels, rudder, etc.,
are then added to determine the total displacement at
each draft.
Two more properties of the volume of displacement are required
to locate the center of buoyancy, B, which is the center of
volume of the displaced water. The position of B affects the
stability and trim of a ship in many ways. Since the volume V is
three-dimensional, locating its centroid requires three
coordinates. A ship's symmetry about its centerline puts the
center of buoyancy on centerline when the ship floats upright,
so only two coordinates of B require calculation. These are:
2. Longitudinal center of buoyancy (LCB). This is the
distance of B from a specified transverse reference
plane, usually the midship section. As long as the
reference axis is clearly stated, LCB can be measured
from the FP or the AP.

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Capitulo 2 Teoria del buque

3. Vertical center of buoyancy (KB). KB is the height of


the center of buoyancy above the baseline or keel.
Properties of the Stations. The last of the fundamental hull
form characteristics required to prepare the hydrostatic curves
are the immersed station areas. The cross-sectional area of each
station shown in the body plan up to the waterline in question
is determined for input into the calculation of the volume of
displacement, this set of curves is also known as the Bonjean
curves. A typical plot of the Bonjean curves. When plotted
against ship length, the immersed station areas form a sectional
area curve, whose shape represents the "fullness" or "fineness"
of the ship form, an important consideration in ship resistance
and powering.
Heights of Centers.

The relative heights of the centers of gravity and buoyancy and


the metacenter govern the magnitude and sense of the moment arms
developed as the ship inclines. They are, therefore, the primary
indicators of a ships initial stability. Nominally, the symbols
KG, KB, and KM indicate the heights of the centers of gravity
and buoyancy and the metacenter above the bottom of the keel,
while the symbols VCG and VCB indicate the vertical positions of
the centers of gravity and buoyancy, measured from the baseline.
In practice, KG/KB and VCG/VCB are used almost interchangeably;
in steel ships with flat plate keels, the difference in height
above baseline and keel for any point is generally less than two
inches and is not significant.
Height of the Center of Gravity.

The height or vertical position of the center of gravity above


the keel (KG or VCG) is defined by weight distribution. KG can
be varied considerably without change of displacement by
shifting weight up or down in the ship. Conversely, it is
possible to add or remove weight without altering KG. In most
ships, the center of gravity lies between six-tenths of the
depth above the keel and the main deck:

where

The next table gives approximate values for the height of the
center of gravity for several types of merchant ships at
lightship, and for some naval ships at full load. Calculation of
KG can be a laborious and time consuming process, but ignorance
of the height of a ship's center of gravity invites disaster. If

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Capitulo 2 Teoria del buque

the height of the ship's center of gravity is known for any


condition of loading (lightship, for example), and the location
of added or removed weights is known, the new height of the
center of gravity can be calculated:

where:

In the absence of better information, the design estimates shown


in next table can be utilized.

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Capitulo 2 Teoria del buque

Height of the Center of Buoyancy.

The height of the center of buoyancy above the keel (KB) is


solely a function of the shape of the underwater volume. As the
centroid of the underwater hull, the center of buoyancy is lower
in flat-bottomed, full-bodied ships, such as tankers and ore
carriers, than in finer lined ships like destroyers or frigates.
Disregarding changes in the shape of the immersed hull due to
trim and heel, KB of any ship is a function of displacement, and
therefore of draft. The height of the center of buoyancy can be
calculated by summing incremental waterplane areas (aWP) B B

multiplied by their heights above the keel (z) and dividing the
result by the displacement volume:

This expression can be evaluated by numerical integration


methods if accurate drawings or offsets are available. In
practice, KB can be approximated with sufficient accuracy for
salvage work as 0.52T for full-bodied ships and 0.58T for fine-
lined ships. At very light drafts, KB is closer to the given
waterline because the lower waterlines are usually much finer

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Capitulo 2 Teoria del buque

than the waterlines in the normal draft range. As a vessels


underwater hull form approaches a rectangular prism (CB = 1.0),
KB approaches 0.5T. The following empirical relationships give
estimates for KB that are very close to calculated values for
merchant vessels of ordinary form at normal drafts:

where:

Metacentric Height.

The transverse metacentric height (GMT), commonly called the


metacentric height, of a ship is the vertical separation of the
center of gravity and the transverse metacenter (see Figure 1-4)
and is a primary indicator of initial stability. A ship with a
positive metacentric height (G below M) will tend to right
itself by developing righting arms as soon as an inclining force
is applied. A ship with a negative metacentric height (G above
M) will list to either port or starboard with equal facility
until the centers of buoyancy and gravity are on the same
vertical line, and thereafter develop positive righting arms.
This condition, known as lolling, is a serious symptom of
impaired initial stability. Metacentric height is calculated by
subtracting the height of the center of gravity from the height
of the metacenter above the keel:

Transverse Metacentric Radius.


The transverse metacentric radius (BMT) is the vertical
distance between the center of buoyancy and the metacenter. This
distance is termed a radius because for small heel angles, the
locus of successive centers of buoyancy approximates a circular
arc, with the transverse metacenter as its center. Metacentric
radius is equal to the moment of inertia of the waterplane about

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Capitulo 2 Teoria del buque

its longitudinal centerline (transverse moment of inertia, IT)


divided by the underwater volume of the hull:

For a rectangular waterplane,

and:

where:

If the waterplane shape can be accurately defined, the moment of


inertia can be determined by numerical integration. If not, the
transverse moment of inertia of most ships' waterplanes can be
approximated by:

where CIT is the transverse inertia coefficient and is


approximated by CWP2/11.7 or 0.125CWP-0.045. These provide
B PB P B B

reasonable approximations for ships with CWP<0.9. For ships with


B B

CWP>0.9, LB3/12 is a closer approximation of the transverse


B B B B

moment of inertia of the waterplane.

Fresh water allowance:

This is the amount that a load line may be submerged when loading
in a water of less density than that of salt water. In the
absence of any other data, is approximately equal to per foot
of summer draft.

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Capitulo 2 Teoria del buque

Stability Definitions
T T

A point on the vessel through which all


Centre of Gravity
forces of gravity act vertical downwards

All forces of gravity acting vertically


Forces of Gravity
downwards

A point on the vessel through which all


Centre of Buoyancy forces of buoyancy act vertically upwards
equal to the water displaced

A floating body experiences an upward force


Forces of Buoyancy
equal to the water it displaces

A point on the centre-line of a vessel


Metacentre through which all the forces of buoyancy pass
when the vessel is heeled

When the vessel is heeled by an external


force, the centre of buoancy/centre of
gravity are not in the same line, now a
Righting Lever
horizontal distance exists, the buoyancy
pushing the vessel upright (the righting
lever Gz)

The distance from the Centre of Gravity to


Metacentric Height
the Metacentre (G.M.)

Height of the The distance from the Keel to the Metacentre


Metacentre (K.M.)

Is the total weight of the vessel equal to


Displacement
the water it displaces

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Capitulo 2 Teoria del buque

(Displacement = Lightship + deadweight)

The vertical distance from the Keel to the


Draught
waterline

The vertical distance from the waterline to


Freeboard
the lowest deck-edge

Under keel
The distance from the keel to the seabed
allowance

This is the difference beteween the fore and


Trim
aft draughts

This is the forward and aft draft added


Mean Draft
together and divided by the number 2

This is when a vessel has a positive righting


Stable Equilibrium
lever (G below M)

This is when the vessel has no righting lever


Neutral Equilibrium
(G & M together) (Danger of Capsize)

Unstable This is when the vessel has a negative


Equilibrium righting lever (G above M) (Capsizing lever)

This is a vessel with a very large righting


Stiff Vessel
lever (G near the Keel)

This is a vessel with a vessel small righting


Tender Vessel
lever (G very near M)

This is a vessel that is initial unstable but


when heeled has a vessel small righting lever
(Very dangerous condition, get rid of any
weights on deck either by putting it
overboard or down into the hold) (Caution
Angle of Loll watch an angle of loll through ice accretion,
always take the ice off all rigging first the
from the high side and push it towards the
low side giving you a bigger list but your
forces of buoyancy work harder to keep your
vessel upright)

A list is caused by you moving anything on


List
the vessel to one side

Curve of Statical this is a curve that shows the following :

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Capitulo 2 Teoria del buque

Stability (1.) angle of maximum stability


(2.) maximum g.z.
(3.) the righting lever at any angle
(4.) angle of vanishing stability
(5.) the range of stability
(6.) angle where deck-edge immersion begins
(7.) the amount of dynamic stability a vessel
has
(8.) the point of contraflexure
(9.) the angle of inclination
(10.) the initial g.m.
(11.) the radians for that vessel

Stability This is an act of keeping the vessel stable

Transverse or The vessels ability to return to the upright


Statical Stability position

This is the volume of air trapped in a


Reserve Buoyancy
watertight space above the waterline

Centre of This is the centre of the water-plane area of


Floatation a vessel at any draught

This is the cargo, stores water, fuel that


Deadweight
you've taken aboard

The total weight of the vessel, machinery ect


Light Displacement that stays on the vessel and cannot be moved,
(stores, fuel water ect not included)

The total weight of the vessel, machinery ect


Lightship that stays on the vessel and cannot be moved,
(stores, fuel water ect not included)

A righting moment
or a moment of The total weight X the righting lever (Gz)
statical stability

A moment A moment = weight x distance

Loaded weight
When a weight is loaded onto a vessel the
regarding the
centre of gravity moves towards it
centre of gravity

When a weight is discharged from a vessel the


Discharged weight centre of gravity goes back to where it was
regarding the before the weight came on board (Opposite
centre of gravity direction from where the weight was placed at
on the vessel)

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Capitulo 2 Teoria del buque

Shifted weight When a weight is shifted on a vessel the


regarding the centre of gravity moves from where the weight
centre of gravity was to the weights new position

The amount of work taken to bring a vessel


Dynamic stability
back to its upright position

This is on a curve of statical stability ,


Range of positive where the curve starts on the angle of
stability inclination to where the curve stops at the
point of vanishing stability

This is on the curve of statical stability


Angle of vanishing and where the curve comes down and has no
stability (g.z.) ( + or - ) then this is where
stability vanishes

This is on the curve of statical stability,


on the angle of inclination at 57.3 degrees
there is a radian line , and a tangent line
which starts from 0 degrees and leaves the
Initial GM
first arc of the curve of statical stability
and where the tangent line and the radian
line at 57.3 degrees meet then this is the
initial g.m.

This is on the curve of statical stability,


Angle of Maximum on the curve itself at the top of the curve
stability down to the angle of inclination and this is
the angle of maximum stability

This is on the curve of statical stability,


Maximum GZ (on
at the top of the curve look at the distance
curve of static
on the scale (metres) and this is the maximum
stability)
g.z.

With freeboard raised then this will give you


(1.) a greater range of stability
(2.) a greater range of vanishing stability
Importance of
(3.) a greater maximum g.z.
adequate freeboard
(4.) the maximum g.z. occurs at a greater
angle
(5.) greater dynamic stability

The mass of any object expressed in cubic


Density metres
(i.e.) a dice is length x breadth x width =

Volume of This is where the vessel is equal to the


displacement water displaced and expressed in cubic metres

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 3 Dimensiones, tonelajes y direccion

CAPITULO 3 DIMENSIONES, TONELAJES Y DIRECCIN

Abaft Por la popa de


Abeam Al travs
Aboard A bordo
Abreast Al travs
After draught Calado a popa
Ahead Por la proa, delante de
Alongside Al costado
Amidship A cruja
Astern Por la popa a popa
Athwardships De banda a banda
Below Debajo
Bow Amura
Breadth Manga
By the head Aproado
By the stern Apopado
Change of trim Cambio de asiento
Deadweight Peso muerto
Depth Puntal
Draft Calado (USA)
Draught Calado
Extreme breath Manga mxima
Fore En la parte de proa, hacia proa
Foreward Hacia proa
Forward draught Calado a proa
Freeboard deck Cubierta de francobordo
Freeboard length Eslora de francobordo
Gross register ton Tonelada de arqueo
Gross register tonnage Arqueo bruto
Lee side Banda de sotavento
Length Eslora
Light draught Calado en lastre
Load draught Calado en carga
Mean draught Calado medio
Net register ton Tonelada de arqueo neto
Net tonnage Tonelaje neto
On board A bordo
On the bow Por la amura
Port Babor
Port bow Amura de babor
Port quarter Aleta de estribor
Starboard Estribor
Tonnage certificate Certificado de arqueo
Tonnage deck Cubierta de arqueo.
Trim Asiento, trimado
Windward side Banda de barlovento
Wing Banda, costado

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 3 Dimensiones, tonelajes y direccion

Shipboard measurements
A ships size and capacity can be described in two ways--linear
dimensions or tonnages. Each is completely different yet
interrelated.
A ships measurement is expressed in feet and inches--linear
dimensions. A ship is a three dimensional structure having
length, width, and depth.

A Ships Dimensions
Length
A ships length is measured in different ways for ships
officers, for architects and designers, and for registry. Terms
used for technical or registry purposes include registered
length, tonnage length, floodable length, and length by ABS
rules. We mention these terms for familiarization only. The more
commonly used length measurements -- length overall, length
between perpendiculars, and length on load waterline are
discussed as follows.
A ships Length Overall [LOA] is measured in feet and inches
from the extreme forward end of the bow to the extreme aft end
of the stern. Watercraft operators must be familiar with this
and similar dimensions to safely manoeuvre the ship. The
dimension is commonly found in lists of ships data for each
vessel.
A ships length is sometimes given as Length Between
Perpendiculars [LBP]. It is measured in feet and inches from the
forward surface of the stem, or main bow perpendicular member,
to the after surface of the sternpost, or main stern
perpendicular member. On some types of vessels this is, for all
practical purposes, a waterline measurement.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 3 Dimensiones, tonelajes y direccion

A ships Length on Load Waterline [LWL] is an important


dimension because length at the waterline is a key factor in the
complex problem of speed, resistance, and friction. On vessels
with a counter stern, the LWL and LBP can be the same or about
the same. On a ship with a cruiser stern, the LWL is greater
than the LBP, as shown in the top portion of Figure.
Width
A ships width or, more properly, a ships breadth is expressed
in a number of ways and, like length, for a number of reasons.
A ships extreme breadth, commonly called beam, is measured in
feet and inches from the most outboard point on one side to the
most outboard point on the other at the widest point on the
ship. This dimension must include any projections on either side
of the vessel. Like length overall, this measurement is
important to a ships officer in handling the vessel.
Depth
The depth of a vessel involves several very important vertical
dimensions. They involve terms like freeboard, draft, draft
marks, and load lines. The vessels depth is measured vertically
from the lowest point of the hull, ordinarily from the bottom of
the keel, to the side of any deck that you may choose as a
reference point. Therefore, it has to be stated in specific
terms such as depth to upper deck amidships. It is impractical
to measure depth in any other way, since it varies considerably
from one point to another on many ships. For example, the depth
is greater at the stern than amidships.
The term "depth" is where the measurement is taken from the
bottom--from the keel upward. Ordinarily, if such a measurement
were being made in a room of a building, taken from the floor to
the ceiling, it would be called height.
Weight tonnage terms
The word "ton" comes from the English "tun" meaning cask or
barrel. To the English, it meant a wine barrel with a capacity
of about 252 gallons. When Parliament imposed duties on the wine
entering England in these barrels, the duty imposed on each tun
eventually led to the use of tonnage in describing a ships
capacity to carry such barrels. The original use of tun meant a
barrel of a particular size, the space that such a barrel would
occupy, and a ships capacity to carry a given number of such
barrels. Tun was originally a figure for space--not weight. By
law, Parliament fixed the tun at 252 gallons. Since this fixed
tun weighed an average of 2,240 pounds, it brought into
existence the weight term "long ton."

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 3 Dimensiones, tonelajes y direccion

A long ton is used throughout the shipping business. It is not


to be confused with the familiar ton of 2,000 pounds, the short
ton, used so widely in the US in relation to so many things
other than ships and shipping. The metric ton is 1,000
kilograms, the equivalent of 2,204.6 pounds. Tonnages normally
refer to the long ton of 2,240 pounds.
Displacement, light - The weight of the ship excluding cargo,
fuel, ballast, stores, passengers, crew, but with water in
boilers to steaming level.
Displacement, loaded - The weight of the ship including cargo,
passengers, fuel, water, stores, dunnage and such other items
necessary for use on a voyage, which brings the ship down to her
load draft.
Deadweight - The total lifting capacity of a ship expressed in
tons of 2240 lbs. It is the difference between the displacement
light and the displacement loaded.
Gross tonnage - The entire internal cubic capacity of the ship
expressed in tons of 100 cubic feet to the ton, except certain
spaces which are exempted, such as: (1) peak and other tanks for
water ballast; (2) spaces above the uppermost continuous deck,
such as: open forecastle, bridge and poop, certain light and air
spaces, domes of skylights, condenser, anchor gear, steering
gear, wheel house, galley and cabins for passengers.
net tonnage - The tonnage most frequently used for the
calculation of tonnage taxes and the assessment of charges for
wharfage and other port dues. Net tonnage is obtained by
deducting from the gross tonnage, crew and navigating spaces and
an allowance for the space occupied by the propelling machinery.
Cargo deadweight - Capacity is determined by deducting from
total deadweight the weight of fuel, water, stores, dunnage,
crew passengers, and other items necessary for use on a voyage.
The tonnage of combat ships is expressed in terms of
displacement. The tonnage of cargo ships is typically measured
measured in terms of deadweight [the net cargo capacity].

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 3 Dimensiones, tonelajes y direccion

Shipboard directions and locations


The front end of the ship is the bow. When you move toward the
bow, you are going forward, when the vessel is moving forward,
it is going ahead. When facing toward the bow, the front-right
side is the starboard bow and the front-left side is the port
bow.
The central or middle area of a ship is amidships. The right
center side is the starboard beam and the left center side is
the port beam.
The rear of a vessel is the stern. When you move in that
direction you are going aft, when the ship moves in that
direction it is going astern. When looking forward, the right-
rear section is called the starboard quarter and the left-rear
section is called the port quarter.
The entire right side of a vessel from bow to stern is the
starboard side and the left side is the port side. A line, or
anything else, running parallel to the longitudinal axis or
centerline of the vessel is said to be fore and aft and its
counterpart, running from side to side, is athwartships.
From the centerline of the ship toward either port or starboard
side is outboard and from either side toward the centerline is
inboard. However, there is a variation in the use of outboard
and inboard when a ship is on berth (moored to a pier). The side
against the pier is referred to as being inboard; the side away
from the pier as outboard.

Locations and Directions Aboard Ship

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 4 Tipos de buques mercantes

CAPITULO 4 TIPOS DE BUQUES MERCANTES

Beam Manga
Counteract Contrarestar
Gilders Puntales
Even keel Aguas iguales
Flush deck ship Buque de cubierta corrida
Edible
T T Comestible
Flasks
T T Frasco, ampolleta
Forecastle
T T Castillo
Ply Emplear, viajar regularmente en una ruta especifica.
Poop Toldilla
Raw Al natural, en bruto
Raised quarter deck ship Buque de saltillo
Shaft tunnel Tunel del eje
Shelter deck ship Buque de cubierta de abrigo
Single well deck ship Buque de cubierta de abrigo
Three island ship Buque de tres superestructuras.

Types of ships in accordance their hull construction

Ships may be classified according to their hull construction as


follows:

Flush deck ship: This type of vessels has no


superstructures above the freeboard deck such
as bridge, forecastle or poop. The main deck
extends the whole length of vessel.

Three island ships: These type of ship


have three superstructures on deck:
forecastle, bridge and poop; heaving two
wells. These type of ships was generally
used as general cargo ships.

Shelter deck ship : This type of vessel


which is considerable built nowadays,
has a continuous shelter deck above
main deck. They are not suitable for
heavy deadweight cargo, but they are
specially suited for light measurement
good.
The space between the main deck and
shelter deck is not included in the net or register tonnage.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 4 Tipos de buques mercantes

Single well deck ship: this type was


designed to give additional cargo space.
The poop is joined with the bridge. The
space between the forecastle and the
bridge is called well.

Raised quarter deck ship: In this type


of vessel, the upper deck aft has been
raised in order to compensate for the loss of space occupied by
the shaft tunnel.
This construction is only used in small ship as coasters, and are
built with only one deck. These ship are used principally in the
coal and timber trades.

Types of ships in accordance their cargo and services

Bitumen tanker Asfaltero


Bulkcarrier Buque de carga a granel
Cargo liner B. de carga general
Cellular container ship B. Portacontenedores celular
Chemical tanker Quimiquero
Coaster Costero
Collier Carbonero
Container ship Containero
Drill ship B. para perforaciones
Ferry Trasbordador
Cement carrier Cementero
Fruit carrier Frutero
General cargo s.lash SHIP ( Buque lash porta barcazas
Lighter aboard ship)
LGC Liquefied gas carrier Gasero gases lquidos
LNC Liquefied natural gas Gasero gases naturales
Log carrier Trasporte de trozas
LPG Gasero gases del petrleo
Timber vessel Maderero
Multipoposed Multiproposito
OBO (Ore Bulk Oil) Buque OBO
Oil and asphalt carrier Asfaltero
Ore carrier Mineralero
Passenger liner Buque de pasajeros
Reefer Frigorfico
Roll on Roll Off - Rolon Rolon
VLCC ( Very large crude Superpetrolero
carrier)

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 4 Tipos de buques mercantes

Classification of ships in accordance their cargo and services

Vessels may be subdivided in two classes: liners and tramps.


Liners included all vessels plying between definite ports and
running on a more or less definite schedule, and tramps are
vessels engaged in carry cargo usually in bulk as grain.
The side of hatches , holds and ballasting arrangements are
important factors for the classification of ships for certain
classes of cargo.

Passenger ship:

A passenger ship is a ship whose primary function is to carry


T T

passengers.
An ocean liner is the traditional form of passenger ship, apart
from smaller craft used for coastal voyages and as ferries. In
the latter part of the 20th Century ocean liners gave way to
cruise ships as the predominant form of passenger ship.
Although some ships have characteristics of both types, the
design priorities of the two forms are different: ocean liners
value speed and traditional luxury while cruise ships value
amenities (swimming pools, theaters, ball rooms, casinos, sports
courts, etc.) at the expense of speed. These priorities produce
different designs. In addition, ocean liners typically were built
to cross the Atlantic Ocean between Europe and the United States
while cruise ships typically serve shorter routes with more stops
along coastlines or among various islands.
For a long time cruise ships were never
as large as the old ocean liners had
been, but in the 1990s this changed and
several new cruise ships in succession
became the largest passenger ships ever
built, superseding the records held by
old Cunard liners such as the Queen Mary T T

and the Queen Elizabeth.


T T

The Queen Mary 2, which entered service


T T

in 2004, is of hybrid construction. It is marketed as an ocean


liner as it is to dominate the transatlantic crossing market but
with a profile more like a cruise ship than any previous liner
aimed at that market. It supersedes the "Eagle Class" cruise
ships of the Royal Caribbean line as the largest passenger ship
ever built. However, it is not as fast as the Queen Elizabeth 2T T

(QE2) which it replaces on that route, and the QE2 was not as
T T T T

fast as the old ocean liners before it, such as the Queen Mary, T T

Normandie, or SS United States


T T T T

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High Speed Craft


Speed is becoming more and more important in shipping today,
especially on short sea passenger routes.

High-speed craft (HSC) include, among others, air-cushion


vehicles (such as hovercraft) and hydrofoil boats.
With the development of many new types of HSC in the 1980s and
1990s, IMO decided to adopt new international regulations dealing
with the special needs of this type of vessel. In 1994, IMO
adopted the International Code of Safety for High-Speed Craft
(HSC Code) (resolution MSC.36 (63), which was developed following
a revision of the Code of Safety of Dynamically Supported Craft
(resolution A.373(X)).
Also in 1994, IMO adopted a new SOLAS chapter X - Safety measures
for high-speed craft, which makes the HSC Code mandatory high-
speed craft built on or after 1 January 1996. The Chapter was
adopted in May 1994 and entered
into force on 1 January 1996.
The HSC Code applies to high-speed
craft engaged on international
voyages, including passenger craft
which do not proceed for more than
four hours at operational speed
from a place of refuge when fully
laden and cargo craft of 500 gross
tonnage and above which do not go
more than eight hours from a port
of refuge. The Code requires that
all passengers are provided with a
seat and that no enclosed sleeping berths are provided for
passengers.
The Code is intended to be a complete set of comprehensive
requirements for high-speed craft, including equipment and
conditions for operation and maintenance. A basic aim is to
provide levels of safety which are equivalent to those contained
in SOLAS and the International Convention on Load Lines, 1966.
The HSC Code includes very detailed requirements such that a
high-speed craft deemed to be in compliance with the Code is
therefore deemed to be in compliance with SOLAS chapters I to IV
and regulation V(12) (Shipborne navigational equipment). Of
course, HSC must comply with any other applicable requirements in
SOLAS - such as the ISM Code - and other international
conventions.
Due to rapid pace of development in the HSC sector, in December
2000, the Maritime Safety Committee adopted amendments to SOLAS
chapter X to make mandatory for new ships the High-Speed Craft
Code 2000. The 2000 HSC Code updates the 1994 HSC Code and will

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apply to all HSC built after the date of entry into force, 1 July
2002. The original Code will continue to apply to existing high-
speed craft.
The changes incorporated in the new Code are intended to bring it
into line with amendments to SOLAS and new recommendations that
have been adopted in the past four years - for example,
requirements covering public address systems and helicopter pick-
up areas.

Tankers:
Are vessels designed for the carriage of liquids in bulks, such
as petrol and its products, wine etc. The cargo space is
subdivided into separate tanks by means of bulkheads, and every
tanks is connected to the punning system for loading and
unloading.

There are today more than 3,500 (Check)


oil tankers in operation. They include the
worlds largest ships, one of which (the
Jahre Viking) can carry more than half a
million tons of crude oil at a time. Many
other tankers are almost as large.

The Jahre Viking is the world's largest


ship at 564,763 DWT. She was built in 1979
at Oppama Shipyard, Sumitomo, Japan.

Although mineral oil was first used primarily for lighting, the
invention of the Diesel and later, the internal combustion engine
soon increased its demand enormously. The worlds first true oil
tanker is generally accepted to have been the Gluckauf, built in
1886 to carry oil in bulk oil to Europe. The idea of transporting
oil in bulk caught on rapidly. In 1885, 99% of the oil exported
from the United States was carried in barrels. By 1906, 99% of it
was carried in bulk.

Demand for oil was encouraged by the invention in 1897 of the


Diesel engine, which used oil as a fuel rather than coal. .
Within a few years, marine diesel engines were being built-in and
by 1911, the first diesel powered ship crossed the Atlantic. By
1927 some 28% of the world merchant fleet used oil for power.

During the next few decades, oil replaced coal as a source of


energy and tankers soon formed a major portion of the world
fleet. Until 1950, however, most of them were designed to carry
petroleum and other refined products. Refineries were generally
located close to the fields where crude oil was found. But
political and technical developments encouraged the oil industry
to move their refineries closer to the markets and this led to an

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increase in demand for tankers designed to carry crude oil rather


than refined products.

In 1950 the standard sized oil tanker was the T2 tanker, some
620 of which were built in the United States between 1942 and
1946. The tanker equivalent of the famous Liberty ship, many T2
ships were sold after the end of hostilities and formed the
backbone of many fleets. They had a deadweight of 16,00 tons and
many were still being used in the 1960s. However, by then tanker
sizes had begun to grow significantly, a process that was to
continue until the end of the 1960s. In 1959 the 114,356 dwt
Universe Apollo became the first tanker to pass the 100,000-ton
figure: within a decade ships five times that size were being
planned.

One reason for this was that tanker owners had discovered how to
make use of economies of scale. Unlike petroleum tankers, crude
carriers were relatively unsophisticated and fairly simple to
build. And, thanks to the square/cube rule, it pays to build them
big. If two boxes are built, one with sides 2 meters long and the
other with side 4 metres long, the surface area of the first will
be 24 square metres and that of the second 96 square metres, or
four times as big. But the volume of the first box will be 8
cubic metres and that of the second 64 cubic metres, or eight
times as great.

Since it is the amount of steel used that basically determines


the cost of constructing the ship it can be seen that using four
times as much steel will enable eight times as much cargo to be
carried. There are other advantages to be gained from building
ships bigger.

One is that crew costs do not rise in proportion to the size of


the ship. In fact, from the 1950s onwards crew sizes steadily
decreased, as owners took advantage of automation and other
technical advances. By the 1980s tankers of 200,000 dwt or more
were operating with crews of 24, compared with the 45 required to
operate a T2 tanker thirty years before. Other personnel costs,
such as shore management, also tended to stay the same, or to
fall, since the number of people required to run a fleet depends
mainly on the number of ships involved rather than their tonnage.

Fuel costs also tend to fall. A 60,000dwt ship might need about
16,000 horse power to operate at 15 knots. A tanker of 260,000
dwt might require 42,500 hp. In other words, 2.7 times as much
energy would enable more than 4.3 times as much cargo to be
transported.

In practice, a number of factors helped to prevent tanker sizes


from growing indefinitely. In the first place, there was a limit
to the number of shipyards capable of building them and the
number of ports able to receive them. Secondly, many of the

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worlds most important shipping routes were unable to cope with


very large ships. The Suez Canal, located on what was the most
important shipping route in the world in the 1960s, was limited
to fully laden ships of 70,000 dwt. The Malacca Strait,
separating Malaysia from Indonesia, is too shallow for loaded
tankers greater than 260,000 dwt. Larger ships going from the
Gulf to Japan, for example, have to go via the Lombok Strait,
which adds and extra 1,100 miles to the voyage. Many other
straits, such as the Straits of Dover and the Bosporus, present
navigational difficulties to large ships.

Developments in the late 1960s however encouraged shipowners to


go for big ships. The most important of these was the closure of
the Suez Canal in 1967. This meant that ships going from the Gulf
to Europe and North America had to go around the Cape of Good
Hope instead. At the same time, business and trade were generally
booming and, for the first time, the United States had become a
major oil importer instead of exporter. Freight rates soared and
so did profits. At one time, it was possible for the cost of a
new VLCC (Very Large Crude Carrier) of more than 200,000 dwt to
be paid off in one year.

It was hardly surprising, therefore that there was a boom in


tanker building. Shipyards in Japan did especially well, but the
traditional shipyards in Europe also expanded their tanker
building capacity. Inevitably, the oil producers also sought to
take advantage of the boom. Between 1970 and 1973 the price of
oil rose from $1.70 a barrel to $5.19 a barrel. But then in
October 1973 war again broke out in the Middle East and freight
rates soared. So did orders for tankers. But then major oil
producers (member of OPEC, the Organization of Petroleum
Exporting Countries) increased the price of oil to $11.65 a
barrel early in 1974. Further increases followed, and the result
was a collapse in demand for oil and for the tankers needed to
transport it. But many shipowners had already contracted to buy
new ships and for the rest of the decade VLCCs and the even-
larger Ultra Large Crude Carriers (ULCCs) of more than 300,000
dwt were still being delivered. Most of them went straight into
lay-up. It has been estimated that by 1975 the tanker market was
so depressed that there was a surplus of 100 million dwt, or
around 30% of the fleet.

The imbalance between supply and demand lasted until well into
the 1990s. Few new ships were ordered and so the world tanker
fleet became progressively older (as did the fleet of bulk
carriers and other ships). This not only had economic
implications, resulting in many shipping companies and
shipbuilders going out of business, it also had safety
implications. Statistics show quite clearly that older ships are
more at risk than new ones. And by the late 1970s the threat of

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marine pollution from tankers and other ships was causing


considerable international concern.

Bulkcarriers:

Are vessels designed for


carrying cargoes in bulk, such
as coal, sugar, oil and ores.
They have longitudinal
bulckheads, and as the bulk
cargoes are usually loaded from
a spout, they have no derricks.
Among the bulk carriers are the
ore ships and colliers.
Bulkcarriers ("bulkers"), are
the great work horses of the shipping world, carrying raw dry
cargoes in huge cavernous holds, such as coal, iron ore, grain,
sulphur, scrap metal. Currently there is a huge demand for these
vessels, driven by the extraordinary expansion of the Chinese
economy. Imports of iron ore into China have boosted the
earnings of bulk carrier owners as freight rates have gone
through the roof into uncharted territory.

Bulkers range from about 25,000 Deadweight tons ("handysize")


through the medium size Panamax vessels of about 75,000 DWT, to
the giant ("capesize") vessels of over 200,000 DWT. Due to the
heavy use that these vessels are put to, their life-expectancy is
less than it would be for say, a container ship. A problem facing
the industry is that with freight rates so high, there is little
incentive for ship owners to scrap the older tonnage when it is
still able to earn very good money. As we have seen, the dangers
of running old bulk carriers can be catastrophic, not only for
the vessels and their insurers, but also for the crew who have to
man

RO-RO

The Ro-Ro, or more fully the Roll


on - roll off vessel, comes in a
number of shapes and sizes, but
generally in two types; the
passenger ro-ro and the Cargo ro-
ro.

Passenger ro-ros have become


common sights wherever people
want to travel over water with

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their vehicles. It is probably the only type of cargo vessel that


most people have travelled on. Usually a rear door (but sometimes
a bow door) allows for vehicles to be driven on and off, stored
on the car deck below the passenger accommodation areas.

The cargo ro-ro is less "plush" than the passenger type, as these
vessels are designed for the carriage of commercial vehicles
where luxurious passenger accommodation is not a primary
consideration. Considerable concerns have been expressed over the
bow-door type of ro-ro design. The HERALD OF FREE ENTERPRISE was
one such vessel, where a practice of sailing before the bow door
was fully closed had been allowed to develop. Tragically, on
leaving Zeebrugge, the folly of this practice led to the disaster
that claimed nearly 200 lives. If water is allowed to enter the
car deck, the stability of the whole vessel can be rapidly
affected. It is estimated that it only needs one centimetre of
water over the whole car deck, for the vessel to become so
unstable that it can overturn. The ESTONIA was another such
vessel where, in a storm, the shield over the bow door was ripped
off. Once water penetrated the car deck the vessel began to turn
over and sink.

Car Carriers

The car carrier could never be described as a beauty of the seas,


yet in it's rectangular design, is purpose built to carry large
numbers of cars.

Manufacturers of cars, mainly in


Japan and Europe, use these vessels
to ship large quantities of their
products around the world. Every
Japanese, Korean, or European car
you see on your roads, may have
been brought across on one of these
car carrier vessels.

Car Carriers are ships designed to


carry a specialized cargo consisting of only automobiles. They are
designed to allow cars to drive on and off the vessel, eliminating
the need for cargo handling gear. The inside of the ship looks
like the inside of the parking garage in a large building.

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Reffers

Refrigerated Cargo Carrying Vessels


("Reefers") are purpose built to carry
fruit, meat and other food products
across the sea in a fresh and clean
manner.

Perhaps the most famous of these types


of vessels are the banana carriers,
trading between the Caribbean and
Europe. They are sleak and fast, as
their trade demands, with cooling
(refrigeration) equipment to keep
their cargoes fresh.

Chemical tankers

Many of the changes in everyday life that have taken place during
the last fifty years have resulted from developments in the
chemical industry. A wide range of ordinary items are in fact
derived from complex chemical processes, and are often derived
from the by-products of the production of energy. Some perfumes
and medicines are derived from coal: from oil and gases we obtain
fertilizers and plastics, weed killers and detergents, clothing
and paints.

The greatest advances made in the chemical industry have been made
in the last 25 years and one result has been a rise in the demand
for raw materials. This in turn has led to a great increase in the
maritime transportation of chemicals and the development of
specialized ships in which to carry them.

The ships that have been built in response to this demand are
among the most complex ever constructed. The cargoes they carry
often present tremendous challenges and difficulties from a safety
point of view and many chemicals are also a far greater pollution
threat than crude oil.

Yet despite this, chemical tankers are among the safest ships
afloat. One reason for this is the action taken by the industry
and governments to adopt and implement stringent regulations
regarding both safety and pollution prevention.

The main chemicals carried in bulk can be divided into the


following groups:

Heavy chemicals include substances that are produced in large


quantities. Among the most common are: sulphuric acid, which is

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among the cheapest of all acids and can be produced from sulphur,
air and water.

Molasses and alcohols: molasses comes from either sugar beet or


sugar cane and can be fermented into alcohols such as rum. Many
alcohols are produced by the petrochemical industry, but some can
also come from the fermentation of starch, such as ethanol.
Vegetable oils and animal fats: edible vegetable oils are derived
from soya beans, groundnuts, cottonseed, sunflowers, olives, rape
and other seeds. Coconut and palm oil can be used for cooking and
also in the production of soap. Industrial oils come from linseed
and castor seed. Some fats are extracted from animals including
lard and fish oils. Oils and fats are in general esters of an
alcohol (glycerol) and a variety of organic acids. Detergents and
inorganics are common commodities which have been traded by sea
for many years.

Petrochemical products form the most complex and probably the most
versatile group of chemicals carried in bulk

Coal tar products: coal tar is derived from the carbonization of


coal. It can be converted into numerous products, many of which
can also be produced from oil

Chemical hazards and problems

As might be expected in a trade where the products are so varied,


the hazards presented by chemicals vary enormously. The
identification and evaluation of these hazards is of vital
importance not only to the operation of chemical tankers but also
to their design and construction.

Hazard evaluation of chemicals is in itself a complex problem


stemming from the combination of the flammability and toxicity
characteristics of the chemicals themselves as well as from design
and operation hazards.
We can distinguish between the overall hazard to the environment and the intrinsic hazards of the chemicals. In respect of the former, the
hazard rating profile developed by the Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP), based on the release into
the sea of noxious substances, falls into four main categories:
Damage to living resources:

1 Hazards to human health


2 Reduction of amenities
3 Interference with other uses of the sea.

The main hazards and problems are listed below:

1 Cargo density the specific gravity of chemicals carried at


sea varies greatly. Some are lighter than
water. Others are twice as dense. Those
substances which have especially high density
include inorganic acids, caustic soda and some

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halogenated hydrocarbons.
2 High viscosity some lubricating oil additives, molasses and
other products are very viscous, especially at
low temperatures. As a result they are sticky
and move very slowly, causing problems in
cargo-handling and cleaning.
3 Low boiling some chemicals vaporize at a relatively low
point temperature. This can causes containment
problems, since when a liquid turns into a gas
it expands, creating growing pressure. It is
necessary, therefore, to provide either a
cooling system or to carry the chemical in
specially-designed pressure vessels.
4 Reaction to some chemicals react to water, to air or to
other other products. Measures therefore have to be
substances taken to protect them. Apart from the fact
that an accident can lead to a dangerous
reaction (such as the emission of a poisonous
gas) many chemicals can be ruined if they are
contaminated by other substances. Methanol,
lubricating oil additives and alcohols can be
spoiled by even a slight amount of water
contamination. Too much oxygen can lead to a
rapid deterioration in the quality of some
vegetable oils. Other products can change into
a different product completely.
5 Polymerization some substances, such as petrochemicals, do
not need to come into contact with another
chemical before undergoing a chemical change -
they are selfreactive and liable to
polymerization unless protected by an
inhibitor. This is a process whereby the
molecules of a substance combine to produce a
new compound. The process can be accelerated
by catalytic factors such as heat, light and
the presence of rust, acids or other
compounds. Styrene, methyl methacrylate and
vinyl acetate monomer are examples. Propylene
oxide and butylene oxide are also liable to
polymerization.
6 Toxicity many chemicals are highly poisonous, either in
the form of liquid or vapour or both. The
problem is sometimes made worse by the fact
that toxicity can be increased when vapours
from one substance come into contact with
those from another.
7 Solidification some substances have to be kept at a high
temperature, otherwise they solidify or become
so viscous that they cannot easily be moved.
Examples are some petrochemicals, molasses,
waxes and vegetable oils and animal fats.

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8 Pollution while many of the factors listed above present


problems for the ship and crew, a considerable
number of chemicals are extremely dangerous to
marine and other forms of life. Although crude
oil is probably the best-known pollutant of
the sea, many chemicals are in fact far more
poisonous and present a much greater threat -
a threat which can be much more long-lasting,
since some of the chemicals concerned can
enter the food chain and ultimately threaten
humans as well as marine life.

It can be seen from the above list that chemicals present many
difficulties to the shipowners and crew. A further complication
is the fact that most chemicals are transported in relatively
small amounts. The ships which carry them are consequently much
smaller than crude oil carriers but are expected to carry
several different products at the same time. It is probable that
these products will have different and usually incompatible
properties.

The development of the chemical tanker

The chemical tanker is basically a development of the last forty


years. The development of the chemical industry in the United
States following the end of World War II led to a demand for
ships in which to carry the industry's products. A number of T2
tankers, mass-produced during the war, were converted by
installing special tanks, double bottoms and suitable structural
and piping arrangements.

Chemical carriers are smaller in size than


crude oil carriers, but are technically far
more complex. These pictures show typical
chemical carriers now in service.

The 3,466 dwt Tina Jakobsen was built in


Germany in 1980. An IMO Class 2 ship, she
is fitted with 17 stainless steel tank.

The Bro Nora is owned by Sweden's Brostroms


Shipping Company. She was built in Spain in
1997. The 5,811 dwt ship has 13 stainless
steel tanks.

Chemical tankers make far greater use of cofferdams, double


bottoms and similar devices than conventional crude oil tankers.
To ensure that incompatible cargoes do not come into contact

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with each other, tanks are usually separated by a cofferdam - a


space between the two tank walls.

Most chemical tankers have their tanks separated from the outer
frame of the ship by a double bottom or double skin. If the ship
is damaged in a collision or a grounding this space should
protect the cargo tanks from damage.

The tanks of a chemical tanker are constructed of special.


materials, all designed to carry certain products. The early
chemical tankers generally had tanks made of stainless steel
which resists corrosion from many products and could be cleaned
relatively easily. But stainless steel is unsuitable for many
chemicals and so different coatings were designed. Typical
coatings in use nowadays include epoxy, phenolic resins, zinc
silicate, polyurethane and rubber. Each one has advantages and
disadvantages and so far no coating has been developed which is
suitable for all chemicals.

The Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying


Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (BCH Code)

The new code was applied to ships built on or after 12 April


1972 and its purpose was given in a preamble which states: 'This
Code has been developed to provide an agreed international
standard for the safe carriage by sea of dangerous chemicals in
bulk by prescribing the constructional features of ships
involved in such carriage and the equipment they should carry
with regard to the products involved.'

The Code was not, in its original form, concerned with pollution
aspects. IMO was fully aware of the threat which chemicals posed
to the marine environment, but had decided to consider this
aspect in the context of a new international convention on
marine pollution which was then being prepared. This was
ultimately adopted in 1973 as the International Convention for
the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), Annex II of
which is concerned with the prevention of chemical pollution.

The basic philosophy of the code is to classify each chemical


according to the hazard they present and to relate those hazards
to the type of ship in which they are carried: the more
dangerous the chemical the greater is the degree of cargo
protection and survival capability required.

LNG carrier
The LNG carrier (Liquified Natural Gas) and it's cousin the LPG
carrier (Liquified Petroleum Gas) are products of the late
twentieth century. LNG and LPG are the preferred fuel types of
certain countries for their industrial power needs. Japan is one
such country, and so LNG needs to be transported to Japan, but is

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not the easiest of cargoes to be transported. In its natural


state, LNG is a gas, so to transport it, it needs to be either
pressurised into a liquified form, or
kept as a liquid by reducing the
temperature .

The shape of the LNG Carrier is quite


unmistakable, with the shape of the
Moss tanks (which are like enormous
spherical thermos flasks !) visible
along the deck, which has led to the
nickname of "Dinosaur Eggs Carriers".

Obviously, the carriage of an


explosive gas - kept at below
freezing temperatures as an unstable
liquid presents a very dangerous
cargo, yet it is for this very fact,
that LNG Carriers have about the best
safety record of all maritime vessels. Only the best officers and
crews are employed on these vessels, and the vessels themselves
are maintained meticulously, and renewed frequently. There have
been accidents involving LNG / LPG carriers, but where such
events have occurred, the crews or salvors have so far,
successfully managed to vent off the cargo into the atmosphere,
thus rendering the lethal cargo harmless.

Container ship

These ships carry containers as cargo. The containers are


preloaded with goods for export. In this way the goods can be
locked and sealed before they are loaded onto the ship. With the
use of shore based independent moving gantry cranes, the loading
and unloading work is extremely fast.

All the cargo holds contain guides for the containers, so that it
is easy to slide them in place. The containers are made so that
the corners can be locked in place very easily. Because the
containers are lowered in place precisely and the corners are
matched for interlocking, it is important to keep the ship at
even keel during the cargo work. For this purpose, container
ships have remotely controlled ballast pumps and valves that can
be controlled by deck officers.

In line with the fast cargo handling work, container ships are
usually built for speed, so that cargo can arrive at their
destinations fast. Some ships are fitted with bow-thrusters to
shorten the maneuvering time.

The Containership or "Boxship" is the great success story of the


last 40 years. General cargo was historically carried in dry

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cargo vessels, without any particular specialisation. Cargo


loading and unloading was always a slow, labourious task, due to
the varying shapes, sizes, weights and fragility of the numerous
cargoes being carried on any one vessel. The idea of
standardising the carrying box, or container at 20 feet long was
a breakthrough that allowed for vessels to be designed to carry
these standard sized boxes, and for dockside equipment also to be
designed to lift , stack and store these specific shapes.

Initially, these were small vessels of up to 10,000 DWT,


carrying no more than a few hundred TEU (Twenty foot Equivalent
Units), but have grown in size as the success and economies of
these vessels have become more obvious. Today's container ships
are being built to take 8,000 T.E.U., with plans to build 10 -
12,000 TEU ships.

As well as the Twenty foot container, many goods need larger


boxes, so there is a larger standard sized container, the FEU
(Forty Foot Equivalent Unit). On board a modern containership,
the complex method of loading the TEU and FEU in an order that
will facilitate offloading at the
other end is now largely
computerised. These vessels are built
for speed, and can reach upwards of
28 knots, moving cargoes around the
globe.

Through transport or inter-modal


transport, means that these
containers can be offloaded from a
ship, and rapidly loaded onto trains
or onto container lorries for onward
transport to the place of delivery

The containers are usually stowed on


the deck of the ship or inside of it
in long chutes. The containers are
connected together at their corners
by locking devices. Containerized
cargo must be loaded by cranes.
Most containers are either 20 or 40 feet long and 8 feet high.

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Ore ships
The ore ships have several features,
owing to the density of ore and the
way in which it stows, the center of
gravity of the cargo is lower than
in other types of cargoes; to
compensate this, the bottom of the
holds are raised a considerable
distance above the bottom of the
ship, all this makes the rolling
motion of the ship easy and regular.
The machinery is located aft in order to leave a free
uninterrupted space of the cargo holds.
Lumber or timber vessels
This vessels have a broad beam in relation to draught, in order
to compensate for the centre of gravity caused by the carriage of
large deck loads. The holds are as far as possible free
obstructions, such a pillars, deep knees, girders, web frames,
etc. and have ballast tanks carefully subdivided in order to
counteract the weight of deck loads.

OBO :Ore/bulk/oil vessel


T T

A multipurpose ship that can carry ore, heavy dry bulk goods and
oil. Although more expensive to build, they ultimately are more
economical because they can make return journeys with cargo
rather than empty as single-purpose ships often must.

The general cargo ship


T

Despite being firmly in the container age, with a vast number of


T

commodities being carried in those ubiquitous boxes, not every


cargo can be handled in such a fashion. "General" cargo
constitutes that myriad of goods which are not liquid or bulk or
containerisable, and there is still a sizeable fleet of ships
that will carry such cargo.
A general cargo ship is designed to carry pretty well every form
of dry cargo that is on offer. Long iron such as railway lines or
constructional steel is a natural for this type of ship, while
rolling stock, agricultural machinery and a whole range of
factory plant will need a capable sort of ship to accommodate
these large, awkward loads. Steel coils are heavy, difficult
cargoes that need special stowage, while the "big bags"
containing dry chemicals and small consignments of bulk are
ideally suited to the modern general cargo ship.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 4 Tipos de buques mercantes

An older type of general cargo ship is the "tweendecker", which


is a survivor of pre-container days when all dry general cargo
was handled in such vessels on both the liner and tramp trades.
The tweendecker has more than one deck above its lower hold, the
cargo space may be divided into up to six holds so there are a
large number of separate compartments in which cargo may be
segregated.

General cargo ships will invariably have their own cargo gear,
either cranes or derricks, to enable them to trade into ports
where there is little port equipment. They may even have a heavy
lift derrick to enable large loads of typically up to 70-80
tonnes to be handled, independently of any shore cranes. Self-
sufficiency is the watchword on the general cargo ship.

More modern general cargo carriers tend to have fewer holds, so


that larger and bulkier loads can be handled, and hatches that
are almost as wide as the ship herself, to enable the cargo to be
"spotted" without having to be dragged in and out of the wings,
as was the case with old tweendeckers, where the hatches were
smaller. They also tend to have cranes that are able to work in
tandem, thus doubling the weight that can be carried. Such
facilities are very useful for project cargo, where a whole
factory or large parts of a chemical plant might carried on a
single ship and delivered close to the destination. And if
general cargo is not available, these ships can usually find
employment carrying a load of containers or a consignment of bulk
cargo or bagwork.
Those who sail in general cargo ships speak of the variety of the
work, and of the longer spells in port when cargo has to be
carefully stowed so that there is no lost space, cargo cannot
move and the stability of the ship at all stages of the voyage
needs to be allowed for. There is quite an art to stowing a
general cargo ship for a number of port calls, ensuring that
every item of cargo is identified and that its stowage is
detailed, so that it neither becomes "overstowed" by cargo that
is to be discharged at a later port, nor is squashed by heavier
cargo. The optimum carriage conditions for a whole range of
different goods that may deteriorate on voyage must also be
provided. Those running large fast container ships may look down
their noses at the humble general cargo ships they meet at sea.
But these vessels are vital for world trade, and if they were not
available many of the world's goods would not find their way to
market.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 4 Tipos de buques mercantes

The last HSC desing : The BGV concept

The BGV is designed around a


T T

central, particularly long,


displacement hull, giving very
low resistance to motion
coupled with good behaviour in
short swell seas.
Transverse stability is
ensured by aft outriggers
whose pseudo-trimaran concept
gives the craft, as opposed to
a catamaran, remarkably stable
behaviour and sea keeping due
to the long rolling period
generated.
Roll is controlled by the highly-efficient alternate-acting
stabilizing foils, (only in positive incidence, so always giving
positive lift).
One of the main advantages of
the craft's concept is the lack
of pitching, or when it might
occur, it reduces it to the
lowest possible levels. The
hull's slender v-shape and its
sharp water-entry combine to
make the craft a real "wave
piercer".

But, the exceptional results of


this protected design are multiplied tenfold by a technologic
concept which is now patented worldwide.
T T

Like an aircraft that generates an air-cushion on take-off and


landing, the BGV benefits from an enhanced "ground effect"
(lift) which overcomes the effects of powerful motorization.
So, five technological features combine and interact
advantageously in the BGV design concept :
T T

Active reduction of hydro and aerodynamic drags


Ground effect and channelling of the air trapped by the
outriggers, acting themselves as stabilisers
Active and always positive lift of the stabilizing foils
Transverse stabilisation by foils and outriggers

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 4 Tipos de buques mercantes

Diagonal stabilisation by the outrigger flaps


These technologies are not piled one on top of another but
combine their actions to provide improved efficiency.

BGV Fast Ferries - The ship owners' benefits


The high Speed Ferries market is now established, but navigation
on the high seas, i.e. in rough conditions remains to be
mastered.
For the ship-owners profitability means a clear reduction in
costs via operations needing fewer personnel and higher
turnaround from more reliable and higher speeds; however, up to
now fast boat's applications are limited to short hauls, most
frequently in enclosed seas or regions with calm seas
conditions.
The BGV was designed to take into account all these constraints
T T

offering exclusive advantages :


The BGV has an excellent financial return, with a sailing
T T

speed of 55 knots, 15 knots faster than the current


generation of Fast Ferries in the same conditions of sea
and much more in rough seas
The BGV can operate in all-weather with less than 1 %
T T

cancellation per year, whereas the majority of today's


rapid vessels do not sail in heavy seas - or if they do,
they behave dangerously.
The BGV becomes a true "wave-piercer" in rough seas.
T T

The BGV enjoys a high reliability and safety thanks to the


T T

vessel's shape and structure e.g. the use of plating of


increased thickness over the current construction, with the
elimination of stress reversal and no vibration to prolong
the lasting quality of the motorization and to decrease the
maintenance costs.
The BGV is the only high speed craft which enjoys a great
T T

stability due to the outriggers with the flaps and the


foils, which is an exclusive and very important advantage
to give exceptional conditions of passengers comfort.
Last but not least : even though the BGV has a space shuttle
T T

appearance, the vessel's construction is extremely simple and


one might even call it "basic" which means very low construction
costs

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 4 Tipos de buques mercantes

BGV 155

As the other BGV 75, 103 and 120, the BGV 155 is conceived
around the specific technicologic concept patended worldwide.
With its central, particularly long, displacement hull and five
technological features which combine and interact in the design
concept, the BGV 155 provides exclusive advantages :
navigation in all-weather
very high speed in rough seas
high reliability and security
great stability offering exceptional conditions for
passengers comfort

Types Length Beam Dspl. Motorization Speed Pax. Cars
A 155M* 155 m 44 m 1950 T. 30'000 kW 40 knots 1104 255
A 155M 155 m 44 m 1950 T. 40'000 kW 45 knots 1104 255

Port facilites - Low Cost Berthing Solutions


While its shallow draught
renders a very high degree of
port and harbour
accessibility, the unique
shape of the BGV calls for
special consideration of
berthing and access
arrangements. Proposed
solutions, however, are low
cost, and BGV's design
emphasis in this respect is on
arrangements which still allow quays to be used by other
vesssels.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 4 Tipos de buques mercantes

AUXILIARY SHIPS

Barge Gabarra
Bucket dredge Draga de cangilones
Cable ship Cablero
Diving tender Embarcacin de buzo
Drilling ship Buque de perforaciones
submarinas
Dredge Draga
Ferry Trasbordador
Floating crane Gra flotante
Garbage lighter Barcaza de basuras
Hopper Gnguil
Hulk Ponton
Ice breaker Rompehielos
Lighter Gabarra
Pilot boat Lancha de prcticos
Scow Lanchn barcaza
Suction dredge Draga de succin
Supply vessel Buque de aprovisionamiento
Tender Buque auxiliar
Tug Remolcador
Towboat Remolcador
Trash boat Buque recoge basuras
Water boat Aljibe

There are a great variety of auxiliary


ships, which include:

Cable ship:
Are ship equipped for laying and
repairing cables. They have at the bow
large wheels to facilitate handling
cables.

Tugs
Are strongly built vessels, of
small tonnage with powerful
engines specially designed for
towing.
There are two main types: the
Harbour tug and sea going tug. the
former is used to help other ship
in their manovres within the
arbour, and the sea tug for saving
purposes and towing ship which are
not under command.

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Capitulo 4 Tipos de buques mercantes

Auxiliary ship

In the life of a busy port, such as San Francisco, New York, or


Singapore, auxiliary ships play a very important role. Indeed
without them a modern port couldnt be operated.

Most obvious are the tow boats, powerful little ships, almost
all engine , that push and pull ship many times their size,
manoeuvring giants in and out of dock. Some are big and powerful
enough to hustle a 200.000 ton tanker into it slip or tow a
disable vessel across thousands of angry ocean.

Others are purely harbour crafts, fussing from dock to dock with
everything from ships to sand scows.

In many large ports cargo is handled from tug draw lighters


and barges, which deliver their loads to ships at anchor or to
the free side of ship at dock. There are open barges for coal
,flat deck barges for oil, chemicals, molasses, and other liquid
cargoes.

A large port supports hundred of barges, and these in turn


provide business for fleets of tugs.

Most harbours are located o rivers that bring silt and mud down
from the interland, so dredges are needed to eliminate shoals
and mud banks and to keep the channels deep enough for over
increasing size of ships.

There are different types of mud-diggers, from small outfit


working around piers and docks, dumping their spoil into barges,
to 10.000 ton suction dredges, which can fill their holds with
thousands of tons of sand and mud before they make it out and
dump it.

Dredges are vital to busy harbours. More than 10 million tons of


mud and silt are removed every year in the port of Liverpool
alone.

Trash boats are important auxiliaries of the


harbour too, making regular sweeps of
channels and dock areas; they scoop up
floating debris, such as logs and broads
which are not only unsightly but can become
a fire hazard by soaking up oil from harbour
waters. Large boards and logs can also play
havoc with a ships propellers.

New Yorks trash boat is a 100 foot long


water borne scoop mounted

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 4 Tipos de buques mercantes

on pontoons . It carries a big net to snare crates barrels,


boards, bottles and other flotsam and delivers it to barges off
the New Jersey shore.

A familiar figure in many ports is the harbour junkie the


waterfront version of the old-time ragman and scrap dealer.
Usually seen in a row boat or motor boat. The junkman goes from
pier to pier and ship to ship hunting old chains, hawsers,
dunnage, and anything else that can be bought from a ship crew.
Fireboats are queens of the service fleet, painted in red and
bristling with nozzles; they are ready to speed to the aid of a
ship on fire or to fight waterfront flames from the water side.
Fireboats were especially needed in the day when most docks were
finger piers that jutted out into the harbour making pier fires
almost inaccessible to shore side apparatus. Such piers are
becoming a sing of the past, but fireboats are still handy for
fighting fires on ships at anchor.

An usual aspect of harbour activity for many years in New York


was the floating elevator ,which transferred grain from barges
to the holds of waiting freighters. First introduced into the
harbour in 1848 the elevators were barges with box-like
structures on them that towered high above in a heavy wind or a
sudden surge sea.

Grain was removed from the barges by scoops affixed to an


endless belt, lifted up through the tower for cleaning and
weighing and then chuted into the ships holds. Only a few of
these elevator are still left.

An essential phase of harbour service is the pilot boat, which


cruises back and forth beyond the harbour entrance, supplying
pilots to incoming vessels and receiving pilots when leave
outward bounders after they pass the harbour bar or the first
sea-buoy.

Pilots are the harbour guides whose knowledge of every channel


markers and tidal peculiarity is essential to the safe
navigation and docking of ships coming or leaving for sea.

Every port has special kinds of service craft. Almost gone from
London docks now, but a familiar sight for many years are the
low riding tall masted sailing barges, that play the Thames
estuary carrying all kinds of freight between London inner
harbour and its many satellite ports along the Thames.

Another familiar sight in London for many years was London


Mammoth a huge floating crane with arms capable of lifting
locomotives, railway cars, turbines, and another machinery onto
ships deck. Most big ports have similar floating cranes,
although the advent in recent years of large cargo ships with

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 4 Tipos de buques mercantes

heavy booms and of specialised ships with extra lift equipment


has diminished the need for these Harbour auxiliaries.

A peculiar sight of New York harbour activity are the car-floats


tug drawn barges which ferry railroad cars between New Jersey
terminals and the Brookling waterfront. It is always a
fascinating sight when you are riding New York ferry, to see
what appears to be a floating train
moving across the bay through a
morning mist with a hard working tug
sandwiched amidst a fleet of car-
laden barges almost hidden from
sight except for the tip of its
stack.

The Dutch and German ports have


their huge fleets of motorised
barges which bring every conceivable
kind of freight down from the
hinterland for loading on out bound ships and go back into the
interior with goods from overseas. Most of those barges are also
home for their captain-owners and his family, and their
curtained ports and well scrubbed afterdecks betoken the
familys pride in its floating home.

Hong Kong has its hordes of sampans and Singapore


its tongkangs which sometimes ride the harbour so
closely packed together that almost form a bridge
from shore to shore.

In some harbours there are even floating machine


shops that come alongside ships at anchor to make emergency
repairs with complete welding apparatus, lathes drill presses
and another equipment, they are important adjunct to port
facilities.

To the untrained eye looking for more dramatic sights of sea-


port , the small craft blend into the fascinating kaleidoscope
of marine activity, but they are the indispensable servants of
all the ships that come and go on the sea.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 4 Tipos de buques mercantes

After deck Toldilla


Barges Barcazas
Crates Embalajes, canastas
Bristling Erizado
Car-float Barcaza trasbordadora de vagones
Chute, to Verter por canaln
Craft Embarcacin
Cruises back and front Navegar de un lado para otro
Debris Escombros, desechos
Digger Excavadora
Disable Sin gobierno
Dredger Draga
Dump, to Verter
Dunnage Madera de estiba
Endless belt Correa sin fin
Floating crane Gra flotante
Flotsam Carga, cargamento, flete
Freighter Carguero
Fussing Trabajando
Hawsers Estachas
Havoc Causar dao
Heavy booms Puntales para cargas pesadas
Hinterland Regin interior
Hustle, to Empujar, moverse
Indeed Por cierto, ciertamente
Junkie Chatarrero
Laden Cargado
Lathes Tornos
Lighters Gabarras
Low riding Poca velocidad
Machine shop Taller de maquinaria
Mist Calima
Mud Fango
Mud-digger Draga
Net Red
Nozzle Tobera, boquilla
Outbound De salida
Outfit Unidad, equipo
Outward bounder Buque de salida
Pier Muelle
Puff, to Resoplar
Ply,to Ir y venir
Ragman Trapero
Row boat Bote a remos
Sadwiched Intercalado
Scoop up, to Recoger
Scrap-dealer Chatarrero
Sea buoy Boya de mar, b. de recalada
Shoals Bajos

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 4 Tipos de buques mercantes

Silt Cieno, sedimento


Slip Grada
Snare, to Coger con redes
Soak up ,to Impregnar
Speed ,to Apresurarse
Spoil productos de dragados
Stack Chimenea (de barco)
Suction dredger Draga de succion
Surge Marejada
Tall masted Mastil alto
Tongkamgs Barcazas de Singapur
Topple,to Derribar, volcar
Towboat Remolcador
Trash boat Embarcacion de limpieza de
puertos
Tug Remolcador
Waterborne scoop Canguilon flotante
Welding apparatus Equipo de soldadura.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 5 Movimientos, esfuerzos y tensiones

CAPITULO 5 MOVIMIENTO DEL BUQUE, ESFUERZOS Y TENSIONES

Heaving Movimiento vertical del buque


Hogging Quebranto
Panting Vibraciones a proa producidas
por las olas
Pitching Cabeceo
Punding Pantocazos, dar
Ranking Deformacin a causa del mar
Rolling Balanceo
Sagging Arrufo
Shear, to Cizallar
Stress Esfuerzo (por unidad de
superficie)
Bending stress Esfuerzo de flexin
Compressive stress Esfuerzo de compresin
Shearing stress Esfuerzo cortante
Tensile stress Esfuerzo de traccin
Surge Movimiento longitudinal del
buque
Sway Movimiento lateral del buque
Yawing Guiada
Strain Esfuerzo

Stress and strain

Stress is load put on a piece of


material or on a structure. If the
stress is excessive, the material
may become permanently deformed and
weakened and it is then said to be
strained.

Types of stress:

Tensile stress try to pull the material apart.


Compressive stress : try to crush the material.
Shearing stresses may described as the effect forces to shear
the material across, or to make to the component parts of a
structure slide over each other.
Bending stresses are compound stresses produced by forces when
they try to bend a piece of material.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 5 Movimientos, esfuerzos y tensiones

Stresses in ships

These may be divided into two classes:


Structural: affecting general structure and shape of the
ship.
Local: Affecting certain localities only.

Principal structural stresses:

Hogging and sagging.


Racking.
Effect of water pressure.
Drydocking.

Principal local stress:

Panting and pounding; effect of local weight and vibration.

Hogging and sagging

These are longitudinal bending stresses, which may occur when a


ship, is in a seaway ,or which may be caused by a faulty
loading.

Sag. A vessel sags when the middle of its structure sinks below
the bow and stern. A loaded tank vessel tends to sag due to the
weight of the cargo in the tank section. It is most noticeable
midship. Sagging may cause excess stress if the weight is
concentrated in the midship cargo tank section. Since sag
reduces freeboard, the amount of cargo that can be carried is
reduced. Sagging can be reduced if more weight is put in the end
tanks and less weight is put in the center tanks. Weight should
not be concentrated in any one section even while tanks are
being loaded.

Hog.

A vessel hogs when the bow and stern are lower than the midship
section . An empty vessel tends to hog because the bow and stern
sections weigh more than the midship. Hogging causes the center
of the vessel to carry most of the stress. Hogging can be
avoided with proper loading and ballasting. Tables supplied with
each vessel can be used to determine bow-to-stern stress while
the vessel is being loaded and ballasted.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 5 Movimientos, esfuerzos y tensiones

Cargoes such as iron ore are extremely heavy


and can exert tremendous pressure on the
ships hull. Homogenous loading as shown
below, is usually adopted for low density cargoes such as coal
and grain, but may also be permitted for high-density cargoes
under certain conditions. Normally, however, cargoes such as
iron ore are carried in alternate holds. When a ship is
floating in still water, there will be differences in the
forces exerted upon the hull, which have to
be taken into account when the ship is
loaded. Alternate loading can result in
shearing pressures, while uneven loading can cause the ship to
sag or results in hogging

ARRUFO / SAGGING QUEBRANTO / HOGGING

Ranking

Is the distorting of a ships transverse shape by wave action, or


by rolling in a seaway. The stress comes mainly on the corners of
the ship, that is, on the tank side brackets and beam knees,
which must be strong enough to resist it. Transverse bulkheads
provide very great resistance to this stress.

Effect of water pressure.


Water pressure tends to push-in the sides and bottom of the ship.
It is resisted by bulkheads and by all transverse members.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 5 Movimientos, esfuerzos y tensiones

Drydocking

The ship when drydock and supported by the keel blocks, will
have a tendency to sag at the bilges. In modern ship of normal
size, the cellular double bottom is strong enough to resist
this stress without any further strengthening. It is worth
nothing that if sagging occur, it can always be remedied by
the use of bilge blocks.

Panting

Is the in and out motion of the plating in the bows of a ship


due to variation in water pressure as the bow passes through
successive waves. It is particularly noticeable forward when
pitching , and grates in fine bowed ships. Peak tank structure
helps to resist this stress.

Pounding

Pounding is the heavy falling of a ship into the water after


having been lifted by wave action. It is greatest in full
bowed ships. Cellular double bottoms helps to resist it.

Local weights

Local strengthening is intruded to resist stress set up by local


weight in a ship, such as engines and heavy cargoes.

Vibration

Vibration from engine, propellers, etc. tends to cause strains in


the after parts of the ships. It is resisted by special
stiffening of cellular double bottom under engine spaces and by
local stiffening in the region of the stern and after peack.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 5 Movimientos, esfuerzos y tensiones

Ship motions

At sea the ships is subjected to six basic motions that have to


be anticipated:

Three about a vessels axis:

1. About the transverse axis :PITCHIN


2. About tho longitudinal axis: ROLLING
3. About the vertical axis: YAWING

Three bodily motions:


1. The vertical movement is called HEAVING
2. The transverse bodily motion is SWAY
3. The longitudinal bodily motion is SURGE

A ship may move in a single motion or in any combination of all


these motions in one instant making it a confusing and extremely
complex action.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 6 Navegacin

CAPITULO 6 NAVEGACIN

Bearing Demora
Bearing clearing Demora de seguridad
Bearing compass Demora de aguja
Bearing DF Demora radiogoniometrica
Bearing magnetic Demora magntica
Bearing relative Demora marcacin
Bearing true Demora verdadera
BST, (British summer time) Hora de verano inglesa
Plotting chart Carta en blanco
Plotting sheet Carta en blanco
Coast piloting Navegacin costera
Coasting Costear
Compass Aguja, comps
Compass correction Correccin total
Compass error Correccin total
Course Rumbo
Course made good Rumbo efectivo
Steered course Rumbo de gobierno
True course Rumbo verdadero
Magnetic course Rumbo verdadero
Shape the course Trazar el rumbo
Drift Deriva
Danger angle Angulo de seguridad
Date line Meridiano 189
Dead reckoning (DR) Estima, navegacin por estima
Deck wach Reloj de bitcora
Departure Apartamiento
Deviation Desvo
DWT Hora de bitcora
EP (estimated position) Posicin estimada
Running fix Situacin por dos demoras
Four point bearing Marcacin a cuatro cuartas
Great circle Circulo mximo
Great circle sailing Navegacin ortodrmica
Great circle track Derrota ortodrmica
Height of eye (HE) Elevacin del observador
Heading Proa, direccin de la proa,
rumbo.
Heavenly body Cuerpo celeste, astro
Heeling adjuster Corrector del desvo de la
escora
Horizon Horizonte
Hour angle Horario, coordenada
Tour circle Circulo horario
Intercept Diferencia de alturas
Leading line Enfilacin

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 6 Navegacin

Leeway Abatimiento
Local mean time LMT Hora civil del lugar
Looming Espejismo
Logging Apuntar en el diario de
navegacin
Manoeuvring card Rosa de maniobra
Mercator mailing Derrota loxodromica
Moon rise Orto de la luna
Moon set Ocaso de la luna
Milky way Va Lctea
Plane mailing Navegacin por estima
Pilot Derrotero
Position line Lnea de posicin, recta de
altura
Rhumb line Loxodrmica
Run Distancia navegada entre dos
momentos
Shoot the sun Tomar alturas del sol
Sight Observacin astronmica
Traverse tables Tablas de estima
Twilight Crepsculo

Coordinates
Astronomical coordinate systems are virtually all spherical
coordinate systems; defined by a great circle and its poles. A
latitude coordinate measures the angle above or below the
circle, a longitude coordinate measures the angle along the
circle from some arbitrarily defined point. An example which is
useful is the terrestrial latitude and longitude system

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 6 Navegacin

Terrestrial (latitude/longitude)

The defining great circle for terrestrial coordinate system is


the Earth's equator. The poles are the north pole and the south
pole. The latitude coordinate is terrestrial latitude, measured
north and south from the equator. The longitude coordinate is
terrestrial longitude, measured from the reference point defined
by the crossing of the prime (Greenwich) meridian and the
equator. The International Astronomical Union has defined
longitude as positive towards the east, negative towards the west
(this is planetocentric longitude).

Horizon (altitude/azimuth)

The horizon system is a "local" system centered at the


T T

individual observer. The great circle is the observer's horizon.


The poles of that circle are the zenith (directly overhead) and
T T

the nadir. The reference point on the horizon is the north


T T T T

point, defined by a great circle (the meridian) from the zenith


T T

through the north celestial pole to the horizon. Extending the


meridian in the oposite direction establishes the south point. T T

The east and west points are defined by the intersections of the
celestial equator with the horizon.
The latitude coordinate is the altitude (or elevation), measured
T T

from the horizon along a great circle running through the


zenith. The longitude coordinate is azimuth measured either from
T T

the north point increasing towards the east (geographic


definition) or from the south point increasing towards the west
(astronomical definition). Because of this ambiguity in
definition, it is important to determine which form is in use.
The geographic definition is most common, even in use by
astronomers.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 6 Navegacin

Equatorial (declination/hour angle or declination/right


ascension)

The Equatorial system is defined by the celestial equator, the


projection of the Earth's equator onto to celestial sphere. The
poles ore the north celestial pole and the south celestial pole.
The reference point is the vernal equinox which is the point
where the ecliptic (the apparent path of the sun) crosses the
celestial equator with the sun moving towards the summer
solstice. The latitude coordinate is declination measured from
the celestial equator. The longitude coordinate is right
ascension (RA) - measured from the vernal equinox increasing in
the direction of the sun's motion; ( 0 <= RA < 24 hours ).
T T

The Equatorial system can be a local system centered on the


observer, in which case the longitude coordinate becomes
hour angle (HA) - measured from the observer's meridian
increasing towards the west ( -12 <= HA <= 12 hours ).
T T

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 7 Maniobras

CAPITULO 7 MANIOBRAS

Dock Muelle de atraque


handling Maniobra
Fender Defensa
lofty
T T altivo, elevado
rehearse
T T ensayar, entrenar, practicar,
Midships on A la va
throwing
T T lanzamiento
swive
T T Dar vueltas
skill
T T habilidad, amao, apao,
Wharf Muelle en general

Mooring lines

About three or four different mooring lines at each end of the


vessel is the normal number usually carried.
Forward Head line Largo pr
Forward Travs pr
breast line
Forward Esprin pr
spring

Stern line Largo pp


Aft breast Travs pp
Aft

line
Aft spring Esprin pp

Buoy line Cabo de


la boya
Others

Towing line Cabo de


remolque

Heaving line Sirga

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 7 Maniobras

Heaving line is a small rope usually 20 fathoms long used in


throwing to or from a vessel a heavier rope.

Single up Ponga en sencillo


Single up forward Ponga en sencillo a proa
Cast off the lines Largar los cabos
Heave away Virar seguido
Heave in stern line Virar seguido el largo de pp
Heave a little Virar un poco
Heave tight Virar hasta tesar
Heave easy Virar despacio
Stop heaving Para de virar
Check on the head line Aguantar el largo de proa
Send off the ... De a tierra el ...
Avast spring Bueno virar el esprin
Stop heaving Bueno virar
Hold on... Aguanta el...
Take turns to the bits Tome vueltas en las bitas
Stand by with the heaving line Preparado con la sirga
Let go Larga
Take in the slack Cobra el seno
Slack spring Lascando el esprin
Slack away Arria en banda
Slack down Arriar en banda
Make fast Haz firme
To haul Cobrar
Pier Muelle de atraque
To tight Tesar

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 7 Maniobras

Ordenes al timonel:

It is most important that all steering orders shall be given


clearly and in standard form. It is equally important that they
should be acknowledged in a standard form. It is equally
important that they should be
acknowledged in a standard form and
obeyed correctly.

Alteration of course: Order for an


alteration of course always start with
the direction and are immediately
followed by the rudder angle. For example
STARBOARD TWENTY.

This order shall be repeated by the


helmsman , who puts the wheel over until
the desired rudder angle is obtained.

When the desired rudder angle is obtained, the helmsman should


report this to the officer, for example STARBOARD TWENTY.

As the ships head approaches the new course the rudder angle may
require to be reduced, in which case an order to ease the wheel
may be given, for example : EASE TO FIVE.

The helmsman repeats the order and moves the wheel until the
wheel indicator shows five degrees to starboard.

When the ordered rudder angle is obtained the helmsman report


this: STARBOARD FIVE.

When the ships head is near the new course, the order MIDSHIPS
is given. The helmsman repeats the order and moves the rudder
until the ruder indicator shows a rudder angle of zero degrees,
when the helmsman reports MIDSHIPS ON.

Usually it is required to counter the swing and the order PORT


FIVE may be given. The helmsman puts the rudder to port after
repeating the order and when the desired rudder angle is obtained
he reports PORT FIVE ON.

When the ships head is within a degree or so from the new course
the order MIDSHIP will be given.

When the ships head is on the required course the order STEADY
immediately followed by the new course, for instance: STEER TWO
FIVE SEVEN is given.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 7 Maniobras

The helmsman repeats and when the ship is heading the new course
the helmsman reports COURSE TWO FIVE SEVEN.

The most frequent orders given to a man at the wheel may be


classified in the following manner:

1st: Questions
P P

Whats her head?........que rumbo lleva?


Whats is your heading?..
Whats is your Cuorse?...

2st:Orders
Maark your head by the land..Marque la proa por tierra
Use very little helm.........Use muy poco timon.
Easy the helm................Use poco timon.
Nothing to starboard.........Nada a estribor.
Steer one two five...........Gobierne al 125.

3st:If the alteration is to starboard or port


Port rudder.................Timon a babor.
Port five...................Cinco grados a babor.
Starboard ten...............Diez a estribor.
Port a bit..................Babor un poco
Hard a port.................Todo a babor.
Hard over...................Todo a la banda.
Port easy...................Poco a babor.

4st:Para regresar a la via y derecho.

Midship......................A la via.
Steady.......................Derecho.
Steady ass she goes..........Derecho como va.
Steady as you go.............Derecho como va.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 7 Maniobras

Ordenes a la maquina

The orders to the engine room are


transmitted from the bridge by
means of the telegraph located in
the wheel house .Most modern
ships are equipped with highly
automated engine rooms which
permit direct control of
propeller revolutions from the
bridge and instead the above
mentioned engine orders, the
required numbers of revolutions
ahead or astern may be used.

Combined orders

CAPTAIN
Midship Helmsman Midship
Half head engine Officer: Half head engine, sir
Starboard a bit Helmsman: Starboard a bit
Starboard more Helmsman: Starboard more
Engine dead slow Officer: Engine dead slow, sir
Hard a port Helmsman: Hard a port
Full astern Officer: Full astern, sir
Stop her Officer: Stop her, sir
Ease the wheel Helmsman: Ease the wheel
Slow ahead Officer: Slow ahead, sir
Steady as she goes Helmsman: Steady as she goes
Steer zero-four-five Helmsman: zero-four-five
Full ahead engine Officer: Full ahead engine, sir
How is her head Helmsman: Right on,sir. Zero four-five.

Ship handling in tight spaces

Watching a large ferry come into its berth in a confined harbour


is a wonderful example of excellent shiphandling skills at work.
The captain, from his lofty perch on the bridge somehow co-
ordinated engines, rudders and lateral thrusters to guide the
ship into its exact position. Bear in mind too that these are
often very large ships - the size of cruise liners , and the
master may have both wind and tide acting against him.

The manoeuvrability of modern ships has greatly improved as a

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 7 Maniobras

result of a number of technical developments that have


facilitated ship handling in ships of a size which in an earlier
age would have been dependent upon tugs to guide them in and out
of harbour and on and off the berth. Some ships still do take
tugs , it being a delicate financial balance whether a deep sea
vessel is better off being fitted with her own powerful
thrusters, or whether it is better to rely on at least a stern
tug to help the master and pilot control the ship in confined
waters.

Ship handling in rivers where there is a stiff tide or current


requires a good deal of nerve. A ship does not steer like a car,
her steering being dependent on the flow of water over the rudder
. If the ship is travelling with the current, there is the risk
that she will be "overtaken" by the water travelling with her,
and so lose her ability to steer. Speed must be maintained. The
use of engines, rudder and lateral thrusters are all tools of the
modern ship handler, but the master or pilot must always remember
that it may be difficult to stop a sheer or a swing and that huge
damage can be done by those thousands of tonnes if control is
lost.

There are a range of modern tools available to help the ship


handler. The rudder has been much refined and some designs have
flaps on the training edge to "bend" the waterflow almost to 90
degrees to the fore and aft line. The steerable propeller is a
new device which sees a propeller being designed to swivel
through a complete circle. Some new cruise ships, which need
enormous horsepower to move their huge hulls into very confined
cruise ports, are being fitted with these devices. Some ships are
fitted with both bow and stern thrusters of huge horsepower and
are able to manoeuvre independently of any external assistance.

Most ships exhibit their own characteristics when being handled


in confined waters and masters have to become familiar with these
foibles. They may handle in a different way when the wind is on
the bow or astern, or when the draught is lighter or deeper.
Pilots, who have to handle a ship a few minutes after boarding,
become adept in ascertaining the handling characteristics of
ships they have never seen before. Ship handling is their
speciality.

There are some useful new tools for the ship handler in the range
oif computer assisted simulation equipment available for ships'
officers to practice their skills. Some are used aboard ship,
enabling the bridge team to "rehearse" on the computer screen the
manoeuvres that will be used to get the ship in or out of an
unfamiliar port. It is useful preparation.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Caoitulo 8 Anclas y cadenas

CAPITULO 8 ANCLAS Y CADENAS

Anchor cable Cadena del ancla


Anchor ring Arganeo del ancla
Arms Brazos
Bills of peaks Picos de loro
Blake slip Boza disparadora
Bower anchor Ancla de leva
Cable stopper Estopor
Crown Cruz
Chain locker Caja de cadenas
Chok Calzo
Common link Eslabn con contrete
Deck clench Cncamo de cubierta
Devils claw Trinca de cadena tipo ua
End link Eslabn sin contrete
Flukes Uas del ancla
Grapnel Rezon
Hawse pipe Escoben
Joining shackle Grillete de unin
Links Eslabones
Lugged joining shackle Grillete de unin
Moor, to Fondear con dos anclas
Mooring swivel grillete giratorio
Mushroom anchor Ancla de hongo o de paraguas
Navel pipe Gatera, bocina de la caja de
cadenas
Patent anchor Ancla de cadena
Palms Mapas
Pea of bill Pico de loro
Screw slip Boza con tensor
Slip Gancho disparador
Spare anchor Ancla de respeto
Shackle Grillete
Spruling gate Gatera
Stockless anchor Ancla de patente, sin cepo
Studs Contretes
Swivel Grillete giratorio

Anchors

Anchors are heavy pieces of iron by which a ship becomes


attached to the ground. The length of chain attached to the
anchor is called cable.
All anchors are designed to take hold as quickly as possible
T T T

after they hit bottom. They take hold in one of two ways: either
T T

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Caoitulo 8 Anclas y cadenas

by hooking into the ground with one or both of their sharp flukes T T

or by burying themselves completely. T T

When an anchor is let go in fairly deep water, it strikes the T

bottom crown first. From this position, any drag on the chain
T T T T

causes the flukes, if properly set, to dig into the bottom. As T T

the drag continues, the fluke is forced further into the bottom.
T T

If the proper scope of chain is used, the heavier the drag, the
T T T T

deeper the fluke will dig in, developing the full holding power T T

of the anchor.

Anchors used in the Navy today are grouped according to


T T T

type. The most common types used are stockless anchors, T T

lightweight (LWT) or stock-in- crown anchors, and two-fluke T T

balanced-fluke anchors. Stock anchors (old-fashioned) and T T

mushroom anchors are no longer specified as a part of Navy ship


T T

ground tackle. T T

Stockless or Patent anchors


T T T

The stockless anchor consists of a heavy head in which the crown,


tripping palms, and flukes are forged in one piece. This unit is
pivoted on the shank so that it can swing from 45 to either side
of the shank. The flukes are large and long, and projecting
shoulders or tripping palms are cast at the base of the flukes to
make them bite. As the force of the drag exerts itself, the
shoulders catch on the bottom and force the anchor to take hold
by pushing the flukes downward into the bottom. Because an
upward pull on the shank of a stockless anchor has a tendency to
break out the flukes, a long scope of chain must be used to make
sure the shank remains on the bottom when the anchor is set. With
too short a scope, or even under a steady pull with a long scope,
a stockless anchor may still disengage its flukes as a result of
gradually turning over and rolling out. Under this condition, the
anchor can offer no resistance to dragging except by its
weight.

Though there are a number of different designs of modern


T T T

stockless anchors, all share the same distinguishing T T

feature-they are stockless. Three designs of stockless anchors T T

are in use on naval ships: commercial, standard Navy, and the


T T

Mark 2 (Mk 2). These are shown in views A, B, and C of figure.


T T T

The Mk 2, with its long flukes, has the greatest holding power. T T

It is made only in the The stockless feature of these anchors T T

provides 60,000-pound size for use aboard aircraft carriers. The


T T T

many advantages, not only in easing handling and stowing, but


T T T

also in allowing the anchor to be hoisted short, commercial-type T T

flukes have the least holding power. directly into the hawsepipe T T T T

and secured, ready for letting go. T T T

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Caoitulo 8 Anclas y cadenas

The parts of a patent anchor are:

Anchor ring.
Shank.
Pea of bill.
Flukes.
Crown.
Tripping palm.

Lightweight anchors

Two types of lightweight anchors are used on Navy ships: the Mk 2


LWT and the wedge block LWT anchor. These are shown in views D
and F of figure. Lightweight anchors are constructed of
comparatively light metal, but are very strong in tension.
They gain their holding power by digging deep into the
bottom rather than lying as a deadweight. Both the Mk 2 LWT
anchor and the wedge block LWT anchor have high holding power for
their weights. The 30 fluke angle on the wedge block LWT anchor
is most effective in sand bottoms; and the 50 fluke angle,
in mud bottoms. For example, both 10,000-pound LWT anchors
are designed to have a holding power in a sand bottom slightly
higher than the 22,500-pound standard Navy stockless anchor. They
are used as bower and stern anchors and may also be used as
stream or kedge anchors. Anchors less then 150 pounds are
normally used as small boat anchors. The main characteristic of
the LWT anchor is the placement of large flukes at such an angle
that they drive deep into the bottom to ensure good holding
power. The crown is designed to lift the rear of the flukes and
force their points downward into the bottom. Good stability is
also obtained by placing the flukes close to the shank. These
anchors are extremely useful in any situation where
lightweight but good holding power is essential. They have even
been cast up to 3,000 pounds for use as stern anchors on LSTs.
For Navy use, LWT anchors are made in approximate weights from 8
pounds to 13,000 pounds, for the Mk 2 LWT 6,000 pounds and 30,000
pounds for the wedge block LWT. The commercial Danforth anchor,
shown in view E of figure, is used on some Navy craft and small
boats.

Two-fluke Balanced-fluke anchors

The two-fluke balanced-fluke anchor (view G of figure) is used


for anchoring some surface ships and the newer submarines and is
normally housed in the bottom of the ship. This anchor is used on
certain combatant-type surface ships in place of a bower anchor,
which could interfere with the ship's sonar dome.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Caoitulo 8 Anclas y cadenas

Stock anchors

Old-fashioned, or stock, anchors (view H of figure) have


been abandoned by large merchant and Navy ships because they are
extremely cumbersome and difficult to stow. Because of their
superior holding power, stock anchors are still used on some
boats, and yachtsmen use them for small craft.

Mushroom anchors

Mushroom anchors are shaped like a mushroom with a long narrow


stem serving as the shank. Because of their excellent holding
ability, they are used for permanent moorings and as anchors for
channel buoys and other navigational aids. The mushroom
anchor (view I of figure) is used to anchor buoys and torpedo
testing barges. The rounded part, or crown, strikes the bottom
first, and the upper surface of the mushroom is cupped to provide
a biting surface. As the anchor shifts back and forth under
strain, it digs itself deeper into the bottom, thereby increasing
its holding power. Consequently, it takes a firm hold and remains
fixed under the most adverse conditions. Because the mushroom
anchor has no projecting stock or flukes to foul, the moored
object can swing freely around a mushroom anchor. However,
since a mushroom anchor will break out if the direction of
pull is reversed, it is normally used only in groups of
three or more, surrounding the central mooring point. Certain
older class submarines use this type of anchor.

Plow anchor:

The plow anchor is a light anchor made from light sheet steel,
and has an action similar to a plow. It weights ten to twelve
pounds, and is carry by small craft. This type of anchor is
difficult to tow in a hawsepipe.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Caoitulo 8 Anclas y cadenas

Chain and appendages

Present day Navy anchor chain of the flash butt welded type is
the Navy standard for new ship constructions and replaces
die-lock chain as required for back fit. All links are
studded; that is, a piece of steel is placed in the center of the
links. Studs prevent the chain from kinking and the links
from pounding on adjacent links. The Naval Ships' Technical
Manual lists standard sizes from 3/4 inch to 4 3/4 inches, and
details the method of fabrication.

The size of the link is designated by its nominal diameter, which


is called wire diameter. Wire diameter is measured at the end of
the link a little above the center line. The length of a standard
link is 6 times its wire diameter, and its width is 3.6 times its

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Caoitulo 8 Anclas y cadenas

wire diameter. An anchor chain is made up of many parts besides


common links and requires a variety of equipment and fittings to
use and maintain the chain. The following descriptions will
acquaint you with the details of anchor chain and some of the
equipment associated with using and maintaining the chain.

Standard Shot

The lengths of chain that are connected to make up the ship's


anchor chain are called shots and are made up with an odd number
of links. A standard shot is 15 fathoms (90 feet) long. At the
time of its manufacture, each shot of the chain usually bears a
serial number stamped, cut, or cast on the inner side of the end
links of each shot. If an end link is lost or removed from a
shot, this identification should be cut or stamped on the inside
of the new end link of the altered shot.

Detachable Links

Shots of anchor chain are joined by a detachable link, shown in


figure. The Navy-type detachable link consists of a C-shaped link
with two coupling plates that form one side and stud of the link
A taper pin holds the parts together and is locked in place at
the large end by a lead plug. Detachable link parts are not
interchangeable, so matching numbers are stamped on the C-link
and on each coupling plate to ensure its identification and
proper assembly. You will save time and trouble trying to
match these parts if you disassemble only one link at a time
and clean, slush, and reassemble it before disassembling another.
The present day slush, a preservative and lubricant, is a mixture
of 40 percent white lead and 60 percent tallow by volume. Other
slush mixtures are being investigated to replace the white lead.
When you re-assemble a detachable link, make sure the taper pin
is seated securely. This is done by driving it in with a punch
and a hammer before inserting the lead plug over the large end of
the pin. Detachable link toolbox sets contain tools,
including spare taper pins and lead plugs, for assembling and
disassembling links and detachable end links.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Caoitulo 8 Anclas y cadenas

Detachable link

Chain Swivels
Chain swivels are furnished as part of the outboard swivel shot.
They reduce kinking or twisting of the anchor chain.

Chain swivel
T

Bending Shackles Bending shackles are used to attach the


anchor to the chain.

Outboard Swivel Shots

Standard and alternate outboard swivel shots also called bending


shots, consist of common links and fittings as shown in figure.
They are fitted to attach the 15 fathom shots of anchor chain to
the anchor. They also make it possible to stop off the anchor

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Caoitulo 8 Anclas y cadenas

outboard of the swivel and break the chain at the detachable link
inboard of the swivel. This allows the anchor chain to be used as
part of the towing gear. Outboard swivel shots vary in length,
but they usually do not exceed 5 fathoms. The taper pins in the
detachable links in the outboard swivel shot are additionally
secured with a U-shaped, stainless steel wire-locking clip
(sometimes called a hairpin). This hairpin, inserted in holes
drilled through the coupling plates, engages a keyway or groove
on the taper pin and is mandatory.

Outboard swivel shot arrangement

Riding, Housing, and Towing Chain Stoppers.

Riding and housing chain stoppers consist of a turnbuckle


inserted in a couple of links of chain. A pelican hook is
attached to one end of the chain; a shackle is attached at the
other end. The housing stopper is nearest the hawsepipe and must
be installed outboard of the swivel; the riding stopper is
farther inboard. These stoppers are secured by the
shackles to permanent pad eyes on the ship's deck Chain
stoppers are used to hold the anchor taut in the hawsepipes, to
T T

ride to an anchor, or to hold the anchor when the anchor chain is


T T T

disconnected for any reason. When in use, a stopper is attached


T T

to the anchor chain by passing the tongue over a link of the


T T

chain and securing it by engaging the bail of the Pelican hook


T T

and passing a toggle pin. When riding to anchor with more than
T T T T

one stopper on the chain, the strain must be equalized in the T T

stoppers by adjusting the settings of the turnbuckles. Large T T

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Caoitulo 8 Anclas y cadenas

chain stopper wrenches are used for this purpose. Special housing T T

chain stoppers, such as devil's claw or pawl-type stoppers, T T

normally are used with horizontal windlasses and where space


T T

limitations do not permit use of Navy standard stoppers. Although


T T T

stoppers alone are more than adequate for holding the anchor,
T T T

they should be backed up with the wildcat brake. Upon anchoring, T T

first the wildcat brake band should be set up tight, then the T T

stoppers should be passed. The wildcatT should be


T left
disconnected from the windlass.
T T

Towing chain stoppers are similar to riding chain stoppers and


T T T

housing chain stoppers except towing chain stoppers have T T

locking plates added. These locking plates prevent the towing T T

chain stoppers from unscrewing when they are subjected to the


T T

shock and vibration loading of the towing hawser.


T T T

Navy standard chain stopper


T T

Mooring Shackles

Forged steel mooring shackles are used to attach the anchor


chain to mooring buoys. All mooring shackles, regardless of size,
have a standard opening of 7 inches. Mooring shackles are not to
be used for any other purpose.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Caoitulo 8 Anclas y cadenas

Mooring Swivels

Forged steel swivels, with two links attached at each end, are
used to moor with anchors. They are inserted in the chain
outboard of the hawse and serve to keep the chain from
twisting as the ship swings. Mooring swivels are attached in
the chain with the eye end outboard, or down, to prevent them
from hooking on the outer lip of the hawse when they are heaved
back aboard. However, ships today have large rounded lips on the
hawsepipes, making it unlikely that a reversed swivel will catch.
A mooring swivel is shown in figure.

Chain Cable Jacks Mooring Shackles

Forged steel mooring shackles are used to attach the anchor chain
to mooring buoys. All mooring shackles, regardless of size, have
a standard opening of 7 inches. Mooring shackles are not to be
used for any other purpose. A cable jack , consisting of a
lever mounted on an axle and two wheels, is used to handle
anchor chain of 2 3/4 inches, or larger, in size. It is used to
pick the chain up to pass a chain stopper. A pinch- point crowbar
type of anchor bar is issued for smaller sizes of chain.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Caoitulo 8 Anclas y cadenas

Cable jack.

Clear Hawse Pendants

A clear hawse pendant is a wire rope pendant, 5 to 15 fathoms


long, with a thimble at one end and a pelican hook attached to a
length of open-link chain fitted in a thimble at the other end.
This pendant is used to clear a hawse fouled by the anchor chain.
See figure .

Dip Ropes

A dip rope is a fiber or synthetic rope pendant, 14 to 36 fathoms


long, fitted at one end with a thimble and a dip shackle large
enough to engage a link of the anchor chain. A dip rope is used
when mooring or clearing a hawse.

Chafing Chain or Pendant

A short length of chain and/or a wire rope pendant is inserted


between the anchor and the anchor buoy line. This prevents the
anchor buoy line from chafing on the anchor and parting.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Caoitulo 8 Anclas y cadenas

Vertical shaft anchor windlass.

CARE OF GROUND TACKLE

Anchors, chains, and appendages must be kept in good condition


by the ship's force. The chain is overhauled by the ship's
force whenever necessary, and precautions are taken to see
that the various shots are properly marked and in good order. Two
competent petty officers are detailed to examine the chain as the
chain comes in, when getting underway, from an anchorage. Each
link is examined for cracks and other defects. Once each quarter,
and more often if subjected to normal use, all anchor chains

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Caoitulo 8 Anclas y cadenas

in sizes up to and including 1 1/2 inches are laid on deck


and their entire lengths examined. The deck pad eyes and
chain stoppers are inspected for cracks, deformation,
excessive wear at this time. If necessary, they are scaled and
cleaned of rust and other foreign matters, checked for excessive
wear or corrosion and, where conditions warrant, replaced with
new ones. Disassembly of detachable links in the outboard swivel
shot with hairpins requires removal, and probable
destruction, of the lockwire. The availability of replacement
wire of the same type should be established before removal
for inspection of the detachable link. Replacement hairpins
can be fabricated on board ship from corrosion-resistant steel.

Anchor chain and appendages are carefully examined for


cracks, excessive wear, distortion, or other defects. Parts that
require coating are painted with anchor chain gloss black
paint. Shackles, bolts, locking pins, and swivels are examined
carefully and put in order. The turnbuckles in chain stoppers
require frequent attention to keep them clean, free from rust,
and well lubricated with a graphite grease. Chain of sizes by
more than 1 1/2-inch wire diameter is overhauled, wire
brushed, and placed in a good state of preservation as often as
required. At least once every 18 months all anchor chain,
regardless of size, (including all fittings) is examined,
overhauled, and placed in a good state of preservation (5 years
for carriers). To distribute the wear uniformly throughout the
length of the chain, the shots are shifted to a new position as
necessary during this inspection. If it is not practical to make
immediate replacement, the defective shots are shifted to
the bitter end of the chain.

Anchor windlass

Windlasses are installed on board ships primarily for handling


and securing the anchor and chain used for anchoring the ship and
for handling anchor chain used for towing the ship. Most
windlasses have capstans or gypsy heads for handling line in
mooring and warping operations.

Windlasses can be located on the stern of the ship for stern


anchoring, but are usually located in the bow of the ship for
handling bower anchors.

Two general types of windlasses are installed on naval ships.


They are the vertical shaft and the horizontal shaft types.
See figures. These two types are subdivided into classes,
depending on the power source. These classes are electrohydraulic
drive and electric drive.

The essential parts of a typical windlass, regardless of its type


and class, are the drive motor, wildcat, locking head, hand

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Caoitulo 8 Anclas y cadenas

brake, capstan or gypsy head, and control. Horizontal shaft


windlasses are usually made as a self-contained unit with the
windlass and drive motor mounted on the same bedplate.

Vertical shaft windlasses have their power source located


below deck with only the wildcats and capstans mounted above
deck. The windlass wildcat is a special type of drum or sprocket
constructed to handle the anchor chain links. The outer surface
has flats (or pockets) which engage chain links. At each end of
the pockets, lugs (known as whelps) are provided, which contact
the end of the flat link. A central groove in the outer
surface accommodates the vertical links which are not in contact
with the wildcat at any point. Windlass wildcats have a
locking head for disengaging the wildcat from its power
source. The locking head permits free rotation of the wildcat
when you are paying out the chain. Locking heads usually
consist of two sliding block keys that may be shifted to key
together a drive spider and the wildcat The drive spider is keyed
to the windlass's shaft, while the wildcat

Horizontal shaft anchor windlass.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 9 Faenas de anclas y fondeo

CAPITULO 9 FAENAS DE ANCLAS Y FONDEO

Vocabulary

Anchor gear Equipo de fondeo


Anchor ring Arganeo del ancla
A cock bill A la pendura
Aweigh Zarpar (ancla)
Be at anchor, to Estar fondeado
Brought up Virar el ancla
Chain slips Boza de cadena
Chain pipe Gatera
Chain locker Caja de cadenas
Cast anchor ,to Fondear
Clear hawse Cadenas claras
Claw Estopor, garra, tenaza.
Cockbill the anchor Apear el ancla
Dug in
T T Cavado, excavadoT T

Drag Garrear
Dredge Arrastrar el ancla
Drop the anchor Fondear
Foul anchor Ancla encepada
Foul hawse Cadenas encepadas
Grow to Llamar la cadena
Hawse pipe Escoben
Heave in, to Virar
Joining shackle Grillete de unin
Lead, to Llamar la cadena
Lee tide Corriente de marea en la misma
direccin del viento
Lie at anchor Estar fondeado
Open moor Fondear con las dos anclas por
proa
Pelorus Ancla
Pay out, to Filar cadena
Radii
T T Plural de radius= radio
Room to swing Espacio de borneo, borneo
Roadstead
T T fondeadero, rada
Running moor Fondear un ancla a la entrante
y otra a la saliente
sheet anchor
T T Ancla de la esperanza, ancla de
salvacin
Standing moor Fondear a barbas de gato
Veer cable La cadena
Walk back Desvirar
Weather tide Marea contraria al viento

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Capitulo 9 Faenas de anclas y fondeo

Weigh anchor, to Levar ancla


Preparar para fondear

Take the stoppers of the cables Quita las trincas de la cadena


Have both anchors ready Tengan listas las dos anclas
Stand by starboard anchor Tenga lista el ancla de
estribor
Hang the starboard anchor off Apee el ancla de estribor
Hang one anchor off Apee un ancla
Put the windlass in gear Engrane el molinete
Put the anchor clear of the Apee el ancla.
hawsepipe
See that everything is clear of Compruebe que las cadenas estn
the cables libres.
Keep ready for letting go Este listo para fondear.
Ordenes para fondear

Let go anchor Fondo el ancla


Put three shackles on the water Ponga tres grilletes en el agua
Check the cable Aguantando la cadena
Slack away the port cable Fila seguido la cadena de babor
Pay out on both cables Fila seguido en ambas cadenas
Pay out gently Fila lo que vaya llamando
Ordenes para virar

Heave in anchor Vira el ancla.


Heave in both anchors Vira las dos anclas
Heave in cable Vira la cadena.
Heave in easy Vira despacio
Veer up the cable Virar la cadena
Heave in the slack of the cable Vira el seno del ancla
Take in the slack of cable Vira el seno de la cadena
Heave short Vira el seno
Bring up the anchor Virar el ancla.
Ordenes para aguantar

Hold the chain Aguanta la cadena


Hold heaving Para de virar
Hold slacking Para de filar
Stop heaving in Para de virar
Avast heaving Para de virar
Slack away Arra en banda
Hold on! Aguanta!
Preguntas
How many shackles have you Con cuantos grilletes ha
brought up? fondeado?
Are the anchor ready? Estn preparadas las cadenas?
How much cable have you Cuanta cadena ha fondeado?
brought up?

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Capitulo 9 Faenas de anclas y fondeo

Where shall I anchor? Donde debo fondear?


How does the chain lead? Como llama la cadena?
How does the chain grow? Como llama la cadena?

Terms used in anchor work

Some terms used in anchor works are:

Weigh anchor: To heave in cable until the anchor is broken out of


the ground and clear of the water. The anchor is aweigh
immediately it has broken out of the ground. For weighing anchor
the Mate of the forecastle head should indicate the master the
direction in which the cable grows; when it is up an down, and if
the anchor is clear. Special care is required when the cable
grows around the stem or under the ship.

Lead or grow: The direction in which the cable leads outside the
hawse pipe. It is indicate by the mate on the fore castle
pointing in the direction in which the cable grows. When it grows
vertically it is said to be up and
down .

Short and long stay: The cable is a


short stay if it leads downward and
long stay when it leads well away and
close to the horizontal.

Brought up: Brought up or come-to, is


when the operation of dropping the
anchor has been completed, the cable
has tightened and the anchor is
holding with the cable lying along
the bottom.

Surge: To let the cable run out with the brake without using
power.

A shackle: A shackle of cable is 15 fathoms in length , the


shackles are joined together by joining shackles. The outward end
of the cable is secured to the ring of the anchor by a large
shackle an the inward end is secured to a clench in the bottom
of the cable locker. The cable emerges from the navel pipe of the
forecastle and is passed across the windlass and through claw
before being joined to the anchor in the hawse pipe.

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Veer: To use power in paying-out the cable and not to let it run.

Snub: To brake sharply.


Clear anchor: When the anchor has not picked up its own cable or
some chain, wire, etc. Otherwise the anchor is foul.

Weather tide: Tide against the wind.

Lee tide: tide with the wind.

A cock bill: anchor hanging outside the hawse-pipe and ready for
letting go.

Mooring:
If it is essential to anchor in a place where room to swing is
limited, it will be necessary to make a running moor or standing
moor.

The Runnig moor is carried out by dropping the starboard anchor


first and them paying out about eight shackles while going ahead
against the tide before dropping the port anchor. The vessel is
then allowed to fall back on the tide until she is middle between
the two anchors

The Standing moor is carried out by dropping the port anchor


while steaming against the tide and lay out cable. Stop the ship
and let go the other anchor. Heave in half the first cable and
slack away equally on the second. The vessel will then ride to
five times the depth on the one anchor and when the tides change
she will swing round and ride similarly on the other anchor.

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Open moor : this moor is different from those described in that


the vessel rides with two anchors lying ahead and angled outward
one from each bow. It is used when it is known that the wind or
current will come strongly from one direction and it is necessary
to use two anchors.

Anchoring equipment (DNV)


T

Anchoring equipment includes anchor, anchor chain, anchor


T

chain attachments, chain-stopper and anchor winch (windlass).


The equipment is covered by DNVs class, and is
crucial for the vessels operational safety.
Consequently, DNV requires that all components shall
be delivered from the manufacturers with DNV product
certificates. T

The anchoring equipment required is the minimum


considered necessary for temporary mooring of the vessel in
moderate weather condition when it is awaiting berth, tide,
dock, lock, etc. The anchoring equipment must be certified by
DNV in order to ascertain that it meets the quality requirements
and relevant capacity for use on board a specific vessel. The
capacity requirements are common for all major classification
societies. (Unified IACS Rules).
T T

DNVs process for certification of anchoring equipment normally


requires:
Design approval.
Manufacturing survey.
Testing.
Design approval for anchoring equipment is mostly ordered for
unspecified manufacturing assignments for an agreed time window,
enabling a Type Approval Certificate to be issued. It is,
T T

however, also possible to request a case-by-case design approval


for a specific manufacturing order or number of orders.
Anchors, anchor chains and anchor chain attachment
links/swivels/shackles, etc. may be certified by DNV only by
manufacturers certified for such production.

Anchors and anchoring

Anchors represent a vital part of the ship's equipment, enabling


a vessel to stop safely in one place, riding to an anchor dug in
to the sea bed. It is both operational and safety equipment,
being used in the former role when a ship needs to wait off a
port until a berth is available, or indeed to load cargo in a

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Capitulo 9 Faenas de anclas y fondeo

roadstead where it is not possible to go alongside a quay. The


anchor can be used as a brake as a vessel approaches a berth,
slowing the ship down while the engines are still pushing water
over the rudder and enabling a good control to be kept over
movement.

As a safety aid, the anchors might be thought of as the "last


resort" of a broken-down ship being blown onto a coast by an
onshore wind. Anchors have entered our language - we talk of a
reliable friend as our "sheet anchor", our beliefs are "anchored
" by fact. They have been used since ancient times and they
remain just as important in a modern mechanically propelled
ship.

A modern ship will conventionally have two anchors in the bow


and often a stern anchor, which is mandatory in the St. Lawrence
Seaway and some other navigations. They are attached to thick
chain cables and raised and lowered by a windlass, which is a
powerful winch capable of handling the anchors and several
tonnes of cable and driven by either an electric motor or steam.

The effectiveness of an anchor depends largely on the material


that constitutes the sea or estuary bottom, normally determined
by the hydrographers who have surveyed the sea and identified it
for the convenience of mariners on the chart. When preparing to
anchor, the ships Master needs to know, besides the water
depth, the "quality of the bottom" whether it is of sand or mud,
or rocky. The Master will try and avoid "foul ground" which may
have underwater hazards that may snag the anchor, and will be
happier where the bottom is of mud or sand, that will enable the
flukes of the anchor to dig in and hold the ship fast. The
holding quality is also helped by having plenty of cable out to
lie on the bottom, which itself acts as a brake on movement.

Tides or winds may affect the safety of an anchorage and the


officers of the watch need to watch the position of the ship
carefully, lest the anchor drags (breaking free from the bottom)
and the ship be washed ashore. Visual compass bearings of shore
marks can provide a good indication of any untoward movement,
although care must be taken not to confuse an anchor dragging
with the normal swinging around the mooring as the tide or wind
changes.

While merchant ships tend to use a convention anchor with two


flukes that can be housed in a tubular hawse pipe when recovered
aboard ship, specialist anchors have been devised for different
types of craft. Drilling rigs, for instance, have anchors that
are optimised for the particular sea bottom, and a big semi-
submersible will lie to a pattern of perhaps eight anchors, laid
out by anchor handling supply boats which are in attendance when
the rig is moved. Permanent moorings, for navigational buoys may

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Capitulo 9 Faenas de anclas y fondeo

use screw anchors which are screwed into the sea bottom, while
light vessels often employ very heavy anchors shaped like a
mushroom.

Anchoring: Anchoring is one of the most critical evolutions that


a navigator is involved with; it will draw upon all of their
piloting skills and involve many members of the crew. There are
four stages of this important evolution: 1) selection, 2)
plotting, 3)execution, and 4) post-anchoring procedures.

Selection of an anchorage
An anchorage position in most cases is assigned by higher
authority. Naval ships submit a Port Visit Request (PVST) or
Logistic Requirement (LOGREQ) message requesting an anchorage
assignment which is provided by a local port authority.

In any case the following conditions should always apply to an


anchorage insofar as possible:

The anchorage should be at a position sheltered from the


effects of strong winds and current.

The bottom should be good holding ground, such as mud or sand


vice rocks or reef.
The water depth should be neither too shallow, hazarding the
ship, nor too deep, risking dragging the anchor.
The position should be free from such hazards to the anchor
such as fish traps, buoys and cables.
The position should be free from such hazards to navigation
as shoals and sandbars.
There should be a suitable number of landmarks, daymarks and
lighted navigation aids available for fixing the ships
position both by day and by night.

Plotting the anchorage:

The following terms apply to the anchor plot:

Approach track - This is the track along which the ship must
proceed in order to proceed to the anchorage. Its length will
vary from 2,000 yards or more for a large ship, to 1,000 yards
for a ship the size of a Navy destroyer or smaller. Under most
circumstances, it should never be shorter than 1,000 yards.

Head bearing - If at all possible, the navigator will select


an approach track such that a navigational aid will lie directly
on the approach track if it were extended to the navigational

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 9 Faenas de anclas y fondeo

aid selected. This bearing should remain constant if the ship is


on track during the approach.

Letting-go circle - This is a circle drawn around the intended


position of the anchor at the center of the berth with a radius
equal to the horizontal difference from the hawsepipe to the
pelorus.

Letting-go bearing (drop bearing) - This is a predetermined


bearing drawn from the intersection of the letting-go circle
with the approach track to a convenient landmark or navigational
aid, generally selected near the beam.

Range circles - These are preplotted semicircles of varying


radii centered on the center of the anchorage, drawn so the arcs
are centered on the approach track. Each is labelled with the
distance from that arc to the Precise Piloting and Anchoring -
letting-go circle. These arcs are normally drawn at 100 yard
intervals measured outward from the letting-go circle to 1,000
yards, and at ranges of 1,200, 1,500, and 2,000 yards
thereafter.

Swing circle - This is a circle centered at the position of


the anchor, with a radius equal to the sum of the ships length
plus the length of the chain let out.

Drag circle - This is a circle centered at the final


calculated position of the anchor, with a radius equal to the
sum of the hawsepipe to pelorus distance and the final length of
chain let out. All subsequent fixes should fall within the
limits of the drag circle.

Executing the anchorage:


When executing the anchorage, the navigators objectives are to
keep the ship as close to the approach track as possible, and to
have all of the headway off the ship when the hawsepipe is
directly over the center of the anchorage. The navigator will
take constant fixes and make course and speed recommendations
throughout the evolution.

Step One: With 1,000 yards to go, most ships are usually
slowed to a speed of five to seven kts.

Step Two: Depending upon wind and current, the engines should
be stopped when 300 yards from the letting-go circle, and the
anchor detail should be instructed to stand by. As the vessel
draws near the drop circle, engines are normally reversed so as
to have all remaining headway off the ship as it passes over the
letting-go circle.

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Capitulo 9 Faenas de anclas y fondeo

Step Three: When the pelorus is at the letting-go bearing, the


word Let go the anchor is passed to the anchor detail, and the
anchor is dropped.

Step Four: As the anchor is let go, the navigator calls for an
immediate round of bearings and marks the ships head. After the
resulting fix is plotted, a line is extended from it in the
direction of the ships head, and the hawsepipe to pelorus
distance is laid off along the line, thus plotting the position
of the anchor at the moment it was let go. If all goes well, the
anchor will be placed within 50 yards of the center of the
anchorage.

Post-anchoring procedures:

Step One: After the anchor has been let go, chain is let out
or veered until a length or scope of chain five to seven
times the water depth is reached. At this point, the chain is
secured and the engines are backed, causing the flukes of the
anchor to dig into the bottom, thereby setting the anchor.

Step Two: The navigator will take another round of bearings,


record ships head, and note the direction the chain is tending.
With this information, the navigator plots another fix and
recomputes the position of the anchor by laying off the distance
plus the scope of chain in the direction the chain is tending.
This second calculation of the position of the anchor chain is
necessary because the chain may have been dragged during the
process of setting the anchor.

Step Three: After the anchors final position has been


determined, the swing circle is drawn using the anchors
computed position as the center and the sum of the ships length
plus the scope of the chain let out as the radius.

Step Four: If no obstructions are found to be within the swing


circle, the navigator will then draw the drag circle using a
radius equal to the sum of the hawsepipe to the pelorus plus the
scope of the anchor chain let out. All subsequent fixes should
fall within the drag circle; if they do not, the anchor should
be considered to be dragging.

Step Five: After plotting the drag circle, the navigator


selects several lighted aids to navigation that are suitable for
use in obtaining fixes by day or night, and he enters them in
the Bearing Book for use by the anchor bearing watch. This watch
is charged with obtaining and recording in the Bearing Book a
round of bearings to the objects designated by the navigator at
least once every 15 minutes, and plotting the resulting fix on
the chart (the area of the chart where the fixes are plotted
will be covered by a piece of clear plastic in order to save the

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Capitulo 9 Faenas de anclas y fondeo

chart from excessive wear). If a fix falls outside the drag


circle, another is taken immediately, and if the second fix
falls outside the drag circle the anchor is considered to be
dragging and all appropriate personnel are notified.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 10 El Practico

CAPITULO 10 EL PRACTICO

Accomplish Lograr, cumplir


Air draft Guinda
Beam destello
Beckon, to Llamar (al trabajo, deber)
Bollard pull Fuerza de tiro
Compulsory pilotage Practicaje obligatorio
Cruising ground Zona de servicio de la embarcacin
del practico
Deceptive Engaoso
Deck pilot Practico del puerto
Dispatches Despachante
Duty Faena, obligacin
Duck, to Zambullir, sumergir
Freighter Carguero
Fulfilling Cumplir, satisfactorio
Goal Objetivo
Harbour pilot Practico del puerto
Horseshoed shaped En forma de herradura
Lumberjack Leador
Licensed pilot Practico titular
Nevertheless A pesar de todo, no obstante
Merging currents Corrientes encontradas
Oversight Vigilancia, supervisin
Pilotage district Distrito de practicaje
Pilotage water Zona de practicaje obligatorio
Pilot boat Embarcacin de practico
Pilot flag Bandera de practico
Pilots ladder Escala de practico
Rugged Rugoso
Roll Balance
Roomy cabin Cabina espaciosa
Shared Compartida
Seafare Navegante
Sea pilot Practico de mar
Scoured out Arrastrados
Slope Bajada ,desnivel
Stranded Encallado, varado
Storing Aprovisionarse
Treacherous Traidor
Thruster Propulsor
Tricky Tramposo, delicado, difcil.
Unduly Excesivamente
U.K.C. Under keel clearance Distancia bajo la quilla
Wasd down Arrastrado
Welfare Bienestar
Relief Alivio

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 10 El Practico

Pilot: The maritime pilot's role is to assist the Master of a


vessel during the ship's passage to and from a berth in a given
pilotage area, by providing local knowledge of navigational and
operational matters combined with specialist ship-handling
experience.

As a general rule the pilot advises the Master, who remains


responsible for the conduct of the ship.

The pilot is entirely familiar


with the special regulatory
requirements and unique
conditions that exist in his
specific pilotage area, and with
which the Master of the vessel
cannot be expected to be fully
conversant. The pilot is wholly
familiar with all the local
factors that might affect the navigation of the ship. These may
include strong tidal flows, recent shoaling, ferry activity,
dredging operations and other hazards.

The maritime pilot also provides an essential communications link


with the port authorities, maritime traffic services (VTS),
tugboats, boatmen and other ships.

Maritime pilots not only supply pilotage to ships; but also


provide a public service by contributing to the overall safety of
maritime traffic and by ensuring the protection of the
environment.

The pilot is responsible for the damages suffered by the vessel


during pilotage, when it is proved that such damages were cause
by inaccurate information supplied by the pilot in shaping the
course.

Before beginning manoeuvre for entering the harbour the captain


must inform the pilot about the draught, and tell the pilot
whether the propeller is right or lefthanded, whether the
steering is good or not, if the engine is ready to start, etc.

Although the Captain is not supposed to interfere with the pilot,


it is duty to see that the regulations for safe navigation are
duly observed.

Should the master see that the pilot is going to make a false
manoeuvre which surely would put in danger the safety of the
vessel, he may, in such a case, intervene and take control out of
the pilots hands.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 10 El Practico

Pilots boat lights and shapes

RULE 29 OF COLREG
Pilot Vessels
(a) A vessel engaged on pilotage duty shall exhibit:
(i) at or near the masthead, two all-round lights in a vertical
line, the upper being white and the lower red;
(ii) when underway, in addition, sidelights and a sternlight;
(iii) when
at anchor, in addition to the lights prescribed in
subparagraph (i), the light, lights or shape prescribed in
Rule 30 for vessels at anchor.
(b) Apilot vessel when not engaged on pilotage duty shall
exhibit the lights or shapes prescribed for a similar vessel of
her length.

RULE 35
Sound Signals in Restricted Visibility

In or near an area of restricted visibility, whether by day or


night, the signals prescribed in this Rule shall be used as
follows:
(a) A power-driven vessel making way through the water shall
sound at intervals of not more than 2 minutes one prolonged
blast.
(b) A power-driven vessel underway but stopped and making no way
through the water shall sound at intervals of not more than 2
minutes two prolonged blasts in succession with an interval of
about 2 seconds between them.
...
(g) A vessel at anchor shall at intervals of not more than one
minute ring the bell rapidly for about 5 seconds. In a vessel of
100 meters or more in length the bell shall be sounded in the
forepart of the vessel and immediately after the ringing of the
bell the gong shall be sounded rapidly for about 5 seconds in
the after part of the vessel. A vessel at anchor may in addition
sound three blasts in succession, namely one short, one
prolonged and one short blast, to give warning of her position
and of the possibility of collision to an approaching vessel.
(h) A pilot vessel when engaged on pilotage duty may in addition
to the signals prescribed in paragraphs (a), (b) or (g) of this
Rule sound an identity signal consisting of four short blasts.
Pilotage (from IMO www)
Pilots with local knowledge have been employed on board ships
for centuries to guide vessels into or out of port safely - or
wherever navigation may be considered hazardous, particularly
when a shipmaster is unfamiliar with the area.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 10 El Practico

In addition to local knowledge and expertise, pilots are able to


provide effective communication with the shore and with tugs,
often in the local language.
Qualified pilots are usually employed by the
local port or maritime administration and
provide their services to ships for a fee,
calculated in relation to the ship's tonnage,
draught or other criteria.
The importance of employing qualified pilots
in approaches to ports and other areas where
specialized local knowledge is required was
formally recognized by IMO in 1968, when the
Organization adopted Assembly resolution
A.159(ES.IV) Recommendation on Pilotage. The
resolution recommends Governments organize
pilotage services where they would be likely
to prove more effective than other measures
and to define the ships and classes of ships for which
employment of a pilot would be mandatory.
One of the problems encountered by pilots is that of getting on
board the ship - particularly when the weather is bad or the
ship is very large. Requirements to make this easier are
contained in Chapter V of the SOLAS Convention, and have also
formed the subject of IMO resolutions covering performance
standards for mechanical pilot hoists (A.275(VIII); arrangements
for embarking and disembarking pilots in very large ships
(A.426(XI); and pilot transfer arrangements (A.667(16)). An MSC
Circular (MSC/Circ.568/Rev.1) covers required boarding
arrangements for pilots.
Pilot training and certification
The IMO Assembly in 2003 adopted resolution A.960(23)
Recommendations on training and certification and operational
procedures for maritime pilots other than deep-sea pilots, which
includes Recommendation on Training and Certification of
Maritime Pilots other than Deep sea Pilots and Recommendation on
Operational Procedures for Maritime Pilots other than Deep sea
Pilots.
IMO Resolutions encouraging the use of pilots on board ships in
certain areas:

Resolution A.480(IX) (adopted in 1975) recommends the use


of qualified deep-sea pilots in the Baltic and Resolution
A.620(15) (adopted 1987) recommends that ships with a
draught of 13 metres or more should use the pilotage
services established by Coastal States in the entrances to
the Baltic Sea

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 10 El Practico

A.486(XII) (adopted 1981)


recommends the use of deep-sea
pilots in the North Sea, English
Channel and Skagerrak

A.579(14) (adopted 1985)


recommends that certain oil
tankers, all chemical carriers
and gas carriers and ships
carrying radioactive material
using the Sound (which separates
Sweden and Denmark) should use
pilotage services

A.668(16) (adopted 1989)


recommends the use of pilotage services in the Euro-Channel
and IJ-Channel (in the Netherlands)

A.710(17) (adopted 1991) recommends ships of over 70 metres


in length and all loaded oil tankers, chemical tankers or
liquefied gas carriers, irrespective of size, in the area
of the Torres Strait and Great North East Channel, off
Australia, to use pilotage services

A.827(19) (adopted 1995) on Ships' Routeing includes in


Annex 2 Rules and Recommendations on Navigation through the
Strait of Istanbul, the Strait of Canakkale and the Marmara
Sea the recommendation that "Masters of vessels passing
through the Straits are strongly recommended to avail
themselves of the services of a qualified pilot in order to
comply with the requirements of safe navigation."
How is Maritime Pilotage organized ?
To practice, maritime pilots must show evidence of many years of
professional maritime experience. They may therefore only apply
to practise if they are in possession of a licence and have the
practical experience demanded by the terms and conditions set by
the government.
Pilots may be self-employed, employed by a port, or be
government employees. Generally speaking, the majority of pilots
are self-employed and pilot services are organized into
independent economic entities.
The professional organization of pilots differs according
to country, however for maritime safety reasons, it is
always under the control of the government.
In most EMPA member countries, legislation already
authorizes some exemptions from the obligation of using
pilotage services.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 10 El Practico

Self-handling is organized according to very specific criteria,


determined by regulation, and takes into account the experience
of a ship's master, the size of the ship, and the type of cargo
being transported.
European Maritime PilotsAssociation :RECOMMENDATIONS ON
ACCOMODATION LADDERS
The attention of owners, masters and officers of large
vessels with freeboard in excess of 9 metres is drawn to
the following requirements of the European Maritime
Pilots Association, when it is intended to embark or
disembark a pilot by means of the accommodation ladder
used in conjunction with a conventional pilot ladder:
1. All vessels, where the distance from the sea level
to the point of access of the ship exceeds 9 metres
at any time should carry on each side an accomodation
ladder.
The ladder is to be so sited that, when in use, the
lower end of the ladder shall rest firmly against the
ships side under all conditions of roll and heel
within the parallel length of the ship and shall be
clear of all discharges.
2. The lower platform should be at the after end of
the accomodation ladder and at a distance of at least
45 metres from the area where the vessels line
begins to fine away under minimum ballast conditions.
3. The accomodation ladder should be of rigid
construction and be so fitted as to be easily and
rapidly rigged.
4. The length of the accomodation ladder should be
sufficient to ensure that its degree of slope under
minimum ballast conditions does not exceed 45
degrees.
5. All treads and platforms should be self-levelling
and treated with anti-skid material.
6. The ladder and platforms should be equipped on
both sides with stanchions and rigid handrails. If
handropes are used, they must be fully secured and
tight. The space between the outboard handrail or
handrope and the steps of the ladder must be fitted
either with another handrope or a net, or in the case
of accomodation ladders, fitted with permanent
stanchions, a protective bar.
7. Means should be provided to prevent the pilot
craft from under-riding the lower platform.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 10 El Practico

8. When a conventional pilot ladder is used in


conjunction with the accomodation ladder, it should
be rigged just abaft the lower platform of the
accomodation ladder. The forepart of the pilot ladder
is to be firmly attached both to the lower platform
and to the inner handrail or handrope to allow safe
access from pilot ladder to accomodation ladder.
9. If a trap door is fitted in the lower platform to
allow access from and to the pilot ladder, it should
be of suitable dimensions and the pilot ladder should
be secured to the lower platform. In this case, the
after part of the lower platform must also be fitted
with handrails. The pilot ladder must be prolonged
above the lower platform up to the upper handrail
with adequate handholds.
10. A competent crew member should always be in
attendance at the bottom of the accomodation ladder
to assist the pilot in embarking or disembarking.

Trinity house (UK Pilots)

Trinity House is a unique maritime organisation which throughout


its long and distinguished history has had as its prime objective
the safety of shipping and the welfare of seafarers.
Constituted under a Royal Charter granted by Henry VIII in 1514,
today the Corporation has three functions: The
General Lighthouse Authority for England, Wales, The
Channel Islands and Gibraltar, providing aids to
general navigation such as lighthouses,
lighthvessels, buoys and radio navigation systems.
A charitable organisation for the safety, welfare and
training of mariners and relief of those in financial
distress and a Deep Sea Pilotage Authority.

The Corporation is led by a Court of Elder Brethren under the


Master, His Royal Highness The Duke of Edinburgh. Power is
delegated from the Court to two separate Boards which control,
respectively the charitable and Deep Sea Pilotage activities of
the Corporation, and the Lighthouse Service.

Pilotage
Trinity House involvement with Pilotage stretches back to 1514
when a Royal Charter from Henry V111 granted Trinity House powers
to regulate pilotage on the River Thames.

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By 1986 Trinity House responsibilities for Pilotage had expanded


so that the Corporation was the Pilotage Authority for London and
over 40 other Districts including Southampton , Milford Haven and
Falmouth.

The Corporation licensed 500 Pilots who handled around 60% of the
nations piloted tonnage. The cost of the Pilotage Service, such
as the operation of Pilot Cutters to transfer Pilots to and from
vessels was funded from a levy on Pilots earnings and Pilots
licence fees.
Under legislation contained in the Pilotage Act 1987, Trinity
House responsibilities for District Pilotage were transferred to
various Port and Harbour Authorities from 1 October 1988.
Although no longer responsible for District Pilotage , Trinity
House are authorised by the Secretary of State for Transport to
licence Deep Sea Pilots.
Deep Sea Pilots typically join a vessel off Brixham and stay
onboard the whole time the vessel is trading in the continental
area only leaving when the vessel passes Brixham on its outward
journey. Deep Sea Pilotage is not compulsory but ships Masters
unfamiliar with European waters frequently like to employ the
professional expertise of a Deep Sea Pilot.

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SAN FRANCISCO BAR PILOTS: OPERATIONS GUIDELINES FOR THE


MOVEMENT OF VESSELS ON SAN FRANCISCO BAY

To Our Valued Customers:


The members of the San Francisco Bar Pilots are charged under
the laws of the State of California with providing a safe and
efficient pilot service. To accomplish these goals, we have
identified certain operational procedures that we ask that you
assist us in adhering to when scheduling our services. For all
movements we request that you provide the following information
when ordering a pilot:
1. date and time the pilot will be required; for arrivals the
request for a pilot should be made a minimum of 24 hours in
advance with an update of ETA 12 and 4 hrs. prior to
arrival. For river transits, the request should be made a
minimum of 8 hours in advance. For all other sailings, the
request should be made a minimum of 4 hours in advance.
2. vessel's arrival draft, and for vessels going above UPRRB,
fresh water draft and air draft;
3. berth(s) and side to;
4. the name of the company and the tug boats that will be
supplied;
5. length, breadth and air draft of vessel; any reference to
PANAMAX Class means a vessel of about 750' loa and 106'
beam (a vessel's trim can significantly affect the air
draft and masters/agents must be alert to this);
6. availability and HP of an operational bow thruster; and
7. any special requirements or problems affecting the vessel
8. Flat tows/dead ship tows must be provided with a master or
person in charge and riding crew. The San Francisco Bar
Pilots will fax a copy of flat tow policy to anyone
contracting or planning a flat tow as soon as the
dispatcher or Operations Pilot receives an order or a
request for information.
9. Pilot ladders must comply with SOLAS regulations.

IMPORTANT: READ CAREFULLY


These guidelines are intended for planning purposes only. They
have been developed to assist dispatchers and vessel agents in
planning for local vessel movements. These guidelines are not
intended, nor should they be construed, as a representation of
minimum or maximum requirements or a warranty that, if the

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recommendations outlined in the guidelines are met, an operation


can be successfully performed.
IN ANY EVENT, NO REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTIES OF ANY SORT ARE
MADE OR INTENDED BY THE SAN FRANCISCO BAR PILOTS OR ANY OF ITS
MEMBER PILOTS BY THESE GUIDELINES NOR UNDER ANY ARRANGEMENTS
THAT MAY BE AGREED TO.
In each instance, the individual pilot who is assigned to the
vessel will determine whether the planned operation can be
successfully completed with the resources allocated. Please
note that actual conditions may preclude the performance of the
movement as planned. For those reasons, it is the vessel
agent's responsibility to contact the pilot office, the
operations pilots and the pilot assigned to the vessel to
determine whether in his or her opinion the resources provided
will be satisfactory and also to be prepared to assist the pilot
with additional resources if needed.
In addition, each vessel has its own peculiar handling
characteristics. Some vessels, because of their handling
limitations, will need additional tugs or other resources, and
in some instances, will not be able to be moved under all
conditions. The vessel agent should provide complete details to
the pilot office and to the pilot assigned of the vessel's
handling characteristics in order to assist both in planning and
the performance of actual piloting operations.

Recommendations for tug/thruster requirements.


In addition to the tug recommendations noted in these
guidelines, some terminals define power requirements for
tugboats being used to assist vessels moving to or from their
facilities.
These guidelines are based on typical fair weather conditions.
There may be special circumstances, including conditions of
tide, current, wind and weather or other unusual operating
parameters when the Operations Pilot or assigned pilot may
require additional tugs or particular technology.
In order not to be unduly inflexible regarding tug requirements,
it is impossible to set rigid rules in most cases. Previous
experience and practices should be one of the guidelines. The
Operations Pilot should be consulted in the cases where the
draft is more than usual, in cases of unusual or severe weather
or where strong tidal current may adversely affect the
operation.
Tugs within a class are not necessarily the same and,
occasionally, specific tugs may be requested due to their
particular design, type of propulsion, deck machinery or number
of propellers. Bow and stern thrusters should be considered an
aid and do not necessarily replace a tug whether it is due to
lack of horsepower or other inherent limitations.

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We have set forth a number of recommendations that you should


employ for long term and general planning purposes. Under most
circumstances, any problems with implementing these
recommendations can be resolved by prior consultation with the
Operations Pilot. However, since the pilot to whom the vessel
is assigned is responsible to advise the master of the vessel
and must evaluate each move considering the circumstances at a
particular time, it may be necessary for the Operations Pilot to
refer you to that pilot or another familiar with the area to
respond to your request. In any event, you should notify the
Operations Pilot of any potential problems as soon as possible
to avoid misunderstandings or delays. The final determination
as to the adequacy of the tugs and bow thruster is the
responsibility of the pilot assigned to the job.
Tugs are listed in classes according to bollard pull, as
certified by ABS or other appropriate authority. Bollard pull is
used rather than horsepower because it is the only meaningful
way to rate a tugs efficiency. Additionally, the tugs design
type, such as tractor, twin screw or single screw, and the
addition of kort nozzles and flanking rudders has a definite
effect on the utility and efficiency of a particular tug. Use of
any tug that has not been rated must be cleared by the
Operations Pilot or the assigned pilot.

Tug Class Ratings:


U U

Minimum Bollard Pull [in Pounds]


Class Astern Ahead
A 85,000 55,000
B 60,000 45,000
C 35,000 20,000
D 20,000 10,000

[Designator for tractor tug = At]

Thrusters must meet the following minimum requirement of


available horsepower to substitute for a tug:

Vessels LOA in feet (meters) Available Horsepower


more than 900 (274.3 m.) 2,500
750 - 900 (228.6 m. - 274.3 m.) 2,000
550 - 750 (167.6 m. - 228.6 m.) 1,200
less than 550 (167.6 m.) 750

Note: It is the responsibility of the Vessels Master, Owner or


U U

Agent to notify the Pilots of the available horsepower of the


bow thruster. If this information is not provided, the bow
thruster will be considered inadequate to substitute for a tug.

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SAN FRANCISCO BAR AND BAY


1. General
a. Situations requiring special considerations should be
discussed beforehand with the Operations Pilot, and if
necessary, the pilot involved.
b. As a rule, Down-tide landings are not recommended,
therefore, the vessel's ETA should be adjusted in
order to dock into the current.

c. Negative trim adversely affects vessel handling


and is discouraged. In the event that it is necessary
to move a vessel that has a negative trim the
Operations Pilot or the pilot involved should be
notified in advance as it may be necessary to time the
movement to insure favourable tide/current, etc.

d. Storing underway is not recommended for vessels


arriving or departing. Vessels should proceed to
Anchorage 8 or 9 for storing.

2. Deep Draft Vessels


a. Ships arriving with a draft of over 45 feet should
arrive at the pilot station one hour prior to high
water at the Golden Gate Bridge, any exception must be
cleared by the Operations Pilot to insure necessary
UKC. [Underkeel Clearance]
b. Ships sailing from Anchorage 9 with a draft of over 45
feet should be scheduled to sail two hours before high
water at the Golden Gate Bridge or consult Operations
Pilot for sailing time for proper UKC.
3. Vessels Carrying Hazardous Materials
a. Movements of all vessels carrying hazardous
materials should comply with all applicable Coast Guard
regulations.
b. .....

HISTORY
The San Francisco Bar Pilots are the oldest continuously
operating private enterprise in California. Captain William
Richardson (for whom Richardson Bay is named) started the Bar
Pilots in 1835. So important was their function that it was
acknowledged by California even before official statehood in
1850. One of the first acts of the first California legislature
of 1849 was to give administrative sanction to bar pilots and
put them under state authority.

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In the very early days, pilots competed for ships out at open
sea - giving some ships priority and leaving others stranded.
In 1853, however, the legislature recognized the dangers of this
situation: the Bar Pilots have operated as a single organization
ever since.
To safeguard the continued environmental and commercial
viability of the Bay, the legislature mandated that inland and
river pilots join with the San Francisco Bar Pilots in 1984,
providing a unified system. This system, encompassing the
entire Bay Area up to and including Stockton and Sacramento,
expanded the number of available pilots, reduced costs to
shippers and created a higher standard of training of all
pilots.
Today the Bar Pilots work in partnership with government,
industry and environmental organizations to ensure the safety of
our waters while supporting a vigorous maritime industry. The
first pilot organization in the United States to train and
induct a woman pilot into its ranks, the SFBP offers ongoing
support to promising women and minority students through its
scholarship program at California Maritime Academy.
OVERSIGHT
Discipline and oversight for the San Francisco Bar Pilots are
provided by the State Board of Pilot Commissioners and the U.S.
Coast Guard. Both require the Bar Pilots to report any
incidents; both have the responsibility to discipline a pilot,
including the authority to revoke his or her state or federal
pilot license permanently, if necessary.
Regulators around the country look to the State Board of Pilot
Commissioners for the San Francisco, San Pablo and Suisun Bays
as a model of leadership, safety and pilot training. The
Commission is charged with oversight of the San Francisco Bar
Pilots in their operation on the multujurisdictional waters of
two federal and five state agencies, nine counties and 41
cities.
Other duties of the Commission include setting pilotage fees,
establishing training requirements and selecting candidates for
the trainee program.
The Commission comprises two members of the shipping industry,
three members of the public and two pilots, all appointed by the
Governor. In existence since 1849, the Commission is supported
by tariffs on each ship transit - not by the taxpayers.

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PROTECTING OUR BAY


San Francisco is the only port in the United States which
includes bar, bay and river pilotage. It is rated one of the
most dangerous pilotage areas in the country. Thousands of
vessels travel these waters each year, most of foreign registry
and manned by multinational crews, many carrying hazardous and
toxic cargoes.
With 1,000 miles of shoreline and more than 90 percent of
Californias coastal marshland, these waters are the largest
estuary on the west coast of North and South America. Any
single accident could have a devastating impact on Bay waters,
wildlife and adjacent wetlands. In fulfilling their primary
mission of safe vessel transit, the Bar Pilots protect the
enduring vibrancy of this fragile environment.
Through the years, the pilots have lived up to their
responsibilities. Since the amalgamation to the bar and inland
pilots and the institution of the pilot training program, the
SFBP has maintained its safety record at 99.74% of all vessel
movements in the Bay without pilot error. In the last major
accident on the Bay, when two tankers collided near the Golden
Gate Bridge in 1971, neither vessel had a San Francisco Bar
Pilot on board.
New navigation equipment which penetrates the darkness and fog
is essential to safety. But to guide the massive ships carrying
hazardous cargo, there will never be a substitute for the San
Francisco Bar Pilot - with their seasoned experience,
shiphandling skills and comprehensive local knowledge of our
uniquely challenging waters.
BAR PILOTS AT WORK
There are currently 62 San Francisco Bar Pilots. At all times,
in all weather, pilots are stationed in a pilot boat near the
SF buoy 12 miles west of the Golden Gate. Between this rugged
spot in the open sea and the mouth of the Golden
Gate lies the enormous, horseshoe-shaped sand
bar which gives the Bar Pilots their name.
Vessels of 300 gross tons or more and all
foreign vessels are required to have a pilot on
board to enter the Golden Gate and navigate the
tricky waters and currents of San Francisco, San
Pablo and Suisun Bays. The Bar Pilots provide service to
vessels of all types, from 100-ft. tugs to 1000-ft.
supertankers, including container and bulk cargo ships, military
vessels and cruise ships.
A pilot boards an arriving ship by climbing a rope ladder which
hangs off the side of the vessel.

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Once on board, the pilot takes navigational control of the ship


as it steams into San Francisco Bay. It is the pilots
responsibility to navigate the ship through the 55-foot-deep bar
channel, through the shipping lanes to the designated port.
Once in port, the pilot maneuvers in tight quarters, directing
tugboats to ease the ship alongside its berth. In rough
weather, the senior pilot has the authority to close the bar -
thereby closing passage to all vessels through the Golden Gate.
San Francisco, San Pablo and Suisun Bays are some of our
nations busiest waters. Commercial and recreational fishing
boats, commuter ferries, military and Coast Guard vessels,
pleasure craft and commercial ships and tankers all share these
waters. Through this veritable water-traffic jam, the pilots
guide the biggest ships with the most dangerous cargo.
The San Francisco, San Pablo and Suisun Bays. From the Gulf of
the Farallones to the Sacramento Delta, these waters include
nine bridges, twenty ports, two hundred miles of shipping lanes
- and countless hidden dangers.
This is Californias greatest natural harbor - and the West
Coasts most challenging waters. Its the job of the San
Francisco Bar Pilots to know every fathom and every nautical
mile.
The Bar Pilots are responsible for the safe passage of more than
8,500 vessels every year. They must navigate ships safely
through thick fog, high winds and winter storms while contending
with shifting currents and tides, treacherous shoals and sand
bars, narrow channels and rivers.
Since the birth of local shipping, the ships have grown larger,
the lanes more crowded and the cargoes more dangerous. But
since 1835, one thing has remained the same - the San Francisco
Bar Pilots have always been on board to protect our Bay.
Training
T T

Since 1986, a comprehensive training program geared specifically


T

to the exceptional demands of the Bay Area


waterways has been a prerequisite to
becoming a San Francisco Bar Pilot. After
apprenticeship and licensing, every pilot
continues ongoing professional training to
stay current in all vital areas. T

To qualify for the training program, an


T

applicant must at minimum hold a valid US


Coast Guard Masters license with radar endorsement. He or she
must have at least two years command or piloting experience and
a federal pilotage endorsement. Those who have become apprentice
pilots are already accomplished vessel captains. Training is a

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full-time and lasts up to three years. it takes place in the


classroom, in simulators, and on board vessels of all types.
During their apprenticeships, trainees will typically handle 700
to 1,000 ships before entering the ranks as a Bar Pilot. T

A pilot must have a valid federal license, including the latest


T

requirements for radar endorsement. Pilots must take a resource


management course every three years and a one-week training at
the internationally renowned port Revel Shiphandling Centre in
France every five years. T

San Francisco Pilots Reading-

In San Francisco, there is a group of men who commute twelve


miles to their jobs by motor launch, then sit in the roomy
cabin of a beautiful two-masted schooner, reading, playing
chess, watching T.V., eating, sometimes sleeping, until it is
time to go to the office.
The office is in the bridge of a ship, freighter, tanker or
liner, headed for the Golden Gate.

These men are the bar pilots, a salty group of mariners who
know the underwater
contours lying off the
city of San Francisco as
well as they know the
palms of their seamed
hands; for, to them is
entrusted the mission of
guiding millions of tons
of shiping safely across
the great, submerged
sand bar that forms a
barrier across the
entrance to San Francisco
Bay.

Their work is as rugger


as a lumberjacks and at
times as delicate as a watchmakers. Three hundred and sixty
five days, year after year, the bar pilots are always on call.
Shipping, that worldwide artery of commerce which must be kept
moving.

For centuries all over the world mariners have had to deal with
a special phase of navigation known as crossing the bar. Usually
the bar is a sand bank lying menacingly a few fathoms below a
defective surface, on silent guard before a safe harbour.

The sand bar off the Golden Gate is formed of materials scoured
out of the gate itself by strong tides and also sediment washed

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down the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and deposited


throughout the eleven mile long semicircle that forms what is
listed on navigation charts as the Great Bar.

Located about nine miles from the Golden Gate , this sand bar is
800 yards wide and is , at is most shallow depth only 22 feet at
mean low tide in an area known as the potato patch so called
because years ago schooners carrying sacks of potatoes lost
their cargoes while crossing it.

Today the main channel, that point where the tides rush through
create a funnel, s kept dredged to a depth of 50 feet by the US
Army engineers. It is through this channel that ocean commerce
moves in and out of San Francisco.

Just what do these men do on the job? Twelve miles west of the
Golden Gate an anchored Coast guard navigational buoy with a
bright red hull tosses in the sea troughs created by merging
currents. When the captain of an inbound vessel sees the
navigational buoy with its welcoming beam circling through the
usual fog, he knows he has almost reached his destination.

Slowly cruising back and forth in sight of the light ship are
two, two masted bar pilots schooners. Together the two vessel
maintain year round vigilance. They cruise steadily back and
forth three miles outside the bar with their pilots ready to
board incoming vessels, and guide them through the channel and
into the Bay.

When called, a pilot is assigned to an outbound ship, or he


takes the twelve mile launch ride out to the lonely pilot
station and boards, the pilot boat on duty at the time.

Day and night, fair weather and foul, four whistle blast summon
him to his job. When this happens, the pilot boat low a small
yawl over the side, and the pilot is taken to his waiting ship.
Here he waits for the down roll of the ship, grasp the pilot
ladder, then quickly climbs upward before the hull can roll
back again and duck him in the sea.. In a moment he is aboard
and ready to go work. Once on the bridge of the incoming vessel
the pilots directs the proper course for the channels crossing
the Great Bar. He proceeds slowly even in clear weather and
watches for buoy marking the channel. He knows the depth at
every point along the way by memory. In fog he looks with his
ears having himself to be alert to the sound of navigation,
the bells and diaphones that are his signals, as he mentally
plots his location and his course.

Once inside the Gate sometimes, another specialist boards the


vessel and takes over until the ship is docked. He is the
harbour pilots. When is relieved he disembarks at the pier when

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the vessel is alongside. His job is done, but the telephone may
beckon him anytime to start the cycle again.

Respective Roles and Responsibilities of the Pilot and the


Master
Navigation of a ship in the United States pilotage waters is a
shared responsibility between the pilot and the master/bridge
crew. The compulsory state pilot directs the navigation of the
ship, subject to the master's overall command of the ship and
ultimate responsibility for it's safety. The master has the
right, and in fact the duty, to intervene or displace the pilot
in circumstances where the pilot is manifestly incompetent or
incapacitated or the ship is in immediate danger ("in extremis")
due to the pilot's actions. With that limited exception,
international law requires the master and/or the officer in
charge of the navigational watch "cooperate closely with the
pilot and maintain an accurate check on the ship's position and
movement."
State-licensed pilots expected to act in the public interest and
to maintain a professional judgement that is independent of any
desires that do not comport with the needs of maritime safety.
In addition, licensing and regulatory authorities, state and
federal, require compulsory pilots to take all reasonable
actions to prevent ships under their navigational direction from
engaging in unsafe operations. Because of these duties, a
compulsory pilot is not a member of the bridge "team."
Nevertheless, a pilot is expected to develop and maintain a
cooperative, mutually-supportive working relationship with the
master and the bridge crew in recognition of the respective
responsibility of each for safe navigation

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Pilot Boat Description


The Houston pilots have four boats:
M/V HOUSTON, 62.2 feet long, M/V LONE
STAR, 50 feet long, HOUSTON PILOT
No.1, 54 feet long, and HOUSTON PILOT
No.3, 85 feet long. The boats have
gray and blue hulls and white
superstructures. The pilot boats
display the International Code flag P
by day and the standard pilot lights
by night. The pilot boats motor VHF-
FM channels 14 and 74, continuously;
the pilot office monitors channel 74.
The pilot boats call signs are WYR-8541, WG-6780, and WZR-984.9.
The sound and visual signals are two long and three short blasts
on the whistle or flashes on the signal light. The Houston
pilots serve all ports above Texas city in Harris County.
The pilot boats come out when vessels are expected, and the
pilots board at Galveston Bay Entrance Channel Approach Lighted
Buoy GB. Vessels should maintain steer-age way and offer a good
lee for the pilot to board. The pilots will advise vessels on
the radiotelephone if special procedures are necessary. All
pilots carry portable radiotelephones.

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REQUIRED BOARDING ARRANGEMENTS FOR PILOT .

Above Arriba
Handhold Asidero
Stanchions Puntal,
barraganete
Manropes Guardamancebos
Spreaders Prolongadores
Bulkward Amuras

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CAPITULO 11 EQUIPO Y MATERIAL DE CUBIERTA

CATEGORIES OF SHIP'S DECK GEAR


The term "ships gear" is used to describe that gear and
equipment aboard ship that is used for cargo transfer activities
and deck operations. Ships gear can be divided into four
categories:
Standing rigging.
Running rigging.
Deck fittings.
Deck machinery.

STANDING RIGGING
Standing rigging gear includes the rigging that supports masts
or king posts. This gear includes the following:
Shrouds are heavy wire ropes that provide athwartship support
for the mast or king posts. Two or more shrouds are used on
either side of a mast or king post. They are secured to the
outboard side of the deck or to the bulwark to provide maximum
support.
Turnbuckles are internally threaded collars turning on two
screws threaded in opposite directions. They are used to secure
and to take up the slack in the shrouds and stays.
Stays and Backstays are heavy wires similar to shrouds. The
difference is that they will lead in a forward or aft direction.
They are found at the mast where the jumbo boom (heavy lift
boom) is located. When they support the mast from a forward
direction, they are called stays. When they support the mast
from an aft (back) direction, they are called backstays.

Running rigging
This gear includes the moving or movable parts that are used to
hoist or operate gear (such as cargo runners, topping lifts, and
guy tackles).

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Standing Rigging Gear


Deck fittings
These are the devices that are used to secure standing rigging,
running rigging, and mooring lines.
Bitts are heavy metal bed plates with two iron or steel posts.
They are used on ships for securing mooring or towing lines.
Usually there is a set forward and after each chock.
Chocks are heavy fittings secured to the deck. Lines are passed
through them to bollards on the pier. The types of chocks used
are closed, open, roller, and double roller.
Cleats are metal fittings having two projecting horns. They are
used for securing lines.
Pad Eyes are fixtures welded to a deck or bulkhead. They have an
eye to which lines or tackle are fastened and are used for
securing or handling cargo.
A bulwark is the wall around any deck exposed to the elements.
This includes the weather deck, the poop deck, the fore deck,
and any deck on the superstructure. On top of the bulwark is a
flat rail (or plate) called the rail. Pad eyes and cleats are
often welded to the rail.

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Deck Fittings

Deck machinery
The size and shape of the deck machinery may vary depending upon
type of vessel, but the operating principles remain the same.
Cargo Winches are power-driven machines used to lift, lower, or
move cargo. Winches are classified according to their source of
power. Electric winches are standard equipment on most vessels.
An electric winch has a steel base on which the winch drum,
motor, gears, shafts, and brakes are mounted. The drum, which
has cable wound on it, is usually smooth with flanged ends. It
revolves on a horizontal axis and is driven through single or
double reduction gears by an electric motor (usually direct
current). A solenoid brake and a mechanical brake are fitted to
the motor shaft. The winch is located on deck or on a deckhouse.
The winch controls consist of a master controller or switchbox
located on a pedestal at the end of the hatch square and a group
of relays, contactors switches, and resistors located near the
winch motor.

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Electric Winch
The Windlass is a special type of winch used to raise and lower
the anchors and to handle the forward mooring lines. It consists
of a wildcat (a steel casting in the form of a deeply grooved
drum with projecting ribs [whelps]) used to grip the anchor
chain, controls for connecting or disconnecting the wildcat from
the engine, and a friction brake which can be set to stop the
wildcat when disconnected. There are horizontal drums at each
end of the windlass for warping.

Windlass

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The Capstan is a vertically mounted winch head used aboard ship


when mechanical power is required for raising anchor, lifting
heavy weights, or for any similar work. It is a cast steel drum
mounted on a vertical spindle with the largest diameters at top
and bottom and the smallest in the middle to allow the rope
around it to surge up or down as the number of turns are
increased. The drum is fixed to the spindle by keys.

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Deck harware

Shackles:

"D" Shackles Bow Shackles

Chain Shackles Anchor Shackles

Special "D" Shackle Special Bow


"No-Snag" Shackle
No sharp edges to snag. "No-Snag"
Sang= tropiezo No sharp edges to
snag.
Round Pin Chain Shackle Round Pin Anchor
Load Rated - Heavy Duty Shackle
Secures with cotter Pin Load Rated -
cotter Pin=pasador de Heavy Duty
seguridad Secures with
cotter pin.
Bolt Chain Shackle Bolt Anchor
Load Rated - Heavy Duty Shackle
Secures with nut and Load Rated -
cotter pin. Heavy Duty
Nut= tuerca Secures with nut
and cotter pin.
Web Shackle
T T Halyard Shackles
Specially designed for With bar and
use with webbing. captive pins.
Webbing= lona With Lock Pin
Long "D" Shackles Headboard Shackle
With or without captive with captive
pins. pins.

W-i-d-e "D" Shackles Twist Shackles

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Hooks spring & clips


Harness Clips
T T Asymmetrical
T T

Spring Clips
T T

Eye Hook Eye Hooks

Titanium Spring
T Titanium Tether
T T

Clip T

Tether= correa de
T

sujeccion . T

Stamped Harness
T Mooring Hook Kit
Clip T

Spring Clips Spring Clip


with Wire Lever

Spring Clip Spring Clip


with Screw Lock with Special Gate

Harness Clips. The Mini Clip

The Chain Clip Shock Cord Hooks

Spring Gate Snap Swivel Eye Bolt Snaps


High polish and Single, Double or
strong. Open End snaps.

Trigger Snap Wide Asymmetrical Clip

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Mooring Hook Kit

OTHER CLIPS & HOOKS


U U

Pelican "S", "U"


Hooks

Snap Shackles Titanium Snap Shackles


Swivel

Grab Hooks Slip Hooks


With Clevis Pin

Clevis Pin=Clavija de
seguridad
Cabin Hooks
T T Awning & Fender
Hooks

Door Utility
Hooks

Fasteners

Bolts, Hex Cap Screws Carriage Bolts

Machine Screws, Machine Screws,


Phillips Slotted

Slotted=hacer una
muestra, acanalado.
Nuts Washers
Cap (Acorn), Hex Finish, ExterTooth,
(Fin.), Hex Fender, Flat,
(Machine), Lock, InterTooth, Lock
Tee, Wing

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Washers = arandela

Self-Tapping Self-Tapping
Screws, Phillips Screws, Slotted

Wood Screws,
T

Square Drive T Lag Screws

Socket Set Screws


Hanger Bolts
T T .
.

Clamps Cotters
Pins , Rings and
Abrazadera Heavy Split Rings

Cotters= chaveta
Stainless
Rivets Rods Solid
Blind "pop rivets" and
Threaded
Rivets = Remache
Rods= Vastago
Threaded=
Stainless & Monel
Staples
Boat Nails
T T
Staples= grapas

Nuts,
Wing &
Turnbuckle

Turnbuckle=
tensor

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The proper fastener

Do you remember Richard III's lament about losing a battle for


lack of a nail? By contrast, use a nail in a fiberglass boat and
it is likely that the boat will be lost. Nails, as well as wood
screws, have few applications on a modern boat. The reason is
simple: Almost any fastener will do a better job than either.
The most practical fastener material is stainless steel. Stain-
less steel is strong, corrosion-resistant, and galvanically the
most passive of fastener materials with the exception of bronze.
Best of all, stainless steel fasteners are commonly
available,even in areas where an anchor is regarded as an odd
example of free-form sculpture.

Let's take a close look at the choice of fasteners available to


the do-it-yourself boatowner:
Screws
There is almost nothing aboard a boat that can't be fastened
with the self-tapping screw (also called a sheetmetal screw).
Self-tapping screws are, of course, ideal for screwing into
thin, hard metals or even moderately thick soft metal such as
aluminum. All it takes is a pilot hole drilled to the optimum
diameter.
Self-tapping screws work almost as well in most woods as they do
in metal. They come in a variety of head configurations in sizes
up to #14, and in lengths from 1/4 inch to 3 inches. Just like a
wood screw, a self-tapper can be countersunk and. bunged, or set
with the head flush.
Where self-tapping screws truly excel is in fastening into
fiberglass laminates, whether cored or solid. They should be
used to carry light loads only, however; they are not a

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substitute for bolts for heavier loads. As with any screw, the
strength of the fastening itself is generally greater than its
holding power (it will pull out before it will break off). As a
rule of thumb, the laminate into which the screw is driven
should be at least equal in thickness to the diameter of the
screw.

For all their virtues, self-tapping screws do have some notable


limitations and drawbacks. The number of times they can be
removed and redriven is finite; sooner or later they wear out
the hole, diminishing their holding power. Holding power is also
reduced if the pilot hole is oversized, and they may be
impossible to drive if the pilot hole is undersized. Remember
too that the holding power of the screw is no greater than the
strength of the material into which it is driven. Soft woods,
thin laminates, and thin metals cannot carry much of a load.
Conventional wood screws are superior for fastening wood
joinerwork, but they should never be used to fasten into
fiberglass laminates.
Bolts
For heavier loads, for pulling two surfaces together, and for
fastenings that may be repetitively tightened and loosened,
bolts are the answer. These functions are in direct contrast to
those that screws perform best. Machine screws come with flat,
round, and oval heads, all slotted for use with a screwdriver.
Other bolts are available with hexagonal and square heads for
use with a wrench; recessed (socket) heads for Allen wrenches;
and rounded, carriage heads. Nuts for use with these bolts are
hexagonal, square, wing (for hand tightening), jam (self-
locking, also called aircraft nuts), and cap (acorn). All are
capable of taking a variety of washers underneath. Machine
screws axe often used in heavier metal without a nut by drilling
and tapping the hole. (To be used in this manner, the metal
should be at least as thick as the diameter of the bolt.)
Nuts are intended to be tightened against a washer. The washer
not only spreads the load on the lower surface of the material
being bolted, but prevents the nut from cutting into that
surface. As many applications aboard a boat involve heavy

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localized loading -- more load than a washer alone can handle --


bolts may need a hard backing block of aluminum or fiberglass in
addition to a washer to better spread that load. A good sealant
should always be used with through-bolts in a hull or deck, as
the bolt holes provide passageways for water.

Rivets
Pop-Rivet is a brand name, but rightly or wrongly, the term is
becoming generic for the type of blind fastener that expands
when the center pin (mandrel) is extracted and broken off. Such
rivets are commonly used in applications that would call for a
bolt, but where location prevents turning on a nut (in attaching
mast fittings, for example). Since pop rivets are also quicker
to install, they are frequently used instead of bolts in
production applications (such as the hull-to-deck joints on
smaller and cheaper boats).
Pop-rivets are available in both aluminum and stainless steel,
with the stainless steel ones use for heavier loads. The center
pin is pulled, expanding the body of the rivet, until the pin
breaks ("pops"). They may be set up with either a hand tool or a
hydraulic tool. A word of warning: Squeezing the hand tool is a
macho exercise, difficult for the aluminum rivets, herculean for
the stainless steel.
Removing rivets entails drilling them out, a job that must be
done carefully to prevent enlarging the holes in which replace-
ment rivets must fit. In removing rivets (for stripping a mast
for painting, for instance), you may want to plan from the
outset to use the next larger diameter when you replace the
rivets.
* * *

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Turn= tensorbuckles

Closed Body - Machined Closed Body - Machined


Jaw/Swage Toggle/Quick Attach
(Stainless Steel - UNF)

Closed Body - Machined Forged - Open Body


Jaw/Jaw Eye/Eye
(Stainless Steel - UNC) (Stainless Steel - UNC)

Forged - Open Body Forged - Open Body


Jaw/Jaw Hook/Eye
(Stainless Steel - UNC) (Stainless Steel - UNC)

Forged - Open Body Forged - Open Body


Eye/Jaw no terminals
(Stainless Steel - UNC) (Stainless Steel - UNC)

Cast - Open Body Cast - Open Body


Jaw/Jaw Eye/Eye
(Stainless Steel - UNC) (Stainless Steel - UNC)

Cast - Open Body Cast - Open Body


Hook/Eye Hook/Hook
(Stainless Steel - UNC) (Stainless Steel - UNC)

Forged - Open Body


Hook/Hook
Wing & Turnbuckle Nuts (Stainless Steel - UNC)

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Tools & accessories

Rachet and Sockets Folding Stainless


Shovel
"U-Dig It"

Shovel = pala

Locking Pliers Pliers


Standard 2-Position
Pliers= alicates and 5-Position
Channel

Stainless Stainless
Adjustable Wrench Open End Wrench

Wrench= Llave

"L" Hex Keys Pliers


Stainless Allen wrenches
individually or in sets .

Stainless Steel Stainless Scraper


Screwdrivers with Wood Handle .
Flat and Phillips, Long and Short
Espatula, raspador

Wichard "Sailor's Rigging" Knife Wichard "Crewman"


Knife .

Scissors Hand Riveters


T T

Cutting Tools Stainless


Wire Rope and Shackler & Bottle
Bolt & Chain Cutters Opener

Hand Swaging Tool Hand Nicropress Type


forLifeline Fittings . Swaging Tool

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Retractable Blade Knife Stainless Wire Brush

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Capitulo 12 Astilleros

CAPITULO 12 ASTILLEROS

Anglesmith Herrero de perfiles


Awnings toldos
Basin Drsena
Bending Curvatura
Blasting plant Planta de chorreo
Boat chocks Calzos de botes
Boat yard Talleres de construccin de
botes
Boiler Caldera
Boiler shop Taller de calderera
Bolts Pernos
Boom Puntal de carga
Building dock Dique seco de construccin
Building slip Grada de construccin
Canvas lona
Captivator Captivator
Carening slipway Varadero
Cargo gear Equipo de carga
Carved out Esculpido
Casting Pieza fundida
Casting house Taller de fundicin
Christening Bautizo
Clinch, to afianzar
Conveyor Mecanismo portador
Conveyor belt Correa trasportadora
Cradle Cuna de botadura
Craneage capacity Capacidad de gruas
Cut to shape Cortado a medida
Designing office Oficina tcnica de proyectos
Dock gate Puerta del dique
Drawing office Oficina de delineacin
Dry dock Dique seco
Engine works Taller de maquinaria
Engine workshop Taller de maquinaria
Erecting shop Taller de monturas, taller de
prefabricacin
Erection Montaje
Erection yard Parque de refabricacin
Fenders defensas
Fitting-out quay Muelle de armamento
Floating dock Dique flotante
Forge shop Taller de forja
Frame ship yard Grada armada
Furnishing Equipo
Gantry cranes Gras prtico
General office Oficinas generales

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Graving dock Dique seco


Gridiron Carenero
Hummer-headed cranes Gras con cabeza de martillo
Hydraulic jack Gato hidrulico
Joints Juntas
Keel-blocks Picaderos
Launching way Imada
Lofted Trazado
Luffing jib cranes Gras oscilantes giratorias
Machine railway Varadero
Machine shop Taller mecnico
Magnetic pickup Electroimn elevador
Mangles Maquina de planchar
Marine railway Varadero
Mold loft (USA) Sala de galibos
Mould loft Sala de galibos
Outfit Armamento
Outfit shop Taller de armamento
Outfitting basin Drsena de armamento
Output Produccin
Pattern shop Taller de modelos
Patterns Plantillas
Piping system Sistema de tuberas
Planing Cepilladora
Plate shop Taller de chapistera
Plate yard Almacn de planchas
Plate yard Deposito de planchas
Puntch Perforar, punzonar.
Repair quay Muelle de reparaciones
Repair quay Muelle de reparaciones
Repairing shop Taller de reparaciones
Rigging loft Taller de jarcia
Rigging loft Taller de jarcia
Running rigging Jarcia de labor
Scaffolds Andamios
Shell expansion plan Plano de desarrollo del forro
Shipchandlery Paol de efectos navales
Shipwright yard Taller de carpinteros de rivera
Shore gangway Planchas de desembarco
Shot blast plant Planta de chorreado
shrouds Obenques
Slipway Grada de lanzamiento
Squad cuadrillas
Staging Andamiaje
Standing rigging Jarcia firme
Stockyard Parque de materiales, parque de
deposito
Storeroom Almacn
Sub-assemblies premontaje

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Tight Estanco
Tightness estanqueidad
Toolroom Almacn de herramientas
Traveling crane Puente gra
Welding shop Taller de soldaduras
Wire rope alambre
Workshop Taller

Shipyard

A shipyard is an enclosure where ship are


built and repair. Shipyards are located on
the edge of a waterfront, that could be the
sea, a lake or a river, with sufficient
depth to allow ships docking in the piers
and the safe launching of new ships.

Shipyards embrace a big area where are


located all the necessary buildings ,docks,
workshops, etc.

The work in a shipyard starts with the steel


plates entering the yard by rail, sea or vehicles, then is
stacked horizontally in the steel dockyard, from the stockyard
the steel is handled by a large number of electromagnets and
conveyors and passed through plate mangles and them to shot-
blast plant, this is made by means of conveyors and device
called captivator which will automatically feed the input
conveyor to the plate shop via the shot blast plant. The
captivator is remote controlled by the operator at the shot-
blast.

Another modern unit is the collocator which does the opposite to


the captivator, it take plates off the conveyor line and shorts
them into piles at the head of the appropriate bay of the plate
shop.

The total stockyard operation can be controlled by the


production department from a distant console in a office, from
there the position of every
plate can be seen and
followed.

In the plate shop are formed


the plates and bars which are
stored in a bay at the end of
the plate shop, this bay
serves the prefabrication hall
where all the various parts
are welded into prefabricated
sub-assemblies; these are

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mostly flat or nearly flat panels of plating and stiffeners. The


sub-assemblies are them transported outside the prefabrication
hall to an area between the building docks for making up
prefabricated three dimensional units, and finally the
prefabricated units are positioned on the new construction by
travelling cranes and when they are all erected the ship is
launched.

The tendency today is launch ship as near complete as possible


but particularly to install all the main engine room auxiliaries
and most of the hull piping.

The whole operation in a modern shipyard takes place in a


straight line, so depth of site would be preferable to the need
for water frontage.

Slipway or building slip

Slipways are the spaces in a


shipyard occupied by ships
while under construction, They
slope down toward the water with
sufficient declivity to cause the
ship to move under the impulse of
gravity when launching.

The ship in the slipway rest of


keel clocks to make possible the work under the keel and
garboard strakes.

Building docks or building dry docks

Some modern shipyards instead of


slipways have building docks,
which are basins where ship are
built. They are similar to normal
dry-docks provided with dock
gates and pumping plants.

When the hull of the ship has


been constructed they are
flooded, the dock gates opened
and the vessel will be towed out
to the fitting-out quay.

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Dry docks or graving docks

Dry docks are basins into which ships are taken for underwater
cleaning and repairing. They are provided with water-tight gates
which when closed permit the deck to be pumped dry.

Some dry-docks instead of hinged gates have caissons which are


flooded and sunk to closed the dock and pumped out to float and
so to open and permit the passage of vessels.

The following are parts of dry docks:

Entrance gate Puerta de entrada


Sill Umbral
Head wall Frente
Side wall Cajera
Floor Solera
Keel bloks Picaderos
Shores Escoras
Altars Escalones laterales, gradas.

Floating docks

A floating dock is a dock which generally consist of a bottom


pontoon or a series of pontoons on which a ship may be lifted
out of the water.

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It is submerged by filling the compartments with water, the ship


enters the dock while it is submerged and is raised above the
water by pumping out the compartments.

Keel Laying Ceremony

Largely ceremonial, the laying of the


keel is the point when the first
structure is installed on the
building ways or construction drydock
. In the case of the MV Manukai, it
was the erection of the first grand
block in the graving dock

Mould loft
The mould loft is a large enclosed
space used for laying down the lines
of a vessel to actual size and the
moulds or template made.

In the mould loft the patterns are


made of thin boards to conform
exactly to the shape of frames or
other parts of a ship.

Fitting out quay


The fitting out quay is a quay where
ships are berthed for completing
their installations of machinery,
upper works of hull, equipment etc,
after launching.

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In the fitting out quay are numerous items of equipment waiting


to be fitted on to the ship.

The plating department must complete the superstructure, deck


houses, etc.

The piping and plumbing department has the


responsibility for all the fresh and salt
water services. Hot and cold fresh water
must be piped to all wash basins, showers
and baths, and discharges arranged to the
ships side.

All the various electric services have to


be wired to the main switchboard in the
engine room.

Windlass has to be lifted on to the


forecastle and all the cargo winches are
positioned.

Air and sounding pipes must be fitted to all double bottom tanks
and peak tanks and air pipes must be provided for ventilation.

When the ship is near completion the shipyard will star a series
of routine test, and everything will be prepared for the trial
trip.

Christening

The ceremony where the ship is officially


christened, usually by a relative of a
company official or a high-ranking
politician.

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Sea trials

When the ship is taking to the sea for the first time, she has
to undergo different trials.

While she is in shallow water the engines will be stopped in


order to carry out anchor heaving
trials on the windlass, after which
the magnetic compass will be adjusted,
also steering trials will be carried
out in order to check the time it
takes for the rudder to be put from
hard over one side to hard over the
other.

Manoeuvring trials may also be carried


out to determine the ships turning
circle and the time and distance from engines full ahead to full
astern. Then the speed trials ,the ship will make several runs
up and down the mile, some at about three-quarter power and some
at full power.

After speed trials on the measured mile, the endurance trial of


several hours duration is carried out in order to determine the
overall fuel consumption of the machinery.

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Ship building methods

Except for the brief period of mass produced cargo ship and
smaller craft during World War II in the United States, the
process of shipbuilding has been traditional ,methodical and
conservative. It most cases it was a low, laborious and very
expensive process. It required upwards of two or three years to
build a ship.

In todays technology this consumption of time , use of skilled


labour and employment of expensive facilities is nearly
prohibited.

In order to properly describe the modern shipbuilding methods,


it is of some value to briefly describe the classical and
traditional approach.

The older method: During the latter stages of the design process
and after the building contracts have been signed, the shipyards
begins the building process with the most fundamental elements
of design, the lines drawing and the table of offsets.

The lines of the ship are lofted full size in the mold loft,
bulkheads and frames are located on the mold loft, and the
patterns are made, a shell expansion plan is made, often with
help of a large half-model of the hull called plating model, and
the building and launching ways are prepared. It is literally
some months before the keel is actually laid, and the ship
structure begins to evident, together with the slow growth of
the surrounding cradle and scaffolding which nearly hides the
ship itself.

During the early part of this century when steel welding


techniques where being expanded, welded ship soon proved
stronger and more economical. However, because of the necessity
of welding downward, that is on top of material being joined,
it was necessary to prefabricate large sections of the ships
bottom before placing them in position. This practice led soon,
an was stimulated by the mass production requirements during WW
II, to large subassemblies was here begun. Its application was
largely restricted to ship of a single design in series.

Economic impact of building methods.: Before describing in more


detail the contemporary shipbuilding techniques, it is better at
this point to explain briefly some causes for wide variation in

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shipbuilding methods today and to note that while some


shipyards are highly automated and streamlined, other employ
interesting composities between automated method and the
traditional employment of skilled labour.

The explanation for this lack of conformity lies almost wholly


in the real of economics and basic shipyard capacities. Briefly
and simply, the most elemental economic factor is the desire and
ability to offer a continuing supply of ship at the most
competitive prices.

It is no obscure economic law that recognises the advantages of


production as well as of extremely high unit cost, there is
introduced a restriction to mass production techniques, and
shipyards must chose between the advantages of diversification
on one hand and specification on the other.

A shipbuilder must decided, based on a type of analysis at what


point his operation can survive financially. In the labyrinths
of cost analysis, he will undoubtedly find frustration when he
compare the amortisation cost of automatic computer operate
plate cutting machines with labour cost of cutting torch
operators, or the expansion cost of numerous subassembly shops
compared to the occupation time of a dock or expensive building
ways.

Solution of such problems are mostly transitory and depend the


environment upon estimates of future units to be built; these
decisions do require the involvement of the ship designers and
naval architects, even down the hydrodynamic analysis of ship
forms.

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Personal de astillero

Anglesmith Herrero de perfiles


Apprentice Aprendiz
Blacksmith Herrero, forjador
Blaster Chorreador
Bolter Cernedor
Burner Sopleista
Buyer Jefe de compras
Captain of the yard Jefe de servicios generales
Caulker Calafaeador
Certificated officer Oficial titulado
Chief accountant Jefe de contabilidad
Chief draughtsman Jefe de contabilidad
Chief foreman Maestro de taller
Chipper Calafate
Peon de limpieza Cleaner
Coppersmith Calderero
Crane driver Gruista
Crane rigger Enganchador operario de grua
Developer (USA) Trazador de la sala de
galibos
Doorkeeper Portero
Draughtsman Delineante
Drill runner Barrenador
Driller Taladrista
Dockmaster Capitan de dique
Electrician Electricista
Engineer Maquinista
Erector Montador de bloques
Fitter Ajustador
Foreman Capataz, jefe de equipo
Foundry worker Fundidor
Furnaceman Operario de perfiles
Headman Encargado

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Hocker Enganchador
Joiner Ensamblador
Naval architect Ingeniero naval
Outffitter Montador
Oxycutter Soldador
Painter Pintor
Pattern-maker Plantillero, modelista
Pickler Decapista
Plater Chapista
Platers helper Ayudante de chapista
Plumber Fontanero
Rigger Aparejador
Riveter Remachador
Rivet squad Cuadrilla de remachadores
Sailor Marinero
Scaffolder Andamiero
Storekeper Paolero
Timekeper Anotador de tiempos de
ejecucion
Watchman Guarda
Welder soldador

The naval architect

The naval architect is in charge of preparing a design for a


vessel that must carry a certain weight of cargo at a specified
speed. He must estimate the shaft horse power required for the
specific vessel, so he should possess an extensive experience in
the design and construction of various ship types, their
operation and behavior at sea.

The professional training of naval architects differs widely in


the various maritime country, but the academic training must be
supplemented by practical experience in a shipyard.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


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The chief draughtsman

Is responsible for the production of all working plans from


which the ship is built. He must posses a detailed knowledge of
the hull construction and outfitting of different types of
vessels.

Chief accountant

Is the senior executive and administrative head of the companys


internal financial department. He examines statistic prepared by
his sections heads, supervises the financial organisation etc.

Head timekeeper

His job is to record the hours or quantity of work for each man,
making allowances for income tax, holiday pay etc. He must
record the labour charges against each ship and the total
charges for a number of different trades which may contribute to
any one particular job.

Dockmaster

An official responsible for supervising the locking in or out of


vessels at the dock gates, directing the movements and berthing
of ship using any dock under his control and dry docking of
ships. Dockmaster are usually Merchant Marine Captains.

Repair list

S/S Sjoa

Repairs to be carried out during vessels drydocking in 1.964.

1) Vessel to be drydocked for examination and underwater


repairs.
2) Vessels hull to be thoroughly cleaned of all marine growth ,
loose rust and scale, and washed down with fresh water. Two
coats of plate primer to bare spots from keel to light load
line and two coats of red lead to bare spots from light load
line to deep load line. One full coat anticorrosive and one

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full coat antifoulding from light load line to deep load


line. One coat galvex to strern area.
3) All draft and load line marking forward, amidship and aft to
be repainted and surveyed.(draft marks to 38 feet to be
painted forward)
4) 30 zincplates on stern area to be renewed.
5) Anchors. Vessels two bow anchors to be ranged in dock and
given one coat fish oil. All shots to be marked with seizing
wire and paint. Chain lockers to be cleaned out.
6) Chemist certificates on arrival and as necessary during
repairs.
7) Garbage tubs to be furnished and garbage to be removed daily.
8) Two crank and connection rod guards to be renewed with 3/16
galv. Steel plate. (starb. mooring winch forecastle)Two crank
guards to be renewed on winch starb. aft deck. Six crank
guards to be repaired on aft mooring winches.
9) Galley funnel to be renewed.
10) Galley atove furnace brickwork to be renewed.
11) Aft peak to be scraped and cement washed.
12) 22 hatch cover stopped plates to be repaired and rubber
bumpers to be renewed where necessary.
13) 9 missing or broken off aluminium mounting feet on
transportable heating coils to be repaired. Craking welding
on 5 aluminium heating coil frames to be rewelded.
14) 4 holes on cargo lines in aft pump room to be repaired.
15) One piece 8 stripping line (10 feet) with several holes to
be renewed.one piece 8 stripping line with two holes to be
repaired or renewed.
16) Lifeboats n2 and 3: air tanks to be taken out and tested.
17) Two hidraulic jacks to be repaired.
18) Leakages in pipeline tunnels from center tanks to be
repaired. (probabily loose rivets)
19) One loose rivet leaking on deck at bulkhead between n 8
and 9 centre tanks starb. Side.
20) Rudder plug to be removed for examintion of leakage.
Clearance of pintles to be taken and copies of the readings
supplied to owners representative.
21) Tailshaft and stern gland: take weardown of the stern tube
bearing and copie of the reading supplied to owners
representative. Remove all packings from stern tube stuffing
box and fit new 1 beaver metallic packing.
22) Strainers: disconnect and remove in all 5 strainers on sea
chest: For cooling water to main engine S. For provision
refrigerator, for aux motors. Scrape aand clean sea chest
,strainers and zinc plates. Apply one coat of Apexior to the
sea chest and refit strainers. Fixation nuts to be stopped
with tack welding.
23) Sea valves: two bottom valves for main engine cooling water
pumps and two bottom valves for sanitary and hidrofor pumps:
clean all interior surfaces by scraping and wire-brushing,
paint with one coat of Apexior, grind seats and discs, renew

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 12 Astilleros

packing and joints, renew any defective studs and nuts and
reclose in good order.
24) Ballast tank (total volume = 4200 cu. Metr.) No. 1,2,3 and
5 D.B. water ballast tank port and SB to be emptied and
cleaned. After cleaning wave-holes in transverse frames to be
burned according encl. drawing N 474 AIF 1140-70-I

L.Jacobsem
Master

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 13 SEVIMAR

CAPITULO 13 SEVIMAR

All purpose fire nozzle Repartidor universal


Baler Achicador
Becket Guirnalda
Bench Bancada
Boat hook bichero
Breeches buoy Salvavidas transportador
Bucket Balde
Bulbs Bombillas
Canister Cartucho
Canvas breech Canasta salvavidas
Carbon dioxide extinguisher Extintor de CO2 porttil
Coupling Acoplamiento
Crutches Horquillas
Dry chemical portable Extintor porttil de polvo seco
extinguisher
Even Par
Extinguisher Extintor
Female fitting Acoplamiento hembra
Fire main system Lnea general de
contraincendios
Fire plug Boca de incendios
First aid Primeros auxilios
Flares Bengalas
Foam equipment Equipo de espuma
Fog spray system Sistema de niebla
Grab line Guardamancebos
Gunwale Regala
Hand flares Bengalas de mano
Hand flares Bengalas de mano
Hatchets Hachetas, hacha pequea
Hydrant Hidrante, boca de incendios.
Inflatable life raft Balsa salvavidas inflable
Jack-knife Navaja
Lamp Linterna
Landyard Acollador
Life belt Chaleco salvavidas
Life jacket Chaleco salvavidas
Life line Guirnalda
Life raft Balsa salvavidas
Life ring Aro salvavidas
Life saving appliances Equipo salvavidas
Lifebuoy Aro con rabiza
Line throwing appliances Aparato lanzacabos

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 13 SEVIMAR

Locker Compartimento, paol


Male fitting Acoplamiento macho
Manifold Acoplamiento macho
Mask Mascaras
MES (Marine Evacuation System) MES
Nozzles Boquillas
Oars Remos
Odd Impar
Oxygen breathing apparatus Equipo de respiracion autonomo
Painter Boza
Parachute rock signals Cohetes con paracaidas
Plug Espiches
Plug hole Orificio de desague
Pump Bomba
Reel Carretel
Rocket signals Cohetes de seales
Sea anchor Ancla flotante
Set Equipo, juego , grupo
Smoke signals Aparato de seales fumigeras
Smother,to Sofocar
Solid stream of water Chorro solido de agua
Spare Respeto
Sprinkler system Sistema de rociadores
automaticos.
Steering oar Espadilla
Strop Estrobo
Tiller Caa
Toggle Cabilla, tensor, cazonete
Water-tight Estanco

Nomenclature of life saving appliances

Life saving appliances include the materials and accesories used


to assist those person in distress upon the seas.

They include: Life boats, life rafts, life jacket, life rings,
line throwing appliances, smoke signals, flare and rocket
signals.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 13 SEVIMAR

Lifeboats
Lifeboats are boats specially designed for carrying a certai
number of persons in event of necesity for abandonig ship. They
are provided with means of quickly launching, and are fitted with
water-tight tanks for extra buoyance.

Inflatable life raft


Inflatable liferaft are inflated
by means of CO2 bottles. They vary
in sice, but small ship generally
use the 8 man liferaft whereas
other ships the 20 man liferaft.
They are stowed on deck ,in a
plastic container at convenient
place for launching. When the
container has been launched
overboard, by means of the gas
bottle, the raft is inflated and
burst out of the container.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 13 SEVIMAR

Lifejackets
Also called lifebelts or life preservers are used to support a
person when in water. In accordance with the SOLAS, they will
comply with the following conditions:
When the wearer is insert, the position of the body shall be as
near the vertical as possible, and his head shall be kept clear
of the water.
Lifeboats, Lifeboat Equipment and Rafts
All articles of equipment for lifeboats must be of good quality,
efficient for the purpose they are intended to serve and kept in
good condition. Lifeboats must be fully equipped before the
vessel leaves port, and the equipment must remain in the boat
throughout the voyage. It is unlawful to stow in any boats
articles other than those required. All loose equipment must be
securely attached to the boat to which it belongs.
Stowage of Boats Aboard Ship
Boats on the starboard side are numbered with odd numbers from
forward to aft (1-3-5-7 etc.). Boats on the port side are
numbered with even numbers from forward to aft (2-4-6-8 etc.).
Boats stowed in nests are numbered from the top down (1, 1A, 1B,
etc.).
Maintenance of Lifeboat and Equipment
A man or group of men is especially assigned by the chief mate to
take care of and report the
condition of the lifeboats each
day. At drill each crew member
should inspect the boat to which
he is assigned and examine its
condition as far as his own safety
is concerned. In addition to daily
inspection of the lifeboats it is
required by law that once each
year every bit of equipment come
off the lifeboat to be examined
and overhauled. The entire boat must be overhauled and painted
and the equipment must be kept in perfect condition.
Releasing Gear
The purpose of releasing gear is to permit releasing both of the
falls simultaneously as soon as the boat is waterborne, and thus
to avert possible mishap.
It consists of two releasing hooks on bridles, one at each end of
the boat, connected by a chain or rod running from one end of the
boat to the other. The releasing hooks are hinged on pins so that

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 13 SEVIMAR

they may be rotated and upset. The chain or rod between the two
hooks is equipped with an operating grip in a convenient location
near the stem. It is fastened to the releasing hooks in such a
manner that a strain on it will cause the hooks to upset and thus
free themselves from the falls.
In operation, a strain is put on the chain by pulling the
operating grip as soon as the boat is waterborne, upsetting both
hooks and freeing them from both falls simultaneously. Releasing
hooks connected to a rod running along the floor of the boat are
operated by means of a lever, functioning through universal
joints, which disengages a pin at each end, releasing the hooks.
Life nets
Life nets are rope nets which hang from the embarkation deck down
to the water line. The purpose of the life net is to let the crew
climb down into the lifeboat after the boat is water-borne.
Man ropes
Man ropes are attached to the spanner guy which runs from one
davit head to the other. On these ropes at three foot intervals
are knots to enable seamen to climb down the man rope and into
the boat. The main use of the man rope is for the men who are in
the boat while it is being lowered, to hold on to, should the
boat capsize when it hits the water, or up end in the process of
lowering.
Jacobs Ladder
One or more rope or chain ladders are placed near the boat or
embarkation deck so as to be thrown over the side in such a
manner that the lower end reaches the boat.
Sea Painter
The sea painter is a manila line three times the length of the
distance from the boat deck to the ships light load line, not
less than 2 inch in circumference. It is used to sheer the
lifeboat away from the ships side and to keep the lifeboat near
the mother ship to pick up the remaining crew. It is made fast to
the lifeboat usually on the second thwart by means of a strap eye
and toggle. The other end is made fast to the main deck of the
mother ship well forward on the outboard side of everything. It
is released by pulling the toggle.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 13 SEVIMAR

Grab Rail
The metal rail extending 2/3 the length of boat below the turn of
the bilge is for survivors to hold on to or for righting an upset
boat, if the boat has been overturned in the water.

General Equipment Of A Lifeboat


Two Boat Hooksone used fore and the other aft for holding or
shoving off, or for fishing a line out of the water.
One Canvas Hood and Spray Curtainused to protect the crew from
the spray of the sea and also to provide shade from the sun.
One Ditty Bagone canvas bag containing sewing palm, needles,
sail twine, marline and marline spike.
One Fishing Kitin good condition with hooks, fishing gear and
booklet of instruction.
Two Hatchetsplaced in the forward and after ends of the boat on
long lanyards for emergency use.
One Life Linewith seine floats, for men in the water to hold
onto.
Two Life Preserversfor anyone who cannot get to their own or who
have lost theirs. They may also be thrown to persons in the
water.
One Painter -- 15 fathoms, 2 inch, secured to the stem for
being towed and towing, coiled ready for use.
One Sea Anchorwith a storm oil container to keep the boat headed
into the sea and to spread the oil so that the waves will not
break on the small craft.
One gallon of storm oilto calm the seas.
One bailerusually made of wood or leather to bail the water out
of the boat.
One bilge pumpwhich works by suction and sucks the water out of
the boat below the floor boards.
One two-gallon bucketfor bailing the boat or for other practical
purposes.
Automatic Plugsused in draining the boat on the davits.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 13 SEVIMAR

Twenty-five soft wood plugs -- 3 inches long, inch to inch


taper contained in a canvas bag. These are to plug up bullet
holes or for similar purposes.
Six woolen blanketsto keep the wounded or sick warm or to use
for men who had to get away from the ship without any clothes.
One first-aid kitin a watertight container containing scissors,
bandages, tourniquets, boric lint dressings, absorbent cotton,
adhesive tape, safety pins, iodine with brush, ointment for
burns, supply of splints and instructions in first aid.
30 fathoms of 15 thread manila linefor general use.
Mast and sailsfor sailing the boat and reaching land or keeping
in the sea lanes where rescue is more likely. The sails are red
or yellow in color to make them visible for greater distances.
Oarsa single banked complement of oars, two spare oars, and a
steering or sweep oar (painted a distinguishing color so as to be
quickly recognized).
Hand operated propellersfor extra large lifeboats which operate
by mechanical means hereby everyone pushes together and turns
aver the hand operated propeller.
Rowlocksmust have a full set and a half.
M.E.S. (Marine evacuation system)

Fire main system

The fire main systems are made up of piping, pumps, fire plugs,
valves and control. The systems is designed to supply plenty of
water.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 13 SEVIMAR

There are two fittings on each length of hose. A female fitting


at one end for coupling to the fire plug, and a male fitting at
the other for connecting another length of hose.

All purpose fire nozzle

The all purpose fire nozzle can produce a chemical foam by mixing
two liquids which react with one another. These liquids are a
solution of bicarbonate of soda and a solution of aluminium
sulphate.

Foam equipment extinguishers

The foam extinguishers produce a chemical foam by mixing two


liquids which react with one another. These liquid are a solution
of bicarbonate of soda and a solution of aluminium sulphate.

Carbon dioxide extinguishers

Carbon dioxide extinguishers are used mainly in putting out


electric fires. They are also effective on any small fire. Its
advantages are that it is quick to use and does not leave the
after effects of water or foam and cam be blow away wind or
draught. It is particularly valuable for electrical equipment
because it will not damage the wiring or delicate parts.

Large cylinders of CO2 are installed on ship. These cylinders are


connected to a manifold and are used with a fixed piping system
for extinguisher fires in engine room, paint lockers etc.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 14 Balizamiento

CAPITULO 14 BALIZAMIENTO

Barrel buoy Boya de barril, de barrilete


Beacon Baliza
Ball Bola
Bell buoy Boya de campana
Buoy Boya
Buoyage Balizamiento
Cable buoy Boya de cable submarino
Cardinal system Sistema cardinal
Cone Cono (marca de tope)
Cone downwards Marca de tope cnica con punta
hacia abajo
Cone upwards ...hacia arriba
Conical b B. Cnica
Cylindrical b. B. cilndrica
Dan Buoy B. dan para balizar zonas de
pesca, minas, etc.
Diamond Doble cono unido por la base.
Even number B. B. con numeracin par.
Fairway Mediana del canal, canal
Fixed beacon Baliza fija
Flare Luminosidad
Flash Destello
Gong B. B. de gong
IALA (International Association IALA
of lighthouse authorities)
Isolated danger Peligro aislado
Isophase Isofase
Landfall marks Seales de recalada
Lateral systems Sistema lateral
Leading mark Seal de enfilacin
Inner end buoy Boya de recalada
Lamby- Large automatic Sustituta de los buques faro
navigational buoy
Light beacon Baliza luminosa
Light buoy Boya luminosa
Mid-cannel bouy Boya del centro del canal
Middle buoy ground Boya central
Mooring buoy Boya de amarre, muerto
Nun buoy Boya troncocnica (USA)
Ocean data buoy Boya oceanogrfica
Occulting Ocultacin
Odas Oceanographical date Boya oceanogrfica
Atlantica buoys
Odd-numbered buoy Boya numerada con numero impar

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 14 Balizamiento

Outer-end buoy Boya de bifurcacin


Out fall buoy Boya sealando salida de
colectores y canalizaciones
Pillar buoy B.de columna
Point downwards Punta hacia abajo
Port-hand buoy B. de babor
Quarantine buoy Boya sealando fondeadero de
cuarentena
Quick-flashing Destellos rpidos
Radar beacon Baliza radar
Radar reflector buoy Boya con reflector radar
Rhythm Ritmo
Safe water mark Baliza sealando paso navegable
Sea buoy Boya de recalada
Sewer outfall buoy B. sealando salida de un
cloaca
Shape Forma
Sound buoy Boya sonora
Spar b. Espeque, b. de espeque
Spherical buoy Boya esfrica
Spoil ground buoy Boya indicando vertedero
Starboard hand buoy B. de estribor
Telegraph cable buoy B. balizando cable telegrfico
Topmark Marca de tope
Triangle Triangulo
Unlighted buoy Boya sin luz, boya ciega
Whistling b. B. de silbato
Wreck b. Boya de naufragio

Buoys

Are floating objects moored over a certain place to serve as an


aid to navigation.

Buoys may be classified according to shape as: Can, conical,


spherical.

According to the sound system: Bell, gong, whistle.

According to the colour: they can be a single colour or a


combination of colours in bands, stripes or chequeres.

According to location an purpose as: Port hand, middle


ground, spoil ground, quarantine anchorage, danger area,
etc.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 14 Balizamiento

Lighted buoy is one with a light having definite characteristics


for detection and identification during darkness.

Topmarks, the top marks surmounting a buoy or a beacon have the


following shapes:
Ball, cage , diamond ,cone ,triangle ,can sphere.

IALA

Iala is a non profit making international technical association.


Established in 1957, it gathers together marine aids to
navigation authorities, manufacturers and consultants from all
parts of the world and offers them the opportunity to compare
their experiences and achievements . IALA is encouraging its
members to work together in a common effort to harmonize aids to
navigation worldwide and to ensure that the movements of vessels
are safe, expeditious and cost effective and at the same time
protect the environment.

Taking into account the needs of mariners, developments in


technology and the requirements and constraints of aids to
navigation authorities, a number of technical committees have
been established bringing together experts
from around the World.
The work of the committees is aimed at
developping common standards workshops
through publications of IALA
Recommendations and Guidelines.
This work ensures that the mariners have
aids to navigation which will meet their
needs both now and in the future. IALA is
therefore contributing to the reduction of marine accidents and
to the increasing safety of life and property at sea, while
protecting the marine environment.
IALA also encourages cooperation between nations to give
developing countries the opportunity to make use of new aids to
navigation techniques.
The purpose of IALA is to ensure that seafarers are provided with
effective and harmonised marine Aids to Navigation services
worldwide to assist in safe navigation of shipping and protection
of the environment.

The system provides the five types of marks described below which
may be used in combination:

The significance of any mark depends upon one or more of the


following features:

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 14 Balizamiento

By nightcolour and rhythm of light.


By daycolour, shape, topmark.

Lateral marks used in conjunction with a conventional direction


of buoyage, generally used for well defined channels. These
marks indicate the port and starboard sides of the route to be
followed. Where a channel divides, a modified lateral mark may
be used to indicate the preferred route. Lateral marks differ
between buoyage regions A and B.
Cardinal marks used in conjunction with the mariner's compass,
indicate where the mariner may find navigable water.
Isolated Danger marks indicate isolated dangers of limited size
that have navigable water all around them.
Safe Water marks indicate that there is navigable water all
around their position, e.g. mid-channel marks.
Special marks not primarily intended to assist navigation but
indicating an area or feature referred to in nautical documents.

CONVENTIONAL DIRECTION OF BUOYAGE


The conventional direction of buoyage may be defined in one of
two ways:
The general direction taken by the mariner when approaching a
harbour, river, estuary or other waterway from seaward, or
In other areas it is determined by the appropriate authority. In
principle, it follows a clockwise direction around land masses.
The conventional direction is indicated in appropriate nautical
documents.
LATERAL MARKS

Port hand Marks Starboard hand Marks


Colour : Red Green
Shape Cylindrical (can), pillar or Conical, pillar or
(Buoys): spar spar
Topmark (if Single green cone,
Single red cylinder (can)
any) : point upward
Red, any other than
Light (when Green, any other than
composite group flashing
fitted) composite
(2+1)
At the point where a channel divides, when proceeding in the
conventional direction of buoyage, a preferred channel may be

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 14 Balizamiento

indicated by modifying Port or Starboard lateral marks as


follows:

Preferred channel to Preferred channel


Starboard : to Port :
Green with one
Red with one broad green
Colour : broad red
horizontal band
horizontal band
Cylindrical (can), pillar Conical, pillar or
Shape (Buoys) :
or spar spar
Single red cylinder Single green cone,
Topmark (if any) :
(can) point upward
Green. Composite
Light (when Red, Composite group
group flashing
fitted) : flashing (2+1)
(2+1)

CARDINAL MARKS

The four quadrants (North, East, South and West) are bounded by
the true bearings NW-NE, NE-SE, SE-SW, SW-NW, taken from the
point of interest. A cardinal mark is named after the quadrant
in which it is placed. The name of a cardinal mark indicates
that it should be passed to the named side of the mark. It may
be used:
to indicate that the deepest water in that area is on the named
side of the mark to indicate the safe side on which to pass a

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 14 Balizamiento

danger to draw attention to a feature in a channel such as a


bend, a junction, a bifurcation, or the end of a shoal

NORTH EAST SOUTH WEST


CARDINAL CARDINAL CARDINAL CARDINAL
MARK MARK MARK MARK

2 black 2 black
2 black 2 black
cones, one cones, one
cones, one cones, one
above the above the
Topmark: above the above the
other, other,
other, base other, point
points points
to base. to point.
upward. downward.
Black with a Yellow with
single broad a single
Black above Yellow above
Colour : horizontal broad
yellow. black.
yellow horizontal
band. black band.
Pillar or Pillar or Pillar or Pillar or
Shape :
spar. spar. spar. spar.
White,
White, V.Qk.FI.(6) White,
White, V.Qk.FI.(3) + long flash V.Qk.FI.(9)
Light (when
V.Qk.FI. or every 5s or every 10s or every 10s or
fitted) :
Qk.FI. Qk.FI.(3) Qk.Fl.f6) + Qk.Fl.f9)
every 10s long flash every 15s
every 15s

Isolated danger mark


Is a mark over an isolated danger which has navigable water all
around it.

2 black spheres, one above the


Topmark
other.

Black with one or more broad


Colour
horizontal red bands.

Shape Pillar or spar preferred.

Light (when
White, Gp.Fl.t2).
fitted)

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 14 Balizamiento

SAFE WATER MARKS

Indicate that there is navigable water all round the mark; these
include centre line marks and mid-channel marks. Such a mark may
also be used as an alternative to a cardinal or a lateral mark
to indicate a landfall.

Colour : Red and white vertical stripes.

Spherical, pillar with


Shape :
spherical topmark or spar.

Topmark (if
Single red sphere.
any) :

White, Isophase, occulting, one


Light (when
long flash every 10s or Morse
fitted) :
A.

SPECIAL MARKS

Marks not primarily intended to assist navigation but which


indicate a special area or feature referred to in appropriate
nautical documents, e.g.
Ocean Data Acquisition Systems (ODAS) marks; Traffic Separation
marks where use of conventional channel marking may cause
confusion; Spoil Ground marks; Military Exercise Zone marks;
Cable or pipe line marks; Recreation Zone marks.

Colour : Yellow

Optional but not conflicting with


navigational marks (e.g. a yellow can buoy
Shape :
will not be used in a 'starboard' situation
in region A).

Topmark (if any) : Single yellow 'X' shape.

Light (when fitted)


Yellow
:

NEW DANGERS
Used to describe newly discovered hazards not yet shown on
charts, including naturally occurring obstructions such as
sandbanks or rocks or man-made dangers such as wrecks.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 14 Balizamiento

New Dangers will be marked in accordance with these rules. In


the case of an especially grave danger, one of the marks may be
duplicated.

Any lighted mark used for this purpose shall have an appropriate
cardinal or lateral V.Qk.FI. or Qk.FI. light character.
A duplicate mark will be identical to its partner in all
respects. A duplicate mark may carry a racon, coded Morse D. The
duplicate mark will be removed when the new danger has been
sufficiently promulgated.

IALA maritime buoyage system A

Introduced from April 1977 and normally refereed to as the


combined lateral and cardinal system, System A is also described
as RED TO PORT .This system developed by the IALA is being
introduce initially in North West Europe and implemented
progressively over a period of several years.

Youll find therefore that during implementation and in other


areas of the world youll encounter both the old and the new
systems.

Notice of the implementation at the various stages will be


promulgated from time to time in Notice to Mariners as the
occasion arises.

As already mentioned, the system A ,embodies both the lateral


and cardinal conventions. First lets consider lateral marks. The
direction of buoyage is determined by the appropriate authority,
and it does not depend upon the direction of the main stream or

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 14 Balizamiento

flood tide. As far as Europe is concerned the conventional


direction is northward throughout the North Sea, thus reversing
the direction of buoyage of the British coast from Orfordness
to the Shetlands. The direction the voyage in estuaries, harbours
or other waterways will still be direction when approaching from
seaward.

A new chart symbol will indicate the bouyage direction where is


not obvious.

System A lateral rules associate red light and red day colour
with port hand buoys and beacons. The magenta flares indicating
a lighted buoy on the chart will be north of the base of the buoy
symbol. Radar reflectors will no longer be shown on chart.

A port hand mark shows a flashing isophase or occulting red light


of any character and period; and the can shape also defines a
port hand lateral mark.

If the body of the mark does not make its can shape obviously for
example on a spar or pillar buoy, the can top mark should
identify it.

Green lights and green day colours are allocated to starboard


hand marks. The green light may be flashing, isophase, or
occulting with any character.

There are no longer any special provisions for marking wrecks.


The conical shape is associated with starboard hand lateral
marks. If the body of the mark does not show the shape, the
conical top mark should.

The rules do allow a buoyage authority in exceptional


circumstances to use black body colour for starboard hand marks.
Lateral marks indicate the side of the channel .

Lets now look at the cardinal marks, cardinal marks indicate the
direction of the best navigable water from a danger. The cardinal
marks are named: North, East, South and West, and they should be
passed, for the main side, for example it should pass to the
north of the north mark.

The red and green filters on lateral lights tend to reduce the
intensify of the light, therefore at important places in
channels, Cardinal marks with their white lights would be used.

The North Cardinal mark is placed north of the danger or point of


interest which is marking. Its shows that the best navigable
water lies to the north of the mark. The white light shows
uninterrupted very quick flashing or quick flashing. The north
cardinal mark will normally be a spar or pillar buoy coloured

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 15 Faros y enfilaciones

black above yellow and the top mark is most important: two black
cones pointing upwards one above the other.

The west cardinal marks has two black cones with the points
together. If you think of W for wine glass shape and for west,
it may help you to remember. The buoy is yellow with a black
band.The light is white, very quick flashing nine or quick
flashing nine.

Very quick flashing is a rate of a hundred and twenty or a


hundred flashes per minute.

One ease way of remembering the tops marks has already been
suggested; here are some other. North points up, south points
down and is already said west W for wine glass sharp.

To remember the light characteristic consider the face of a watch


with , twelve oclock representing north; east three = three
flashes, south = sis oclock six flashes. West nine and north is
uninterrupted flashing.

Isolated danger marks are placed on or above an isolated danger


of limited extend which has navigable water all-round an isolated
danger mark is a black pillar or spar with one or more red
horizontal bands. The top marks is two black spheres one above
the other. The light is white group flashing two.

Safe water marks include centre line marks and mid channel marks.
Such a mark may also be used as or alternatively to a cardinal or
lateral mark for landfall indication.

The safe water mark is spherical with red and white vertical
stripes, or a pillar or a spar with a single red sphere top mark.
The light is white, isophase , occulting or one long flash every
ten seconds.

Special marks such as cable buoys, ocean data buoy, spoil ground
marks, exercise area marks and so on, which are not primarily to
assist have their own characteristics. The colour is yellow but
the shape is optional, but is must no conflict with navigational
marks. The top marks , if any is a single yellow X shape. The
light is yellow and any rhythm other than those for cardinal,
isolate danger or safe water marks is used.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 15 Faros y enfilaciones

CAPITULO 15 FAROS; BUQUES FARO, ENFILACIONES

Alignment Alineacin
Alternating light Luz alternativa
Band Bandas horizontales
Beacon Baliza
Candle power Bujia
Clearance light Luz de enfilacion
Chequered Damero,ajedrezado
Concrete Hormign, cemento
Dwelling Casa
Dolphin Duque de Alba, noray
Fixed light Luz fija
Flashing light Luz de destellos
Fog signal Seal de niebla
Front light Luz baja de una enfilacin
Group flashing light Grupo de destellos
Group occulting light Grupo de ocultaciones
Hut Caseta
Lantern Fanal
Leading light Enfilacin
Lighthouse Faro
Lighship Buque faro
Light sector Sector luminoso
Masonry Mampostera
Mast Mastil, palo
Masthead light Luz de tope
Post Poste
Radiobeacon Radiobaliza
Round Redondo, circular
Rear light Luz posterior de una enfilacin
Stripe Franjas verticales
Skeleton Armazn
Whistle Silbato

Lighthouses

A light house is a structure exhibiting a light of different


characteristic designed to serve as an aid to navigation.

The type of structure and its colouring assist in daylight


identification.
Some are located on land and some in the water, and most capes
are guarded by lighthouses.

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Capitulo 15 Faros y enfilaciones

The typical lighthouse structures are: Masonry and cylindrical


structure.

All maritime nations have a responsible government department


charged with establishment and maintenance of light houses and
other navigational aids.

Lightship

Is a distinctively marked vessel anchored or moored at a charter


position to serve as an aid to navigation.

By night it displays a characteristic masthead light and a less


brilliance light at the fore stay.
A light ship may be equipped with certain auxiliary devices,
such as: A fog signal, radiobeacon, etc.

Americas lightship era ends


March 29, 1985, saw the final chapter of Americas lightship era
come to a close with the decommissioning of the Nantucket I. In
a farewell message, Coast Guard Commandant ADM James S. Gracey
said, "Technology has found a way to replace her with a more
cost-effective aid to navigation, but Nantucket Is sailors can
never be replaced."
In many cases lightships were replaced with "Texas Tower" type
offshore light platforms, other fixed structures or large
navigational buoys, all offering considerable savings in
manpower and in construction and maintenance costs.

The last message sent by the


ship read in part, "An
important part of Coast
Guard history ended today.
We must now look somewhere
else to find the stuff that
sea stories are made of."
Most of the decommissioned
lightships are long gone.
Quite a few were sold and
served in coastwise and
harbour roles. Two provided
bonfires at Fourth of July
celebrations and several
were used as target ships by
the Navy. A few were transferred to other countries for use as
lightships, some were used as floating clubhouses by various
organisations, but the majority ended up in a ship breakers

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 15 Faros y enfilaciones

yard. However, 19 lightships still survive, the three oldest


built in 1904. Most of these veterans remain afloat, restored
for use as museums or exhibits open to the public. Two serve as
floating restaurants and one is in use in the charter trade.
This cannot end with the traditional look to the future of
lightships, for there is none. However, the vessels themselves,
and certainly all those who served in them, constitute a unique
and proud segment of Americas maritime heritage- one sometimes
overlooked, but never to be forgotten.

Light Towers
In the 1960's the Coast Guard began to replace some lightships
with offshore "Texas" Towers. These towers were originally
manned but over the years have become automated. The towers have
living quarters and a rooftop helo pad for airlifting workcrews
and or supplies to the tower.

Offshore Lighthouse Construction Types -Texas Tower

A relatively recent technological


development in lighthouse construction
was the Texas tower lighthouse type
which replaced exposed lightships
offshore. These so-called Texas towers
were adaptations modeled on the
offshore oil drilling platforms first
employed off the Texas coast. The first
Texas tower lighthouse type in the
United States was the Buzzards Bay
Light, located in Buzzards Bay,
Massachusetts, and commissioned on
November 1, 1961. (It has been
extinguished and may be dismantled.) A
total of six Texas tower lighthouses
have been constructed; the four which
survive are listed below. (Both the
Ambrose, NY, and Savannah, GA, towers
no longer survive.) All are primarily
made of steel

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Capitulo 15 Faros y enfilaciones

Leading lights

Are light arrange to indicate the path to be followed by a ship


at night, entering in a harbour or navigating through a channel.
They are placed at appropriate horizontal distances apart.

If there are two lights the first one is the front line and the
other one is called rear light.

Admiralty list of lights and fog signals

Are 11 Volumes providing a comprehensive listing of all


lighthouses, lightships, lit floating marks (over 8m in height),
fog signals and lights
of navigational
significance. Each
publication lists the
characteristics of
lights and fog
signals, together with
the equivalent foreign
language light
descriptions. Also
included are tables
which can be used to
calculate the
geographical and luminous ranges of lights. Details for all
lights listed include: international number, location and/or
name, geographical co-ordinates, characteristics and intensity,
elevation in metres, range in sea miles and description of
structure.

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Capitulo 15 Faros y enfilaciones

Abbreviations used in Admiralty list of lights

English Signify Spanish


AHP Above head of phases
Al Alternating Alt
Bu Blue Azul
bl blast
Dia Diadiaphone Diafono
Dir Direction light
ec Eclipse
Explos Explosive fog signal
F Fixed
FFl Fixed and flashing FD
FFl (..) Fixed and group F.Gp.D.
flashing
Fl Flashing D
fl Flash
Fog Det Lt Fog detector light
G Green v
GRP Glass Reinforced
Plastic
HFPB High focal plane buoy
(hor) Horizontal
I Interrupted
Intens Intensified sector
Irreg Irregular
Iso Isophase
Lamby Large automatic
Navigational Buoy
Lat Latitude
Ldg Lts Leading light
Long Longitude
LFl Long flash
Lt Light ( no details
known)
lt Light (phase)
Lt F Light float
Lt V Light vessel
M Sea miles
m Metres
min Minutes
Mo Morse code digital
light or fog signal
MV Mercury vapour
discharge lamp,
greenish- white in
colour
Oc Oculting
Oc (..) Group occulting GP. Oc

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Occas Occasional
(P) Provisional,
preliminary
Q Quick flashing Ct
R Red r
Ra Radio coastal station
Racon Radar responder beacon
Radio Coast radio station
Radiobeacon Radiofaro
Ramark Radio beacon
(continuous)
Ra refl Radar reflector
Rot Rotaing
RC Circular radiobeacon
RD Directional
radiobeacon
RG Radio direction
finding station
RT Radiotelephone
RW Rotating lop
radiobeacon
s Seconds
SBM Single buo mooring
Si Silence
SIg Stn Signal station
SPM Single Point Mooring
SV Sodium vapour
discharge lamp, orange
in colour
(T) Temporary
TD Fog signal temporarily
discontinued
TE Light temporarily
extinghished
unintens Unintensified sector
UQ Ultra quick flashing
(var) Varying
(vert) Vertical
Vi Violet
Vis Visible
VQ Very quick flashing
W White bl
Whis Whistle
Y Yellow, amber or Amarillo
orange.

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Capitulo 15 Faros y enfilaciones

Explanation of Admiralty list of light

Description: Information is tabuled as follow:

Maldive island
0813 ADDOO ATOLL 0 36.7 Fl(2)W 10s 5 7 Framework tower, For light
Kanu Huraa 73 08.9 concrete base northwards see
F0762
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Column 1: Contains the number of each light

Column 2: Location, name


Place is printed in CAPITALS
The names of light having a range of 15 miles and
over are printed in blod type; those of less than 15
miles range are printed in roman tipe; those of
light-vessels in ITALIC CAPITALS and those of all
other floating lights in italics.

Column 3: Latitude and Longitude are approximate.

Column 4: Characteristic and intensity.

Column 5: Elevation in metres

Column 6: Range in sea miles, in blod type if of 15 miles or


more, and in roman type if less.

Column 7: Description of structure and its height in metres.

Column 8: Remarks, Phase, Sectors, arcs of visibility. Minor


lights.

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Capitulo 16 Derroteros

CAPITULO 16 DERROTEROS

ADMIRALTY SAILING DIRECTIONS (PILOTS) UK.

About Admiralty Sailing Directions


Admiralty Sailing Directions are often referred to as Pilots.
They are designed to assist the merchant marine on all classes
of oceangoing vessel and provide essential information on all
aspects of navigation.

Sailing Directions are complementary to


Admiralty Standard Navigational Charts and
worldwide coverage is provided in 74 volumes.

Each publication contains quality colour


T

photography and views, as well as information on


navigational hazards and buoyage, meteorological
data, details of pilotage, regulations, port
facilities and guides to major port entry.
Admiralty Sailing Directions (excluding those
which are in Continuous Revision*) are published
every three years.

SAILING DIRECTIONS (ENROUTER) USA

Explanatory Remarks

Sailing Directions are published by the National Imagery and


Mapping Agency (NIMA), under the authority of Department of
Defense Directive 5105.40, dated 12 December 1988, and pursuant
to the authority contained in U. S. Code Title 10, Sections 2791
and 2792 and Title 44, Section 1336.

Sailing Directions, covering the harbors, coasts, and waters of


the world, provide information that cannot be shown graphically
on nautical charts and is not readily available elsewhere. New
Editions of Sailing Directions are corrected through the date of
the publications shown in the preface.In the period between
Editions, important information, which may amend material in the
publication, is published in the weekly Notice to Mariners.

Sailing Directions (Enroute) include detailed coastal and port


approach information which supplements the latest revised print
of the largest scale chart for sale by the National Imagery and
Mapping Agency. This publication is divided into geographic
areas called "Sectors''. Sector limits are shown on a chartlet
following the Table of Contents. The standard format of the
Sector is described below.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 16 Derroteros

Chart Information.A graphic key to the largest scale charts is


included for each Sector. The key has a border scale graduated
to help identify by approximate coordinates, the best scale
chart for a place. Refer also to the Index Gazetteer at the back
of the book.

Coastal Winds, Currents, and Ice. Special graphics that depicted


coastal winds, weather, tides, currents and ice for the Sectors
have been removed. General weather information can now be found
within the text.

Dangers.As a rule outer dangers are fully described, but inner


dangers which are well-charted are, for the most part,omitted.

Numerous offshore dangers, grouped together, are mentioned only


in general terms. Dangers adjacent to a coastal passage or
fairway are described.

Coastal Features.It is assumed that the majority of ships have


radar. Available coastal descriptions and views, useful for
radar and visual piloting are included in geographic sequence in
each Sector.

Ports. directions for entering ports are depicted where


appropriate by means of chartlets, sketches, and photos, which
facilitate positive identification of landmarks and navigational
aids. These chartlets and sketches are not always to scale,
however, and should be used only as a general informational
guide in conjunction with the best scale chart. Specific port
facilities are omitted from the standard format.They are
tabulated in Pub. 150, World Port Index.

Index gazetteer. Navigational features and place-names are


listed alphabetically in the back of the book. The approximate
position, along with the Sector and paragraph numbers (e.g.
1.1), facilitate location in the text. Refer to the Chart
Information graphic for the Sector, where the largest scale
chart showing the feature is depicted.

Geographic Names are generally those used by the nation having


sovereignty. Names in parentheses following another name are
alternate names that may appear on some charts. In general,
alternate names are quoted only in the principal description of
the place. Diacritical marks, such as accents, cedillas, and
circum.exes, which are related to specific letters in certain
foreign languages, are not used in the interest of typographical
simplicity. Geographic names or their spellings do not
necessarily reject recognition of the political status of an
area by the United States Government.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 16 Derroteros

Soundings are referred to the datum of the charts and are


expressed in meters.

Heights are referred to the plane of reference used for that


purpose on the charts and are expressed in meters.

Bearings are true, and are expressed in degrees from 000 (north)
to 360, measured clockwise. General bearings are expressed by
initial letters of points of the compass (e.g. N,NNE, NE, etc.).
Adjective and adverb endings have been discarded. Wherever
precise bearings are intended degrees are used.

Courses are true, and are expressed in the same manner as


bearings. The directives "steer'' and "make good'' a course
mean, without exception, to proceed from a point of origin along
a track having the identical meridianal angle as the designated
course. Vessels following the directives must allow for every
influence tending to cause deviation from such track, and
navigate so that the designated course is continuously being
made good.

Distances are expressed in nautical miles of 1 minute of


latitude. Distances of less than 1 mile are expressed in meters,
or tenths of miles
.
Wind Directions are the true directions from which winds blow.

Current Directions are the true directions toward which currents


set.

Light and Fog Signals are not described, and light sectors are
not usually defined. The Light Lists should be consulted for
complete information.

Radio Navigational Aids are not described in detail.Publication


No. 117 Radio Navigational Aids should be consulted.

Special Warnings. A Special Warning may be in force for the


geographic area covered by this publication. Special Warnings
are printed in the weekly Notice to Mariners upon promulgation
and are reprinted annually in Notice to Mariners No. 1. A
listing of Special Warnings currently in force is printed in
each weekly Notice to Mariners, Section III, Broadcast Warnings,
along with the notice number of promulgation. In force Special
Warnings are also available on the Maritime Safety Information
Division Home Page (http:// 164.214.12.145/index) under the
heading broadcast Warning Messages.

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Capitulo 16 Derroteros

Corrective Information. It is requested that the MARITIME SAFETY


INFORMATION DIVISION, ST D 44, NATIONAL IMAGERY AND MAPPING
AGENCY, 4600 SANGAMORE ROAD, BETHESDA MD 20816-5003, or any of
its branch offices be advised of any inaccuracy found in this
Pub. 131 III publication or of additional navigational
information considered appropriate for insertion. The Sailing
Directions Information and Suggestion Sheet on page IX may be
used for this purpose.

READING EXERCISE

PUB. 131
SAILING DIRECTIONS (ENROUTE).

WESTERN
MEDITERRANEAN
.

Prepared and published by the


NATIONAL IMAGERY AND MAPPING AGENCY
Bethesda, Maryland
COPYRIGHT 2002 BY THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT
NO COPYRIGHT CLAIMED UNDER TITLE 17 U.S.C.

2002

TENTH EDITION

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Of.ce


Internet: http://bookstore.gpo.gov Phone: toll free (866) 512-1800; DC area (202) 512-1800
Fax: (202) 512-2250 Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-0001

SECTOR 1

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 16 Derroteros

Pub. 131, Sailing Directions (Enrouter) for Western


Mediterranean, Tenth Edition, 2002, is issued for use in
conjunction with Pub. 140, Sailing Directions (Planning Guide)
North Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea, North Sea, and the
Mediterranean Sea. The companion volume is Pub. 132. This
publication has been corrected to 7 December 2002, including
Notice to Mariners No. 49 of 2002.

THE STRAIT OF GIBRALTAR


Plan.
This sector first describes the N side of the Strait of
Gibraltar from Cabo Trafalgar (3611'N., 602'W.) to Great Europa
Point (3606'N., 521'W.). It then describes the S side of the
strait from Cap Spartel (3537'N., 556'W.) to Punta Almina
(3554'N., 517'W.).

General Remarks
The Strait of Gibraltar is bounded on the N side by the coast of
Spain and Gibraltar, a dependent territory of the United
Kingdom; it is bounded on the S side by the coast of Morocco and
the Spanish towns of Ceuta and Melilla.

TidesCurrents

In the middle of the strait, the E current commences at about


the time of HW at Gibraltar and the W current about 6 hours
later. As the shores are approached on either side, the times at
which these currents commence becomes progressively earlier as
indicated by the series of dashed lines on the chart. In the
central area of the W part of the strait, the current attains a
rate of 1 knot S of Cabo Trafalgar and 1.7 knots S of Punta
Camarinal (3605'N.,548'W.). In the central and narrower area of
the E part of the strait between Isla de Tarifa (3600'N.,
537'W.) and Europa Point (3606'N., 521'W.), the currents
attain rates up to 2 knots in each direction. Rates increase
from the central areas towards the shores on both sides of the
strait and currents attain rates up to 3 knots in each direction
inshore. In the central area, the currents set in the direction
of the axis of the strait, but near the land they generally
follow the direction of the coast.

Tidal races or overfalls may occur in the deep water within the
strait. Tidal races also occur off most of the salient points
and eddies form in the bays between them. On the N side of the
strait, a tidal race, known as Riza del Cabo, extends SW from
Cabo Trafalgar to Bajo Aceitera, 1.8 miles SW. This race is
always present, whatever the state of tide, and its strength
depends on whether it is springs or neaps. It is reported to be
the most violent race within the strait. During heavy weather
and when the tidal current is running strongly, this race may

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Capitulo 16 Derroteros

extend as far SW as Banco del Hoyo.During the strongest period


of the tidal current, a race of considerable violence forms over
nd in the vicinity of Bajo de Los Cabezos (3601'N., 542'W.). In
heavy weather, it may extend entirely across the
strait.Comparatively smaller races also occur off Isla de
Tarifa,Punta de Cala Arenas (3603'N., 527'W.), close E of La
Perla,and Europa Point.

On the S side of the strait, strong tidal races occur off Cap
Spartel and 4 miles E of Pointe Judios. Overfalls, resembling
breakers, occur N of Tanger (3547'N., 548'W.). Small races
occur off Pointe Ciris (3555'N., 529'W.) and all the other
salient points located E of Punta Almina (3554'N., 517'W.)
During the strongest period of the tidal current in each
direction, the most violent races occur off the coast and over
the banks between Pointe Malabata (3549'N., 545'W.) and Hejar
Lesfar (3.2 miles ENE).

Traffic Control.An IMO-adopted Traffic Separation Scheme (TSS),


which may best be seen on the chart, is situated within the
narrows of the strait and in the W approaches.A mandatory Vessel
Traffic Service is in operation in the Strait of Gibraltar,
including the TSS and Inshore Traffic Zones. The following
categories of vessels are required to participate
in the reporting system:

1. All vessels 50m long and over.

2. All vessels, regardless of length, carrying hazardous and/


or potentially polluting cargo.

3. Vessels engaged in towing or pushing another vessel


when the combined length of the vessel and tow or pushed
vessel is over 50m.

4. Any category of vessel less than 50m long and engaged in


fishing in the Traffic Lane or the Separation Zone.

5. Any category of vessel less than 50m long which is using


the appropriate Traffic Lane or Separation zone in order to
avoid immediate danger or engage in fishing.

The reporting system covers the area between longitudes 558'W


and 5 15'W. This area includes the Traffic Separation Scheme in
the Strait of Gibraltar and the designated Inshore Traffic
Zones.The report, called a GIBREP, from the vessel to the Tarifa
VTS Center should contain only information which is essential to
achieve the objectives of the system.

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GIBREP Information

Designator Information required

A Vessel's name and call


sign.

B Identifcation Number on
request.

C Position (latitude and


longitude), or

D Range and bearing from a


landmark.

E Course.
F Speed.

G Last port of call.

I Next port of call.

P Hazardous cargo, IMO class, or UN number and quantity.

Q or R Breakdown; damage and/or deficiencies affecting the


structure, cargo, or equipment of the vessel; or any other
circumstances affecting normal navigation,in accordance with the
provisions of the SOLAS and MARPOL Conventions.IMO

Tarifa VTS broadcasts regular warnings to mariners and


traffic, navigational, and weather conditions, in Spanish and
English.

Tarifa Traffic can also provide a particular vessel with


information regarding the vessel's position, course and speed,
or the identification of traffic in the vicinity. The vessel
should request this information.

Caution.Local magnetic anomalies have been reported in the


approaches to the strait.Several submarine cables lie within the
Strait of Gibraltar and may best be seen on the chart.Tunny nets
may be found at certain seasons of the year extending up to 7
miles seaward from the shores bounding the Strait of Gibraltar.

Submerged tunny nets lying off the coasts of Spain and Africa,
under Spanish jurisdiction, are indicated by the following:
1. By day: white flag, with a black letter A at the center,
displayed from a boat or buoy moored at the center and outer end
of the net.

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Capitulo 16 Derroteros

2. By night: red light above a white light shown from a boat or


buoy moored at the outer end of the net, and two vertical white
lights shown from a boat or buoy moored at the center of the
net. These lights are visible from about 2 miles.

Strait of GibraltarNorth Side

Banco del Hoyo (3605'N., 615'W.), a sandy bank,has depths of


16 to 22m and lies 14 miles WSW of Cabo Trafalgar. This bank
extends for about 5 miles in an E-W direction and the least
depths lie near its W end. It should be avoided in heavy weather
as the sea is apt to break over it.

Banco de Trafalgar (3608'N., 607'W.), a shoal composed of


stones, has a least depth of 6.6m and lies 5 miles SW of Cabo
Trafalgar. There are overfalls on this shoal and it is
inadvisable to pass over it in heavy weather. At such times, the
water in the vicinity is of a yellowish color.

Placer de Meca (3611'N., 606'W.), a rocky shoal, lies 3.2


miles W of Cabo Trafalgar and has a least depth of 5m near its
SE end. This shoal is covered with a thin layer of sand and the
sea breaks over it in heavy weather.

Bajo Aceitera (3610'N., 604'W.) has a depth of 1.2m and lies


at the outer end of a dangerous rocky ridge which extends up to
1.7 miles SW of Cabo Trafalgar. A passage leads between the
shoal and the cape, but it should not be attempted. Broken water
extends across this shoal and a tidal race in its vicinity is
caused by the unevenness of the bottom. Bajeta de Fuera and Los
Cabezos (3601'N., 543'W.) lie close together, 3.5 miles SSE of
Punta Paloma. Several wrecks, some dangerous, lie in this
vicinity and the sea breaks heavily on these shoals during SW
gales. A wide berth should be given to this area.

La Perla (3604'N., 525'W.), a dangerous group of pinnacle


rocks, lies 1.2 miles S of Punta Carnero and has a least depth
of 4.7m. Las Bajas, a rocky shoal with a minimum depth of 11.6m.
lies close E.1.3 Cabo Trafalgar (3611'N., 602'W.), 20m high,
is formed by a small, sandy, and uneven peninsula which is
connected to the mainland by a low and sandy isthmus. When
seen from the NW or SE, it appears like an island.

Cabo Trafalgar
A main light is shown from a prominent tower, 51m high,standing
on the cape. A radiobeacon is situated at the light.Torre de
Meca, a conspicuous round tower, stands 1.3 miles NE of the
cape.Arrecife del Canaveral, a drying reef, extends up to 0.3
mile offshore, 1.3 miles E of Cabo Trafalgar. Anchorage, with
shelter from N winds, can be obtained by small vessels, in
depths of 14 to 16m, between Arrecife de Canaveral and the cape.

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There is good holding ground, but


the nature of the bottom should
first be ascertained as it is
rocky in places.

Picacho de Barbate (3612'N.,


558'W.), a sharp peak, is very
conspicuous and has a high white
spot which is visible from
seaward. Ensenada de Barbate, a
bay, is entered between Punta del
Tajo (3610'N., 559'W.) and
Punta de Zahara, 6.5 miles SE.The
Rio Barbate enters this bay 3.2 miles E of Punta del Tajo and is
fronted by a shallow bar. The town of Barbate stands on the W
bank of this river. Bajo de Zahara, a shoal, has a least depth
of 8.5m and lies 1 mile S of the mouth of the river. A small
harbor, protected by breakwaters, is situated 1 mile W of the
river mouth. It has shallow depths and is mostly used by fishing
vessels and recreational craft with local knowledge. During
offshore winds, vessels may obtain anchorage within the bay in
any convenient location; however, anchorage is unsafe with winds
from seaward. A light is shown from a tower, 22m high, standing
close NE of the harbor. Between April and August, tunny nets are
laid 1 mile S of the harbor entrance.

Ensenada de Zahara (3607'N., 551'W.), a bight,lies 6 miles SE


of Barbate. Anchorage may be obtained in this bight, sheltered
from Levanters (E winds), but heavy squalls come off the land.
The bottom of the bight is generally sandy,but with some rocks.
Several rocky patches lie close inshore and front the sandy
beach in the N part of the bight.Punta de Gracia is located 2
miles SE of Ensenada de Zahara and is formed by the extremity of
a high spur. A light is shown from a conspicuous tower, 75m
high, standing on this point.

Punta Camarinal (3605'N., 548'W.), located 1 mile SE of Punta


de Gracia, is low, rounded, and prominent. It rises to Sierra de
la Plata, a steep and prominent ridge.

Bay of Gibraltar Entrance


The Bay of Gibraltar (3608'N., 524'W.) is entered between Punta
Carnero and Europa Point, 4.5 miles ENE. It extends N for 5.5
miles and is bordered on the E side by the Rock of Gibraltar.
This bay is entirely open to the S; depths of over 200m extend
up to 4 miles into it. Europa Point, the E entrance point,
presents a cliffy face, 0.3
mile wide.

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Great Europa Point (3607'N., 521'W.) is the SE termination of


this cliffy face. A main light is shown from a prominent tower,
19m high, standing on this point. A conspicuous radar dome is
situated 0.5 mile N of the light.

Punta Carnero (3604'N., 526'W.), the W entrance point,is formed


by the E termination of a range of hills and has
a
steep SE slope. It is fronted by dangers which
extend up to 0.2 mile offshore. A light is shown
from a tower, 19m high, standing on the point. A
prominent tower stands 0.2 mile W of the light.
A dangerous wreck lies about 0.2 mile offshore, 0.3 mile NNE of
this point.
Caution. Because of a strong NW to NE set caused by tidal
currents along the coastline of Punta Carnero, sailing close to
shore is not recommended. Numerous accidents have occurred here
due to the strong currents. Ensenada de Getares is entered
between Punta Carnero and Punta de San Garcia, 1.8 miles N.
Anchoring is prohibited in the bay as best seen on the chart.A
conspicuous coast guard station stands on Punta de San
Garcia.Punta del Rodeo is located 0.5 mile N of Punta de San
Garcia and is fronted by dangers which extend up to 0.2 mile
offshore.Mar de Isidro, with a least depth of 15.8m, lies about
1 mile ESE of Punta del Rodeo and is marked by a lighted buoy.
Numerous submarine cables, which may best be seen on the chart,
lie in the entrance to the Bay of Gibraltar and in the vicinity
of Ensenada de Getares.

Algeciras (3608'N., 527'W.)


World Port Index No. 38310

Algeciras lies on the W side of the Bay of Gibraltar, 3 miles N


of Punta Carnero. The port is situated SW and NW of Isla Verde,
a former island, which has been connected to the mainland by
extensive reclamation. The port authority also administers
marine installations at the head of the Bay of Gibraltar.

Port of Algeciras Home Page


http://www.apba.es

Tides Currents. Tides rise 1.1m at springs and 0.9m at neaps.

Depths Limitations.Dique Norte, the main outer breakwater,


extends about 1 mile N from the reclaimed land adjoining Isla
Verde. Its inner side has 1,500m of total berthing space, with
depths of 12 to 16m alongside, which is mainly used for
unkering.Other main facilities include the following:

1. Muelle de la Isla Verde, in the S part of the harbor, is

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 16 Derroteros

used by general cargo, container, and ro-ro vessels. It has 980m


of total berthing space with depths of 9 to 12m alongside.

2. Muelle de la Galera South, in the SW part of the harbor, is


used by ro-ro, ferry, and passenger vessels. It has 640m of
total berthing space, with depths of 6 to 10m alongside.

3. Muelle de la Galera North is mainly used by general cargo and


reefer vessels. It has 280m of total berthing space,with a depth
of 10.5m alongside.

4. Muelle del Navio (Muelle Juan Carlos I), in the central part
of the harbor, is used by container, bulk, and general cargo
vessels. It has 1,900m of total berthing space,with depths of
10.5 to 14m alongside. Terminal 2000, located on the N part of
Muelle del Navio, is 644m long, with a depth alongside of 16m.
A buoyed channel, dredged to a depth of 7m has been established
N of Muelle del Navio. It leads from the causeway connecting
Muelle deL Navio with the mainland into the bay W of Anchorage
Area B.An lighted offshore SBM tanker berth lies in a depth of
60m, 1 mile SSW of Punta del Gallo. Several hoses, 290m long and
marked by orange lights, are attached to the buoy. Three
submarine pipelines extend NNE from the berth to the shore.
Anchorage is prohibited within 550m of the SBM and within 150m
of the pipelines as shown on the chart. Tanker vessels up to
500,000 dwt and 30m draft can be accommodated at this offshore
terminal The buoy is equipped with a radar detector and a racon.
There is also an extensive basin in the W part of the harbor for
the use of fishing vessels.Generally, vessels up to 14m draft
can be accommodated and there are no restrictions for length or
beam.
Aspect.A fort and a tank farm are situated on Isla Verde.In
addition, several slipways and workshops stand on the S side of
this former island.Numerous conspicuous white houses stand along
the waterfront of the town. A church, with a prominent tall
steeple,stands in the town.

Pilotage.Pilotage is compulsory for merchant vessels of over 50


grt entering the Bay of Gibraltar and proceeding to Algeciras.
Pilots can be contacted by VHF channel 13 and board about 2.2
miles SE of the head of Dique Norte. During E storms, pilots
generally wait inside the head of the breakwater. Vessels
proceeding to the refinery or CEPSA monobuoy at the head of the
bay should send an ETA and request for pilot 72 hours, 48 hours,
and 24 hours in advance. If required, pilots may be conveyed by
helicopter and vessels should contact the Helicsa helicopter
service.
Caution.A prohibited anchorage area, the limits of which may be
seen on the chart, E and S of the former Isla Verde.A submarine
pipeline extends 0.4 mile E of former Isla Verde.A shoal area

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Capitulo 16 Derroteros

lies close NNW of the harbor entrance and is marked by a lighted


buoy.

Punta del Rinconcillo (3609'N., 527'W.), surmounted by a


prominent coast guard station, is located 1.6 miles N of Isla
Verde. Torre del Almirante stands on a cliff, 0.3 mile S of the
point. This conspicuous reddish tower is partially in ruins.
Ermita del Baleares, a conspicuous building, is situated 0.3
mile W of Punta del Rinconcilla and is visible from all parts of
the bay.Depths of less than 5m lie up to 0.5 mile SE of Punta
del Rinconcillo.Torre de Entre Rios, a square and dark tower,
stands on a hill, 1.5 miles NNE of Punta del Rinconcillo. The
Rio Palamones flows into the bay close S of this prominent tower
and a conspicuous hotel stands near its mouth.

Puerto Acerinox (3610'N., 525'W.) is situated 0.5 mile E of


Torre de Entre Rios. It consists of a small harbor basin which
is protected by a large L-shaped breakwater. The Muelle de
Levante, used for handling scrap metals, is situated at the E
side of the basin. It is 250m long and has a depth of 9.5m
alongside.A bulk and coal berth, 360m long, extends along the
outer side of the breakwater. It has depths of 23 to 30m
alongside and can accommodate vessels up to 270,000 dwt.

Punta del Gallo (3611'N., 524'W.), fronted by rocks, is


located 1 mile E of Puerto Acerinox. A round fort stands on this
point.San Roque is situated 2 miles NNE of the point. This city
is very prominent as it stands on high ground.A conspicuous oil
refinery, with its associated tanks and prominent chimneys,
stands close N of Punta del Gallo. A power station, with several
conspicuous chimneys, is situated 0.7 mile E of the refinery.

CEPSA Oil Terminals (3611'N., 524'W.) are situated at the head


of the bay.A T-head pier, which extends 400m from the shore, is
situated 0.3 mile E of Punta del Gallo. Its head is 700m long
and has five berths. Tanker vessels up to 315m in length and 20m
draft can be accommodated alongside.Pilotage for the above
terminals is compulsory and is provided at the port of
Algeciras. A mooring master and crew will board vessels in the
vicinity of the SBM.

CEPSA Oil Terminals


Puente Mayorga (3611'N., 523'W.), a town, is situated 1 mile E
of Punta del Gallo. Its conspicuous white houses form a good
landmark when approaching the terminals at the head of the bay.
A prominent shipyard is situated on reclaimed land,0.5 mile SSE
of the town.
Puente Mayorga Water Terminal (3611'N., 523'W.),consisting of
six dolphins, lies 0.2 mile S of the town. A submarine pipeline,
with a .oating connection, extends NNE from the offshore berth

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to the shore. Vessels up to 115,000 dwt and 18m draft can be


handled.
...

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Capitulo 17 Cartas nauticas

CAPITULO 17 CARTAS NAUTICAS

Vocabulary and abbreviation used in Admiralty charts

Anchorage Anch Fondeadero


Bank Bk Banco
Channel Chan Canal
Cliffy coast Costa acantilada
Coarse c Grueso, basto
Coral Co Coral
Creek Cr Cala, caleta, ensenada
Custom house Cus.Ho. Aduana
Dolphin Dol. Duque de Alba
Exiatence ditful ED Existencia dudosa
Fine f Fino, fina
Fixed light F Luz fija
Flashing light Fl Luz de destellos
Gravel G Grava
Group flashing light Gp,Fl. Grupo de destellos
Group occulting light Gp. Occ Grupo de ocultaciones
Gulf G Golfo
Hard h Duro, explanada
High Water HW Pleamar
Island I Isla
Islet It Islote
Low water LW Bajamar
Mean tide level MTL Nivel medio de la marea
Mean sea level MSL Nivel medio de la mar
Mangrove Manglar
Mount Mt Monte
Mud M Fango
Marl Ml marga, greda
Neap tide Np Marea muerta
Occulting light Occ Luz de ocultaciones
Ooze Oz Fango, limo
Pebbles P Guijarros
Position aproximate PA Posicion aproximada
Position doubtful PD Posicion dudosa
Quarantine Quarentena
Rocky coast Csta rocosa
Roads Rds Radas
Reef Rf Arrecife
Sand S Arena
Sanhills Dunas
Sandy shore Orilla arenosa
Shells Sh Conchas
Shingle Sn Arena gruesa

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Shoal Sh Bajo
Soft So Blando
Spring tides Sp Mareas vivas
Sound Sd Estrecho
Steep coast Costa acantilada
Stone Piedra
Strait Estrecho
Stiff Rgido
Warf Whf Muelle

Admiralty paper charts


The UKHO produces an unrivalled
worldwide series of over 3,300
paper charts, offering global
coverage at a range of scales.

These Admiralty Standard


Navigational Charts are used by
the Royal Navy and the world's
merchant marine to comply with
SOLAS Regulations and ensure
safe navigation in the ocean.
They have been designed to meet
the needs of commercial and
recreational mariners and can
be used for Passage Planning
and to assist coastal passages,
approaches to ports and secure
berthing in harbours.
Admiralty Leisure Folios and
Editions have been developed
specifically to meet the needs
of small craft and leisure
mariners and coverage is
constantly growing. To find out
about the product range and visit the UKHO's dedicated
Admiralty Leisure website, click here.
The UKHO's range of Thematic Charts cover a variety of non-
navigational applications. These charts are used to supplement
SNCs, and each series focuses on a different specialised area.

Admiralty standard navigational charts

The UKHO's global portfolio of paper charts consists of over


3,300 Standard Navigational Charts (SNCs), and provides coverage
at a range of scales to suit the requirements of professional,
commercial and recreational navigators worldwide in accordance
with SOLAS Regulations.

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Capitulo 17 Cartas nauticas

SNCs are printed on durable paper for ease of correction and


chart detail is governed by scale.
Large Scale - charts covering harbours, anchorages and
navigational hazards.
Medium Scale - charts for coastal navigation.
Small Scale - charts for offshore navigation and Passage
Planning.
To ensure safe navigation, it is recommended that mariners
always use the largest scale chart available. In particularly
busy seaways such as The English Channel, Gulf of Suez and the
Mallaca and Singapore Straits, the Admiralty SNC series is
supplemented by Mariners Routeing Guides which advise on route
planning and all necessary regulations appropriate to the area
of navigation.
Standard Navigational Charts are continually updated by
Admiralty Notices to Mariners and are fully corrected up to date
at time of sale to ensure that they include all safety-critical
navigational information.
The UKHO publishes hundreds of New Editions and New Charts each
year. These are announced in advance in Weekly Notices to
Mariners, available both in booklet format and online via this
website. To view the latest list of all current Standard
Navigational Charts. This list provides brief details of each
chart including title, natural scale, date
of publication and the date of the latest
New Edition. Where the chart contains
plans, data is given for the main area
only.

Publications - Chart 5011: Symbols &


Abbreviations Used On Admiralty Charts
Essential for all mariners using Admiralty
charts (both paper and ARCS), this
publication illustrates Symbols and
Abbreviations in full colour, along with
full explanations. The publication also
contains information on hydrography,
topography and navigational aids and
services.

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Capitulo 18 Avisos a los navegantes

CAPITULO 18 AVISOS A LOS NAVEGANTES

Admiralty Notices to Mariners (NMs)


Admiralty Charts and Publications can be
maintained so that they are completely up
to date for safety-critical SOLAS
navigational information through the
world-renowned Admiralty Notices to
Mariners (NMs) service.
Admiralty NMs contain all the corrections,
alterations and amendments for the UKHO's
worldwide series of Admiralty Charts and
Publications and are published weekly as
booklets, which are despatched directly
from the UKHO.

Weekly notices to mariners

Weekly NMs consists of a complete compilation of all those


Admiralty Chart and Publication updates issued in any one week.
It is divided into six sections:
Section I - Explanatory Notes
Section II - Updates to Standard Navigational Charts
Section III - Reprints of Radio Navigational Warnings
Section IV - Amendments to Admiralty Sailing Directions
Section V - Amendments to Admiralty List of Lights and Fog
Signals
Section VI - Amendments to Admiralty List of Radio Signals

The Weekly NMs publication is accepted as meeting the Carriage


Requirements on SOLAS registered vessels. Weekly NMs are
available without subscription from appointed Admiralty
Distributors and also through website.

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Capitulo 18 Avisos a los navegantes

This Admiralty Notices to Mariners Bulletin (ANMB) is published


by the UK Hydrographic
Office (UKHO). The UK Maritime and Coastguard Agency accepts
that both the paper and digital forms of the ANMB comply with
carriage requirement for Notices to Mariners within Regulation
19.2.1.4 of the revised Chapter V of the Safety of Life at Sea
Convention, and the Merchant Shipping (Safety of Navigation)
Regulations, both of which, came into force 1 July 2002.

While every effort is made to ensure that the data provided


through the Notices to Mariners service is accurate, the user
needs to be aware of the risks to corruption of data. It is
important that the user should only use the data on suitable
equipment and that, other applications should not be running on
the users machine at the same time. Users should exercise their
professional judgement in the use of data, and also consult the
Mariners Handbook (NP100) for further details.
The user needs to be aware that there is a possibility that data
could be corrupted during transmission, or in the process of
display or printing on the users equipment, or if converted to
other software formats, and is accordingly advised that the UKHO
cannot accept responsibility for any such change, or any
modifications or unauthorised changes, made by licensees, or
other parties.

EXPLANATORY NOTES
Dating
Weekly Notices are dated for the Thursday appropriate to the
week they are issued and include notices up to the preceding
Saturday, the date of printing.

Charts and Positions


The notices in Section II give instructions for the updating of
standard navigational charts and selected thematic charts in the
Admiralty series. Geographical positions refer to the horizontal
datum of the current edition of each affected chart which is
stated in the notice alongside the appropriate chart number.

Positions are normally given in degrees, minutes and decimals of


a minute, but may occasionally quote seconds for convenience
when plotting from the graduation of some older-style charts.

Where Small Craft Products are referred to different horizontal


datums than the standard navigational charts for that

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Capitulo 18 Avisos a los navegantes

geographical area, positions in the notices cannot be plotted


directly on the Small Craft products.

Bearings are true reckoned clockwise from 000to 359; those


relating to lights are from seaward. Symbols referred to are
those shown on chart 5011.

Depths and heights are given in metres or fathoms and/or feet as


appropriate for the chart being updated (abbreviated where
necessary to m, fm and ft respectively).

Blocks and notes accompanying notices in Section II are placed


towards the end of the section.

Temporary and Preliminary Notices

These are indicated by (T) or (P) after the notice number. They
are printed on one side of the paper in order that they may be
cut up and filed and are placed at the end of Section II. To
assist in filing, the year is indicated after the notice number
and an in-force list is published monthly. Information from
these notices is not included on charts before issue; charts
should be updated in pencil on receipt.

Original Information
A star adjacent to the number of a notice indicates that the
notice is based on original information.

Further guidance
The Mariners Handbook (NP 100) gives a fuller explanation of
the limitations of charts. Annual Notice 9 gives the UKHO policy
for the promulgation and selection of safety-critical
information for charts. Details of chart updating methods can be
found in NP294, How to correct your charts the Admiralty
way, published October 1997. All users are advised to study
these publications.

Lights
When a light is affected by a notice its Light List number is
quoted. The detailed amendment to the List of Lights is given in
Section V and may be published in an earlier edition than the
chart-updating notice. The entire entry for each light amended
will be printed (including minor changes) and an asterisk (*)
will denote which column contains a significant amendment. In
the case of a new light, an asterisk (*) will appear under all
columns. New and extensively altered entries are intended to be
pasted in. It is recommended that a manuscript entry is made for
all shorter corrections.

It is emphasised that the List of Lights is the primary source


of information on lights and that many alterations,especially

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Capitulo 18 Avisos a los navegantes

those of a temporary but operational nature, are promulgated


only as corrections to the List of Lights.The range of a light
is normally the nominal range, except when the responsible
authority quotes luminous or geographical range.

Radio Signals
When a chart-updating notice is issued for information that is
also included within Admiralty List of Radio Signals, the
appropriate volume reference number is quoted, followed in
parentheses by the number of the Weekly Edition containing (in
Section VI) the corresponding amendment to the service
details.The amendments in Section VI should be cut out and
pasted into the appropriate volumes.

Sailing Directions
Amendments to Sailing Directions are given in Section IV. Those
in force at the end of the year are reprinted in the Annual
Summary of Notices to Mariners. A list of amendments in force is
published in Section IV of the Weekly Edition for the last week
of each month.It is recommended that amendments are kept in a
file with the latest list of amendments in force on top. The
list should then be consulted when using the parent book to see
if any amendments, affecting the area under consideration, are
in force. It is not recommended that amendments be stuck in the
parent book or current supplement,but, if this is done, when a
new supplement is received care must be taken to retain those
amendments issued after the date of the new supplement, which
may be several months before its receipt on board.

Radio Navigational Warnings


See Note at the start of Section III.

USA

The Notice to Mariners is published by the National Geospatial-


Intelligence Agency (NGA), under the authority of Department of
Defense Directive 5105.40, to advise mariners of important
matters affecting navigational safety, including new
hydrographic discoveries, changes in channels and navigational
aids, etc. (U.S. Code Title 10, Sec. 442 and Title 44, Sec.1336
refer). Nothing in the arrangement of information implies
endorsement or acceptance by NGA in matters affecting the status
and boundaries of States and territories. The Notice to Mariners
presents corrective information affecting charts, NGA
Hydrographic Products Catalog, Coast Pilots, Sailing Directions,
Fleet Guides, USCG Light Lists, NGA List of Lights, Radio

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Capitulo 18 Avisos a los navegantes

Navigational Aids and other products produced by the National


Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, National Ocean Service and U.S.
Coast Guard.
Information for the Notice to Mariners is contributed by the
following Agencies: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
(NGA) (Department of Defense) for waters outside the territorial
limits of the United States; National Ocean Service
(NOS)(Department of Commerce), which is charged with the surveys
and charting of the coasts and harbors of the United States and
its territories; the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) (Department of
Homeland Security), which is responsible for the safety of life
at sea and the establishment and operation of aids to
navigation; and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Department of
Defense), which is charged with the improvement of rivers and
harbors of the United States. In addition, important
contributions are made by foreign hydrographic offices and
cooperating observers of all nationalities.

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Capitulo 19 Convenios IMO

CAPITULO 19 CONVENIOS IMO

Aim at Tener en mira, tener como objetivo.


A matter of materia, asunto, cosa, cuestin
Agreed Convenido, acordado
Aware of Conscientes, alertas
Bareboat chartered Fletador, casco desnudo.
On behalves of
T T En nombre de
Entrusted
T T Encargar, confiar, encomendar.
Enhace
T T Realzar, acentuar.
Entitled
T T Facultar, dar derecho
Forth
T T Adelante, delante
Deal Negociar, contrato
Deal with Tener tratos, tratar con
Demmed Estimar, parecer
Ground Motivo, fundamento
Homing Ir hacia un blanco, ir hacia casa.
Prescribed Prescribir, dictar, formular
Insofar as A tal grado
Involve Implica
Enabling Permitir, facilitar
Hoses Manguera
Holding Sostener, mantener la opinin de..
Life span Periodo de vida
Linked Unirse enlazarse
Owing Deber
Pave the way for Allanar el camino
Panel of expert Grupo de expertos
Pig iron Mineral de hierro
Placarding Pegar carteles
Public concern Inters publico
Prescribed Prescribir, dictar, formular
Raised Levantar, promover.
Related Asociado, relacionado
Reluctance Resistencia, desgana.
Regarded estimar, respetar
Regardless of Sin preocuparse por
Safeguard Bastin, defensa
Shipborne Trasportado por un barco, creado con
ese propsito.
Sloshing Derramarse, salirse del recipiente.
Shortcoming Defecto, deficiencia.
Spate Abundante, chaparrn
State Declarar, aseverar, afirmar.
Strengthen Consolidar, fortalecer
Shift Cambiar
Task trabajo, labor

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Capitulo 19 Convenios IMO

Treaties Tratados
Undertakings Empresa, compromiso, tarea
Wheat Trigo
Withstand Resistir, aguantar, soportar

SOLAS
Introduction and history

The SOLAS Convention in its successive forms is generally


regarded as the most important of all international treaties
concerning the safety of merchant ships. The first version was
adopted in 1914, in response to the Titanic disaster, the second
in 1929, the third in 1948 and the fourth in 1960.
The 1960 Convention - which was adopted on 17 June 1960 and
entered into force on 26 May 1965 - was the first major task for
IMO after the Organization's creation and it represented a
considerable step forward in modernizing regulations and in
keeping pace with technical developments in the shipping
industry.

The intention was to keep the Convention up to date by periodic


amendments but in practice the amendments procedure incorporated
proved to be very slow. It became clear that it would be
impossible to secure the entry into force of amendments within a
reasonable period of time.
As a result, a completely new Convention was adopted in 1974
which included not only the amendments agreed up until that date
but a new amendment procedure - the tacit acceptance procedure -
designed to ensure that changes could be made within a specified
(and acceptably short) period of time.

Instead of requiring that an amendment shall enter into force


after being accepted by, for example, two thirds of the Parties,
the tacit acceptance procedure provides that an amendment shall
enter into force on a specified date unless, before that date,
objections to the amendment are received from an agreed number
of Parties.

As a result the 1974 Convention has been updated and amended on


numerous occasions. The Convention in force today is sometimes
referred to as SOLAS, 1974, as amended.

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Amendment procedure
Article VIII of the SOLAS 1974 Convention states that amendments
can be made either:
After consideration within IMO

Amendments proposed by a Contracting Government are circulated


at least six months before consideration by the Maritime Safety
Committee (MSC) - which may refer discussions to one or more IMO
Sub-Committees - and amendments are adopted by a two-thirds
majority of Contracting Governments present and voting in the
MSC. Contracting Governments of SOLAS, whether or not Members of
IMO are entitled to participate in the consideration of
amendments in the so-called "expanded MSC".

Amendments by a Conference
A Conference of Contracting Governments is called when a
Contracting Government requests the holding of a Conference and
at least one-third of Contracting Governments agree to hold the
Conference. Amendments are adopted by a two-thirds majority of
Contracting Governments present and voting.
In the case of both a Conference and the expanded MSC,
amendments (other than to Chapter I) are deemed to have been
accepted at the end of a set period of time following
communication of the adopted amendments to Contracting
Governments, unless a specified number of Contracting
Governments object. The length of time from communication of
amendments to deemed acceptance is set at two years unless
another period of time - which must not be less than one year -
is determined by two-thirds of Contracting Governments at the
time of adoption.
Amendments to Chapter I are deemed accepted after positive
acceptance by two-thirds of Contracting Governments.
Amendments enter into force six months after their deemed
acceptance.

The minimum length of time from circulation of proposed


amendments through entry into force is 24 months - circulation:
six months, adoption to deemed acceptance date: 12 months
minimum; deemed acceptance to entry into force: six months.

However, a resolution adopted in 1994 makes provision for an


accelerated amendment procedure to be used in exceptional
circumstances - allowing for the length of time from

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communication of amendments to deemed acceptance to be cut to


six months in exceptional circumstances and when this is decided
by a Conference. In practice to date, the expanded MSC has
adopted most amendments to SOLAS, while Conferences have been
held on several occasions - notably to adopt whole new Chapters
to SOLAS or to adopt amendments proposed in response to a
specific incident.
Technical provisions
The main objective of the SOLAS Convention is to specify minimum
standards for the construction, equipment and operation of
ships, compatible with their safety. Flag States are responsible
for ensuring that ships under their flag comply with its
requirements, and a number of certificates are prescribed in the
Convention as proof that this has been done. Control provisions
also allow Contracting Governments to inspect ships of other
Contracting States if there are clear grounds for believing that
the ship and its equipment do not substantially comply with the
requirements of the Convention - this procedure is known as port
State control. The current SOLAS Convention includes Articles
setting out general obligations, amendment procedure and so on,
followed by an Annex divided into 12 Chapters.

Chapter I - General Provisions

Includes regulations concerning the survey of the various types


of ships and the issuing of documents signifying that the ship
meets the requirements of the Convention. The Chapter also
includes provisions for the control of ships in ports of other
Contracting Governments.

Chapter II-1 - Construction - Subdivision and stability,


machinery and electrical installations

The subdivision of passenger ships into watertight compartments


must be such that after assumed damage to the ship's hull the
vessel will remain afloat and stable. Requirements for
watertight integrity and bilge pumping arrangements for
passenger ships are also laid down as well as stability
requirements for both passenger and cargo ships.

The degree of subdivision - measured by the maximum permissible


distance between two adjacent bulkheads - varies with ship's
length and the service in which it is engaged. The highest
degree of subdivision applies to passenger ships.

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Requirements covering machinery and electrical installations are


designed to ensure that services which are essential for the
safety of the ship, passengers and crew are maintained under
various emergency conditions. The steering gear requirements of
this Chapter are particularly important.

Chapter II-2 - Fire protection, fire detection and fire


extinction

Includes detailed fire safety provisions for all ships and


specific measures for passenger ships, cargo ships and tankers.

They include the following principles: division of the ship into


main and vertical zones by thermal and structural boundaries;
separation of accommodation spaces from the remainder of the
ship by thermal and structural boundaries; restricted use of
combustible materials; detection of any fire in the zone of
origin; containment and extinction of any fire in the space of
origin; protection of the means of escape or of access for fire-
fighting purposes; ready availability of fire-extinguishing
appliances; minimization of the possibility of ignition of
flammable cargo vapour.
A new revised chapter II-2 was adopted in December 2000,
entering into force on 1 July 2002.

Chapter III - Life-saving appliances and arrangements

A revised Chapter was adopted


in 1996 and entered into force
on 1 July 1998. The revisions
took into account changes in
technology since the Chapter
was last revised in 1983. Under
the 1996 revision, specific
technical requirements were
moved to a new International
Life-Saving Appliance (LSA)
Code, made mandatory under
Regulation 34, which states
that all life-saving appliances and arrangements shall comply
with the applicable requirements of the LSA Code.
The Chapter entered into force on 1 July 1998 and applies to all
ships built on or after 1 July 1998, with some new amendments to
the previous Chapter also applying to ships built before that

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Capitulo 19 Convenios IMO

date.

The text of the 1996 Chapter takes into account technological


changes, such as the development of marine evacuation systems:
these systems involve the use of slides, similar to those
installed on aircraft. The 1996 revision of Chapter III also
reflects public concern over safety issues, raised by a series
of major accidents in the 1980s and 1990s. Many of the passenger
ship regulations have been made applicable to existing ships,
and extra regulations were introduced specifically for ro-ro
passenger ships.

Chapter IV Radiocomunications
The Chapter was completely revised in 1988 to incorporate
amendments to introduce the Global Maritime Distress and Safety
System (GMDSS).
The amendments entered into force on 1 February 1992 with a
phase-in period to 1 February 1999. By that date the Morse Code
was phased out and all passenger ships and all cargo ships of
300 gross tonnage and upwards on international voyages are now
required to carry equipment designed to improve the chances of
rescue following an accident, including satellite emergency
position indicating radio beacons (EPIRBs) and search and rescue
transponders (SARTs) for the location of the ship or survival
craft. Chapter IV of SOLAS was previously titled Radiotelegraphy
and radiotelephony, reflecting the forms of radio communication
available prior to the introduction of satellites.
Regulations in Chapter IV cover undertakings by contracting
governments to provide radiocommunciation services as well as
ship requirements for carriage of radiocommunications equipment.
The Chapter is closely linked to the Radio Regulations of the
International Telecommunication Union.

Chapter V - Safety of navigation

Chapter V identifies certain navigation safety services which


should be provided by Contracting Governments and sets forth
provisions of an operational nature applicable in general to all
ships on all voyages. This is in contrast to the Convention as a
whole, which only applies to certain classes of ship engaged on
international voyages.
The subjects covered include the maintenance of meteorological
services for ships; the ice patrol service; routeing of ships;
and the maintenance of search and rescue services.

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This Chapter also includes a general obligation for masters to


proceed to the assistance of those in distress and for
Contracting Governments to ensure that all ships shall be
sufficiently and efficiently manned from a safety point of view.

A new revised chapter V was adopted in December 2000, entering


into force on 1 July 2002. The new chapter makes mandatory the
carriage of voyage data recorders (VDRs) and automatic ship
identification systems (AIS) for certain ships.

Chapter VI - Carriage of Cargoes

The Chapter covers all types of cargo (except liquids and gases
in bulk) "which, owing to their particular hazards to ships or
persons on board, may require special precautions".
The regulations include requirements for stowage and securing of
cargo or cargo units (such as containers).
Before 1991, this Chapter only covered the carriage of grain -
which due to its inherent capability to shift can have
disastrous effects on a ship's stability if not stowed, trimmed
and secured properly. The current Chapter requires cargo ships
carrying grain to comply with the IMO International Grain Code.

Chapter VII - Carriage of dangerous goods


The regulations are contained in three parts:

Part A - Carriage of dangerous goods in packaged form or in


solid form or in bulk - includes provisions for the
classification, packing, marking, labelling and placarding,
documentation and stowage of dangerous goods. Contracting
Governments are required to issue instructions at the national
level and the Chapter refers to International Maritime Dangerous
Goods (IMDG) Code, developed by IMO, which is constantly updated
to accommodate new dangerous goods and to supplement or revise
existing provisions.
Part B Covers Construction and equipment of ships carrying
dangerous liquid chemicals in bulk and requires chemical tankers
built after 1 July 1986 to comply with the International Bulk
Chemical Code (IBC Code).
Part C covers Construction and equipment of ships carrying
liquefied gases in bulk and gas carriers constructed after 1
July 1986 to comply with the requirements of the International
Gas Carrier Code (IGC Code).

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Part D includes special requirements for the carriage of


packaged irradiated nuclear fuel, plutonium and high-level
radioactive wastes on board ships and requires ships carrying
such products to comply with the International Code for the Safe
Carriage of Packaged Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium and
High-Level Radioactive Wastes on Board Ships (INF Code).
From 1 January 2004, the chapter will require carriage of
dangerous goods to be in compliance with the relevant provisions
of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code).
This is due to amendments adopted by IMO in 2002, which are
expected to enter into force on 1 January 2004.
The IMDG Code was first adopted by IMO in 1965 and has been kept
up to date by regular amendments, including those needed to keep
it in line with United Nations Recommendations on the Transport
of Dangerous Goods which sets the basic requirements for all the
transport modes
Chapter VIII - Nuclear ships
Gives basic requirements for nuclear-powered ships and is
particularly concerned with radiation hazards. It refers to
detailed and comprehensive Code of Safety for Nuclear Merchant
Ships which was adopted by the IMO Assembly in 1981.

Chapter IX - Management for the Safe Operation of Ships

The Chapter makes mandatory the International Safety Management


(ISM) Code, which requires a safety management system to be
established by the shipowner or any person who has assumed
responsibility for the ship (the "Company").
The Chapter was adopted in May 1994 and entered into force on 1
July 1998.

Chapter X - Safety measures for high-speed craft

The Chapter makes mandatory the International Code of Safety for


High-Speed Craft (HSC Code), which applies to high-speed craft
built on or after 1 January 1996. The Chapter was adopted in May
1994 and entered into force on 1 January 1996.
A new HSC Code was adopted in December 2000 and it applies to
ships built on or after 1 July 2002.

Chapter XI - Special measures to enhance maritime safety

The Chapter was adopted in May 1994 and entered into force on 1

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January 1996. The Chapter clarifies requirements relating to


authorization of recognized organizations (responsible for
carrying out surveys and inspections on Administrations'
behalves); enhanced surveys; ship identification number scheme;
and port State control on operational requirements.

Chapter XII - Additional safety measures for bulk carriers


The Chapter was adopted in November 1997 and entered into force
on 1 July 1999. It includes structural requirements for new bulk
carriers over 150 metres in length built after 1 July 1999
carrying cargoes with a density of 1,000 kg/m3 and above and
also includes specific structural requirements for existing bulk
carriers carrying cargoes with a density of 1,780 kg/m3 and
above - these include cargoes such as iron ore, pig iron, steel,
bauxite and cement. Cargoes with a density above 1,000 kg/m3 but
below 1,780 kg/m3 include grains, such as wheat and rice, and
timber.

The Protocol of 1978


Adoption: 17 February 1978
Entry into force: 1 May 1981

The 1978 Protocol was adopted at the International Conference on


Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention, which was convened in
response to a spate of tanker accidents in 1976-1977.
The conference adopted measures affecting tanker design and
operation, which were incorporated into both the SOLAS Protocol
of 1978 as well as the Protocol of 1978 relating to the 1973
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from
Ships (1978 MARPOL Protocol).

The 1978 SOLAS Protocol made a number of important changes to


Chapter I, including the introduction of unscheduled inspections
and/or mandatory annual surveys and the strengthening of port
State control requirements. Chapter II-1, Chapter II-2 and
Chapter V were also improved.
The main amendments included the following:
New crude oil carriers and product carriers of 20,000 dwt and
above are required to be fitted with an inert gas system.

An inert gas system became mandatory for existing crude oil


carriers of 70,000 dwt and above by 1 May 1983, and by 1 May
1985 for ships of 20,000-70,000 dwt.

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In the case of crude oil carriers of 20-40,000 dwt there is


provision for exemption by flag States where it is considered
unreasonable or impracticable to fit an inert gas system and
high-capacity fixed washing machines are not used. But an inert
gas system is always required when crude oil washing is
operated.

An inert gas system was required on existing product carriers


from 1 May 1983 and by 1 May 1985 for ships of 40-70,000 dwt and
down to 20,000 dwt which are fitted with high capacity washing
machines.

In addition to requiring that all ships of 1,600 grt and above


shall be fitted with radar, the Protocol requires that all ships
of 10,000 grt and above have two radars, each capable of being
operated independently.
All tankers of 10,000 grt and above shall have two remote
steering gear control systems, each operable separately from the
navigating bridge.

The main steering gear of new tankers of 10,000 grt and above
shall comprise two or more identical power units, and shall be
capable of operating the rudder with one or more power units.

The 1981 amendments


Adoption: 20 November 1981

Entry into force: 1 September 1984

Chapters II-1 and II-2 were re-written and updated.

In Chapter II-1, the provisions of resolution A.325(IX)


Recommendation concerning regulations for machinery and
electrical installations in passenger and cargo ships (adopted
in November 1975) were incorporated and made mandatory. Changes
to regulations 29 and 30 on steering gear introduced the concept
of duplication of steering gear control systems in tankers.
These measures were agreed taking into account concerns
following the 1978 Amoco Cadiz disaster and relevant provisions
in the 1978 SOLAS Protocol.
Chapter II-2 was re-arranged to take into account strengthened
fire safety requirements for cargo ships and passenger ships.

The revised Chapter II-2 incorporated the requirements of


resolution A.327(IX) Recommendation concerning fire safety

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requirements for cargo ships, which includes 21 regulations


based on the principles of: separation of accommodation spaces
from the remainder of the ship by thermal and structural
boundaries; protection of means of escape; early detection,
containment or extinction of any fire; and restricted use of
combustible materials. Other amendments to Chapter II-2 related
to provisions for halogenated hydrocarbon extinguishing systems,
special requirements for ships carrying dangerous goods, and a
new regulation 62 on inert gas systems.

Some important changes were also made to Chapter V, including


the addition of new requirements concerning the carriage of
shipborne navigational equipment, covering such matters as gyro
and magnetic compasses; the mandatory carriage of two radars and
of automatic radar plotting aids in ships of 10,000 grt and
above; echo-sounders; devices to indicate speed and distance;
rudder angle indicators; propeller revolution indicators; rate
of turn indicators; radio-direction finding apparatus; and
equipment for homing on the radiotelephone distress frequency.

In addition, a few minor changes were made to Chapter III; seven


regulations in Chapter IV were replaced, amended or added and a
number of small changes were made to Chapter VII.

The 1983 amendments

Adoption: 17 June 1983

Entry into force: 1 July 1986


The most extensive changes involved Chapter III, which was
completely rewritten. The Chapter in the 1974 Convention
differed little from the texts which appeared in the 1960 and
1948 SOLAS Conventions and the amendments were designed not only
to take into account the many technical advances which had taken
place since then but also to expedite the evaluation and
introduction of further improvements.

There were also a few minor changes to Chapter II-1 and some
further changes to Chapter II-2 (including improvements to the
1981 amendments) designed particularly to increase the safety of
bulk carriers and passenger ships. Some small changes were made
to Chapter IV.

Amendments to Chapter VII extended its application to chemical

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tankers and liquefied gas carriers by making reference to two


new Codes, the International Code for the Construction and
Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC
Code) and the International Code for the Construction and
Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (IGC Code).
Both apply to ships built on or after 1 July 1986.

The 1988 (April) amendments


Adoption: 21 April 1988

Entry into force: 22 October 1989

In March 1987 the car ferry Herald of Free Enterprise capsized


shortly after leaving Zeebrugge in Belgium and sank with the
loss of 193 lives. The United Kingdom proposed a series of
measures designed to prevent a recurrence, the first package of
which was adopted in April 1988.

They included new regulations 23-2 and 42-1 of Chapter II-1


intended to improve monitoring of doors and cargo areas and to
improve emergency lighting. Because of the urgency, the Maritime
Safety Committee agreed the amendments should come into force
only 18 months after their adoption, using the "tacit
acceptance" procedure.

The 1988 (October) amendments

Adoption: 28 October 1988

Entry into force: 29 April 1990

Some of these amendments also resulted from the Herald of Free


Enterprise disaster and included details of how stability of
passenger ships in a damaged condition should be determined and
a requirement for all cargo loading doors to be locked before a
ship leaves the berth.
The amendments also made it compulsory for passenger ships to
have a lightweight survey at least every five years to ensure
their stability has not been adversely affected by the

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accumulation of extra weight or any alterations to the


superstructure.

Other amendments concerning the stability of passenger ships in


the damaged condition were also adopted. These regulations had
been in preparation before the Herald of Free Enterprise
incident and their adoption was brought forward.

The 1988 Protocol (HSSC)


Adoption: 11 November 1988

Entry into force: 3 February 2000

The Protocol introduces a new harmonized system of surveys and


certification (HSSC) to harmonize with two other Conventions,
Load Lines and MARPOL 73/78. The aim is to alleviate problems
caused by the fact that as requirements in the three instruments
vary, ships may be obliged to go into dry-dock for a survey
required by one convention shortly after being surveyed in
connection with another.
By enabling the required surveys to be carried out at the same
time, the system is intended to reduce costs for shipowners and
administrations alike.
The 1988 (GMDSS) amendments

Adoption: 11 November 1988


Entry into force: 1 February 1992

IMO had begun work on the Global Maritime Distress and Safety
System (GMDSS) in the 1970s and its introduction marked the
biggest change to maritime communications since the invention of
radio.

The amendments which replaced the existing Chapter IV phased in


the introduction of the GMDSS in stages between 1993 and 1
February 1999. The basic concept of the system is that search
and rescue authorities ashore, as well as ships in the vicinity,
will be rapidly alerted in the event of an emergency.

The GMDSS makes great use of the satellite communications


provided by Inmarsat but also uses terrestrial radio.

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The equipment required by ships varies according to the sea area


in which they operate - ships travelling to the high seas must
carry more communications equipment than those which remain
within reach of specified shore-based radio facilities. In
addition to distress communications, the GMDSS also provides for
the dissemination of general maritime safety information (such
as navigational and meteorological warnings and urgent
information to ships).

The 1989 amendments


Adoption: 11 April 1989
Entry into force: 1 February 1992
The main changes concern Chapter II-1 and II-2 of the Convention
and deal with ships' construction and with fire protection,
detection and extinction.
In Chapter II-1, one of the most important amendments is
designed to reduce the number and size of openings in watertight
bulkheads in passenger ships and to ensure that they are closed
in the event of an emergency.
In Chapter II-2, improvements were made to regulations
concerning fixed gas fire-extinguishing systems, smoke detection
systems, arrangements for fuel and other oils, the location and
separation of spaces and several other regulations.
The International Gas Carrier Code - which is mandatory under
SOLAS - was also amended.
The 1990 amendments
Adoption: May 1990
Entry into force: 1 February 1992
Important changes were made to the way in which the subdivision
and stability of dry cargo ships is determined. They apply to
ships of 100 metres or more in length built on or after 1
February 1992.

The amendments introduced a new part B-1 of Chapter II-1


containing subdivision and damage stability requirements for
cargo ships based upon the so-called "probabilistic" concept of
survival, which was originally developed through study of data
relating to collisions collected by IMO.
This showed a pattern in accidents which could be used in
improving the design of ships: most damage, for example, is
sustained in the forward part of ships and it seemed logical,

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therefore, to improve the standard of subdivision there rather


than towards the stern. Because it is based on statistical
evidence as to what actually happens when ships collide, the
probabilistic concept provides a far more realistic scenario
than the earlier "deterministic" method, whose principles
regarding the subdivision of passenger ships are theoretical
rather than practical in concept.

Amendments were also made to the International Code for the


Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals
in Bulk (IBC Code) and the International Code for the
Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in
Bulk (IGC Code).

The 1991 amendments


Adoption: 24 May 1991
Entry into force: 1 January 1994
Chapter VI (Carriage of grain) was completely revised to extend
it to include other cargoes and it was retitled Carriage of
cargoes. The text is shorter, but the Chapter is backed up by
two new Codes. The International Grain Code is mandatory while
the Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing is
recommended. The Chapter also refers to the Code of Safe
Practice for Ships Carrying Timber Deck Cargoes and the Code of
Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes. In Chapter II-2, fire
safety requirements for passenger ships were improved and other
changes were made to Chapter III and Chapter V.

The April 1992 amendments


Adoption: 10 April 1992
Entry into force: 1 October 1994

New standards concerning the stability of existing ro-ro


passenger ships after damage were included in amendments to
Chapter II-1. They were based on measures to improve the damage
stability of new ro-ro passenger ships which came into force on
29 April 1990 but were slightly modified. The measures are
phased in over an 11-year period beginning 1 October 1994.

A number of other amendments to SOLAS were adopted, including


improved fire safety measures for existing passenger ships
carrying more than 36 passengers, including mandatory

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requirements for smoke detection and alarm and sprinkler systems


in accommodation and service spaces, stairway enclosures and
corridors. Other improvements involved the provision of
emergency lighting, general emergency alarm systems and other
means of communication.

Some of these measures became applicable for existing ships on 1


October 1994. Those dealing with smoke detection and alarm
systems and sprinklers applied from 1 October 1997. Requirements
concerning stairways of steel-frame construction, for fire-
extinguishing systems in machinery spaces and for fire doors are
mandatory from 1 October 2000.
The April 1992 amendments are particularly important because
they apply to existing ships. In the past, major changes to
SOLAS had been restricted to new ships by so-called "grandfather
clauses". The reason for this is that major changes involve
expensive modifications to most ships, and there had previously
been a reluctance to make such measures retroactive.

The December 1992 amendments


Adoption: 11 December 1992
Entry into force: 1 October 1994
The most important amendments were concerned with the fire
safety of new passenger ships. They made it mandatory for new
ships (i.e. those built after 1 October 1994) carrying more than
36 passengers to be fitted with automatic sprinklers and a fire
detection and alarm system centralized in a continuously-manned
remote control station. Controls for the remote closing of fire
doors and shutting down of ventilation fans must be located at
the same place.
New standards for the fire integrity of bulkheads and decks were
introduced and improvements made to standards for corridors and
stairways used as a means of escape in case of fire. Emergency
lighting which can be used by passengers to identify escape
routes is required.
Other amendments affect the fire safety of ships carrying 36
passengers or less and also oil tanker fire safety.
Three Codes were also amended. Amendments to the International
Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying
Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC Code) and the International
Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying
Liquefied Gases in Bulk (IGC Code) entered into force on 1 July
1994 and affect ships built after that date.

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Amendments to the Code for the Construction and Equipment of


Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (BCH Code) entered
into force on 1 July 1994. The Code is voluntary and applies to
existing ships.
The May 1994 amendments (Conference)
Adoption: 24 May 1994
Entry into force: 1 January 1996 (Chapters X, XI) 1 July 1998
(Chapter IX)
The Conference adopted three new SOLAS Chapters as well as a
resolution on an accelerated amendment procedure.
Accelerated amendment procedure
The Conference adopted a resolution on an accelerated amendment
procedure to be used in exceptional circumstances. It states
that a Conference of Contracting Governments can reduce the
period after which an amendment to the technical Chapters of the
Convention (which excludes the articles and Chapter I) is deemed
to have been accepted from 12 months to six months, in
exceptional circumstances.
Article VIII of SOLAS deals with the procedures for amending the
Convention. The existing text says that proposed amendments have
to be circulated to Governments at least six months prior to
adoption and cannot enter into force until at least 18 months
after adoption. This makes a total of 24 months, from
circulation (six months), through adoption, to deemed acceptance
date (12 months after adoption), to entry into force (six months
after deemed acceptance date).
The resolution adopted by the conference states that the
circulation period will remain at six months as will the period
between the date on which the amendment is deemed to have been
accepted and the date of entry into force. But the period
between adoption and deemed acceptance date can be reduced to
six months from 12. The total period between circulation of an
amendment and its entry into force could thus be reduced from 24
months to 18 - in exceptional circumstances.

Chapter IX: Management for the Safe Operation of Ships


This new Chapter to the Convention was designed to make
mandatory the International Safety Management Code, which was
adopted by IMO in November 1993 (Assembly resolution A.741(18)).

The amendments introducing the new Chapter IX entered into force


under tacit acceptance on 1 July 1998. The Chapter applies to
passenger ships and tankers from that date and to cargo ships

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and mobile drilling units of 500 gross tonnage and above from 1
July 2002.
The Code establishes safety management objectives which are:
- to provide for safe practices in ship operation and a safe
working environment;
- to establish safeguards against all identified risks;

- to continuously improve safety management skills of personnel,


including preparing for emergencies.
The Code requires a safety management system (SMS) to be
established by "the Company", which is defined as the shipowner
or any person, such as the manager or bareboat charterer, who
has assumed responsibility for operating the ship.

The company is then required to establish and implement a policy


for achieving these objectives. This includes providing the
necessary resources and shore-based support. Every company is
expected "to designate a person or persons ashore having direct
access to the highest level of management".
The procedures required by the ISM Code should be documented and
compiled in a Safety Management Manual, a copy of which should
be kept on board.
Chapter X: Safety Measures for High Speed Craft

The new Chapter makes mandatory the International Code of Safety


for High-Speed Craft, which was adopted by the Maritime Safety
Committee (MSC) held concurrently with the Conference.
The Chapter entered into force under tacit acceptance on 1
January 1996 and applies to high-speed craft built on or after
that date.

Chapter XI: Special Measures to Enhance Safety:

The new Chapter entered into force under tacit acceptance on 1


January 1996.
Regulation 1 states that organizations entrusted by an
Administration with the responsibility for carrying out surveys
and inspections shall comply with the guidelines adopted by IMO
in resolution A.739(18) in November 1993.
Regulation 2 extends to bulk carriers aged five years and above,
the enhanced programme of surveys applicable to tankers under
MARPOL 73/78. The enhanced surveys should be carried out during

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the periodical, annual and intermediate surveys prescribed by


the MARPOL and SOLAS Conventions.
The related guidelines on enhanced surveys pay special attention
to corrosion. Coatings and tank corrosion prevention systems
must be thoroughly checked and measurements must also be carried
out to check the thickness of plates.
Regulation 3 provides that all passenger ships of 100 gross
tonnage and above and all cargo ships of 300 gross tonnage and
above shall be provided with an identification number conforming
to the IMO ship identification number scheme, as adopted by
resolution A.600(15) in 1987.

Regulation 4 makes it possible for port State control officers


inspecting foreign ships to check operational requirements "when
there are clear grounds for believing that the master or crew
are not familiar with essential shipboard procedures relating to
the safety of ships"
.Reference is made to resolution A.742(18), adopted in November
1993. The resolution acknowledges the need for port States to be
able to monitor not only the way in which foreign ships comply
with IMO standards but also to be able to assess "the ability of
ships' crews in respect of operational requirements relevant to
their duties, especially with regard to passenger ships and
ships which may present a special hazard"

The "clear grounds" referred to are defined in the annex to the


resolution. They include such factors as operational
shortcomings, cargo operations not being conducted properly, the
involvement of the ship in incidents caused by operational
mistakes, absence of an up-to-date muster list and indications
that crew members may not be able to communicate with each
other.

Port State control inspections are normally limited to checking


certificates and documents. But if certificates are not valid or
if there are clear grounds for believing that the condition of
the ship or of its equipment, or its crew, does not
substantially meet the requirements of a relevant instrument, a
more detailed inspection may be carried out.
The operations and procedures selected for special attention
include ascertaining that crew members are aware of their duties
as indicated in the muster list; communications; fire and
abandon ship drills; familiarity with the ship's damage control
and fire control plans; bridge, cargo and machinery operations;
and ability to understand manuals and other instructions.

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The May 1994 amendments (MSC)


Adoption: 25 May 1994
Entry into force: 1 January 1996
Three new regulations were added to Chapter V

.Regulation 15.1 requires all tankers of 20,000 dwt and above


built after 1 January 1996 to be fitted with an emergency towing
arrangement to be fitted at both ends of the ship. Tankers built
before that date had to be fitted with a similar arrangement not
later than 1 January 1999.
Regulation 22 is aimed at improving navigation bridge
visibility.

Regulation 8.1 makes mandatory the use of ship reporting systems


approved by IMO. General principles for ship reporting systems
were previously adopted by IMO in 1989 as a recommendation. The
systems are used to provide, gather or exchange information
through radio reports.
The regulation makes it mandatory for ships entering areas
covered by ship reporting systems to report in to the coastal
authorities giving details of sailing plans.
In Chapter II-2 improvements were made to regulation 15, which
deals with fire protection arrangements for fuel oil,
lubrication oil and other flammable oils.
Amendments to the International Code for the Construction and
Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (IGC Code)
and the Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships
Carrying Liquefied Gases (Gas Carrier Code) relate to the
filling limits for cargo tanks.
The December 1994 amendments
Adoption: 9 December 1994
Entry into force: 1 July 1996
In Chapter VI (Carriage of Cargoes), the Code of Safe Practice
for Cargo Stowage and Securing is made mandatory. The Code was
adopted as a recommendation in 1991. The amendments make it
mandatory to provide the cargo information required by the Code
and for cargo units, including containers, to be loaded, stowed
and secured in accordance with a manual that must be at least
equivalent to the Code.
The Code is also made mandatory under Chapter VII (Carriage of
dangerous goods).

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The May 1995 amendments


Adoption: 16 May 1995
Entry into force: 1 January 1997

Regulation 8 of Chapter V was amended to make ships' routeing


systems compulsory. Governments are responsible for submitting
proposals for ships' routeing systems to IMO in accordance with
amendments to the General Provisions on Ships' Routeing, which
were adopted at the same time.

The November 1995 amendments (Conference)


Adopted: 29 November 1995
Entry into force: 1 July 1997
The conference adopted a
series of amendments to
SOLAS, based on proposals put
forward by the Panel of
Experts on the safety of roll
on-roll off passenger ships
which was established in
December 1994 following the
sinking of the ferry Estonia.

The most important changes


relate to the stability of ro-ro passenger ships in Chapter II-
1.

The SOLAS 90 damage stability standard, which had applied to all


ro-ro passenger ships built since 1990, was extended to existing
ships in accordance with an agreed phase-in programme. Ships
that only meet 85% of the standard had to comply fully by 1
October 1998 and those meeting 97.5% or above, by 1 October
2005. (The SOLAS 90 standard refers to the damage stability
standard in the 1988 (October) amendments to SOLAS adopted 28
October 1988 and entering into force on 29 April 1990.)
The conference also adopted a new regulation 8-2, containing
special requirements for ro-ro passenger ships carrying 400
passengers or more. This is intended to phase out ships built to
a one-compartment standard and ensure that they can survive
without capsizing with two main compartments flooded following
damage.

Amendments to other Chapters in the SOLAS Convention included


changes to Chapter III, which deals with life saving appliances

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and arrangements, including the addition of a section requiring


ro-ro passenger ships to be fitted with public address systems,
a regulation providing improved requirements for life-saving
appliances and arrangements and a requirement for all passenger
ships to have full information on the details of passengers on
board and requirements for the provision of a helicopter pick-up
or landing area.
Other amendments were made to Chapter IV (radiocommunications);
Chapter V (safety of navigation) - including a requirement that
all ro-ro passenger ships should have an established working
language - and Chapter VI (carriage of cargoes).

The conference also adopted a resolution which permits regional


arrangements to be made on special safety requirements for ro-ro
passenger ships.
The June 1996 amendments
Adoption: 4 June 1996
Entry into force: 1 July 1998
A completely revised Chapter III on life-saving appliances and
arrangements was adopted. The amendments take into account
changes in technology since the Chapter was last re-written in
1983.

Many of the technical requirements were transferred to a new


International Life-Saving Appliance (LSA) Code, applicable to
all ships built on or after 1 July 1998. Some of the amendments
apply to existing ships as well as new ones.
Other SOLAS Chapters were also amended.

In Chapter II-1, a new part A-1 dealing with the structure of


ships was added. Regulation 3-1 requires ships to be designed,
constructed and maintained in compliance with structural
requirements of a recognized classification society or with
applicable requirements by the Administration. Regulation 3-2
deals with corrosion prevention of seawater ballast tanks and
other amendments to Chapter II-1 concern the stability of
passenger and cargo ships in the damaged condition.

In Chapter VI, Regulation 7 was replaced by a new text dealing


with the loading, unloading and stowage of bulk cargoes. It is
intended to ensure that no excessive stress is placed on the
ship's structure during such operations. The ship must be
provided with a booklet giving advice on cargo handling
operations and the master and terminal representative must agree
on a plan to ensure that loading and unloading is carried out

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safely.

In Chapter XI, an amendment was made regarding authorization of


recognized organizations.
The International Bulk Chemicals (IBC) and Bulk Chemicals (BCH)
Codes were also amended. The IBC Code is mandatory under SOLAS
and applies to ships carrying dangerous chemicals in bulk that
were built after 1 July 1986. The BCH is recommended and applies
to ships built before that date.

The December 1996 amendments


Adoption: 6 December 1996
Entry into force: 1 July 1998
Chapter II-2 was considerably modified, with changes to the
general introduction, Part B (fire safety measures for passenger
ships), Part C (fire safety measures for cargo ships) and Part D
(fire safety measures for tankers). The changes made mandatory a
new International Code for Application of Fire Test Procedures
intended to be used by Administrations when approving products
for installation in ships flying their flag.

Amendments to Chapter II-1 included a requirement for ships to


be fitted with a system to ensure that the equipment necessary
for propulsion and steering are maintained or immediately
restored in the case of loss of any one of the generators in
service.

An amendment to Chapter V aims to ensure that the crew can gain


safe access to the ship's bow, even in severe weather
conditions. Amendments were also made to two regulations in
Chapter VII relating to carriage of dangerous goods and the IBC
Code was also amended.

The June 1997 amendments


Adoption: 4 June 1997
Entry into force: 1 July 1999 (Under tacit acceptance)

The amendments included a new Regulation 8.2 on Vessel Traffic


Services (VTS) in Chapter V. VTS are traffic management systems,
for example those used in busy straits. This Regulation sets out
when VTS can be implemented. It says Vessel Traffic Services
should be designed to contribute to the safety of life at sea,
safety and efficiency of navigation and the protection of the

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marine environment, adjacent shore areas, worksites and offshore


installations from possible adverse effects of maritime traffic.

Governments may establish VTS when, in their opinion, the volume


of traffic or the degree of risk justifies such services. But no
VTS should prejudice the "rights and duties of governments under
international law" and a VTS may only be made mandatory in sea
areas within a State's territorial waters.
In Chapter II-1, a new regulation 8.3 on "Special requirements
for passenger ships, other than ro-ro passenger ships, carrying
400 persons or more" effectively makes these ships comply with
the special requirements for ro-ro passenger ships in Regulation
8.2 which were adopted in November 1995. The special
requirements are aimed at ensuring the ships can survive without
capsizing with two main compartments flooded following damage.

The November 1997 amendments (Conference)


Adoption: 27 November 1997
Entry into force: 1 July 1999
The Conference adopted a Protocol adding a new Chapter XII to
the Convention entitled Additional Safety Measures for Bulk
Carriers.

The regulations state that all new bulk carriers 150 metres or
more in length (built after 1 July 1999) carrying cargoes with a
density of 1,000 kg/m3 and above should have sufficient strength
to withstand flooding of any one cargo hold, taking into account
dynamic effects resulting from presence of water in the hold and
taking into account the recommendations adopted by IMO.
For existing ships (built before 1 July 1999) carrying bulk
cargoes with a density of 1,780 kg/m3 and above, the transverse
watertight bulkhead between the two foremost cargo holds and the
double bottom of the foremost cargo hold should have sufficient
strength to withstand flooding and the related dynamic effects
in the foremost cargo hold.

Cargoes with a density of 1,780 kg/m3 and above (heavy cargoes)


include iron ore, pig iron, steel, bauxite and cement. Lighter
cargoes, but with a density of more than 1,000 kg/m3, include
grains such as wheat and rice, and timber.

The amendments take into account a study into bulk carrier


survivability carried out by the International Association of
Classification Societies (IACS) at the request of IMO. IACS
found that if a ship is flooded in the forward hold, the

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bulkhead between the two foremost holds may not be able to


withstand the pressure that results from the sloshing mixture of
cargo and water, especially if the ship is loaded in alternate
holds with high density cargoes (such as iron ore). If the
bulkhead between one hold and the next collapses, progressive
flooding could rapidly occur throughout the length of the ship
and the vessel would sink in a matter of minutes.

IACS concluded that the most vulnerable areas are the bulkhead
between numbers one and two holds at the forward end of the
vessel and the double bottom of the ship at this location.
During special surveys of ships, particular attention should be
paid to these areas and, where necessary, reinforcements should
be carried out.
The criteria and formulae used to assess whether a ship
currently meets the new requirements, for example in terms of
the thickness of the steel used for bulkhead structures, or
whether reinforcement is necessary, are laid out in IMO
standards adopted by the 1997 Conference.
Under Chapter XII, surveyors can take into account restrictions
on the cargo carried in considering the need for, and the extent
of, strengthening of the transverse watertight bulkhead or
double bottom. When restrictions on cargoes are imposed, the
bulk carrier should be permanently marked with a solid triangle
on its side shell. The date of application of the new Chapter to
existing bulk carriers depends on their age. Bulk carriers which
are 20 years old and over on 1 July 1999 have to comply by the
date of the first intermediate or periodic survey after that
date, whichever is sooner. Bulk carriers aged 15-20 years must
comply by the first periodical survey after 1 July 1999, but not
later than 1 July 2002. Bulk carriers less than 15 years old
must comply by the date of the first periodical survey after the
ship reaches 15 years of age, but not later than the date on
which the ship reaches 17 years of age.
The May 1998 amendments
Adoption: 18 May 1998
Entry into force: 1 July 2002 (Under tacit acceptance)
Amendments were made to regulation 14 on Construction and
initial testing of watertight bulkheads, etc., in passenger
ships and cargo ships in Chapter II-1. Paragraph 3 is replaced
to allow visual examination of welded connections, where filling
with water or a hose test are not practicable.

In Chapter IV, the amendments included:

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A new regulation 5-1 requiring Contracting Governments to ensure


suitable arrangements are in place for registering Global
Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) identities
(including ship's call sign, Inmarsat identities) and making the
information available 24 hours a day to Rescue Co-ordination
Centres;
A new paragraph 9 to regulation 15 Maintenance requirements
covering testing intervals for satellite emergency position
indicating radio beacons (EPIRBs);
A new regulation 18 on Position updating requiring automatic
provision of information regarding the ship's position where
two-way communication equipment is capable of providing
automatically the ship's position in the distress alert.

Amendments in Chapter VI to paragraph 6 of regulation 5 Stowage


and securing make it clear that "all cargoes, other than solid
and liquid bulk cargoes" should be loaded, stowed and secured in
accordance with the Cargo Securing Manual. A similar amendment
was adopted for Regulation 6 of Chapter VII, also covering
Stowage and securing.
The May 1999 amendments
Adoption: 27 May 1999
Entry into force: 1 January 2001 (Under tacit acceptance)

Amendments to Chapter VII make the International Code for the


Safe Carriage of Packaged Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium and
High-Level Radioactive Wastes on Board Ships (INF Code)
mandatory.

The INF Code sets out how the material covered by the Code
should be carried, including specifications for ships. The
material covered by the code includes:

- Irradiated nuclear fuel - material containing uranium, thorium


and/or plutonium isotopes which has been used to maintain a
self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.
- Plutonium - the resultant mixture of isotopes of that material
extracted from irradiated nuclear fuel from reprocessing

- High-level radioactive wastes - liquid wastes resulting from


the operation of the first stage extraction system or the
concentrated wastes from subsequent extraction stages, in a
facility for reprocessing irradiated fuel, or solids into which
such liquid wastes have been converted.

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The INF Code applies to all ships regardless of the date of


construction and size, including cargo ships of less than 500
gross tonnage, engaged in the carriage of INF cargo. The INF
Code does not apply to warships, naval auxiliary or other ships
used only on government non-commercial service, although
Administrations are expected to ensure such ships are in
compliance with the Code.

Specific regulations in the Code cover a number of issues,


including: damage stability, fire protection, temperature
control of cargo spaces, structural consideration, cargo
securing arrangements, electrical supplies, radiological
protection equipment and management, training and shipboard
emergency plans.
Ships carrying INF cargo are assigned to one of three classes,
depending on the total radioactivity of INF cargo which is
carried on board, and regulations vary slightly according to the
Class:

Class INF 1 ship - Ships which are certified to carry INF cargo
with an aggregate activity less than 4,000 TBq (TeraBecquerel -
measurement of radioactivity).
Class INF 2 ship - Ships which are certified to carry irradiated
nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive wastes with an aggregate
activity less than 2 x 106 TBq and ships which are certified to
carry plutonium with an aggregate activity less than 2 x 105
TBq.

Class INF 3 ship - Ships which are certified to carry irradiated


nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive wastes and ships which
are certified to carry plutonium with no restriction of the
maximum aggregate activity of the materials.
The INF Code was first adopted as a recommendatory Code by the
eighteenth session of the Assembly on 4 November 1993
(resolution A.748(18)). The twentieth session of the Assembly
adopted amendments to the INF Code to include specific
requirements for shipboard emergency plans and notification in
the event of an incident (resolution A.853(20), adopted on 27
November 1997).
The Maritime Safety Committee also adopted a redrafted text of
the INF Code incorporating amendments reflecting its mandatory
nature.

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The May 2000 amendment


Adoption: 26 May 2000
Entry into force: 1 January 2002 (Under tacit acceptance)
SOLAS Chapter III, regulation 28.2 for helicopter landing areas
is amended to require a helicopter landing area only for ro-ro
passenger ships. Regulation 28.1 of SOLAS Chapter III requires
all ro-ro passenger ships to be provided with a helicopter pick-
up area and existing ro-ro passenger ships were required to
comply with this regulation not later than the first periodical
survey after 1 July 1997.
The requirement for a helicopter landing area for all passenger
ships of 130 metres in length and upwards was deferred to 1 July
1999 but it was decided to amend the regulation to make this
requirement applicable to ro-ro passenger ships only.

The December 2000 amendments


Adoption: 6 December 2000
Entry into force: 1 July 2002 (Under tacit acceptance)
A number of amendments were adopted.

A revised SOLAS chapter V (Safety of Navigation) brings in a new


mandatory requirement for voyage data recorders voyage data
recorders (VDRs) to assist in accident investigations.
Regulation 20 requires the following ships to fit VDRs:

- passenger ships constructed on or after 1 July 2002;

- ro-ro passenger ships constructed before 1 July 2002 not later


than the first survey on or after 1 July 2002
- passenger ships other than ro-ro passenger ships constructed
before 1 July 2002 not later than 1 January 2004; and
- ships, other than passenger ships, of 3,000 gross tonnage and
upwards constructed on or after 1 July 2002.
The new chapter also requires automatic identification systems
(AIS), capable of providing information about the ship to other
ships and to coastal authorities automatically, to be fitted
aboard all ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards engaged on
international voyages, cargo ships of 500 gross tonnage and
upwards not engaged on international voyages and passenger ships
irrespective of size built on or after 1 July 2002.

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It also applies to ships engaged on international voyages


constructed before 1 July 2002, according to the following
timetable:

- passenger ships, not later than 1 July 2003;

- tankers, not later than the first survey for safety equipment
on or after 1 July 2003;
- ships, other than passenger ships and tankers, of 50,000 gross
tonnage and upwards, not later than 1 July 2004;
- ships, other than passenger ships and tankers, of 10,000 gross
tonnage and upwards but less than 50,000 gross tonnage, not
later than 1 July 2005;
- ships, other than passenger ships and tankers, of 3,000 gross
tonnage and upwards but less than 10,000 gross tonnage, not
later than 1 July 2006.
- ships, other than passenger ships and tankers, of 300 gross
tonnage and upwards but less than 3,000 gross tonnage, not later
than 1 July 2007.
Note: the phase-in schedule for AIS on ships 300 gross tonnage
and upwards was amended by the 2002 amendments to a final date
of 2004 (see below).

Amendments to SOLAS chapter X (Safety measures for high-speed


craft) make mandatory for new ships the High-Speed Craft Code
2000. The 2000 HSC Code updates the mandatory High-Speed Craft
Code adopted in 1994. The 2000 HSC will apply to all HSC built
after the date of entry into force, 1 July 2002. The original
HSC Code was adopted by IMO in May 1994, but the rapid pace of
development in this sector of shipping has meant an early
revision of the Code. The original Code will continue to apply
to existing high-speed craft. The changes incorporated in the
new Code are intended to bring it into line with amendments to
SOLAS and new recommendations that have been adopted in the past
four years - for example, requirements covering public address
systems and helicopter pick-up areas.

A revised SOLAS chapter II-2 (Construction, - Fire protection,


fire detection and fire extinction) as well as a new
International Code for Fire Safety Systems (FSS Code) were
adopted. The revised chapter is intended to be clear, concise
and user-friendly, incorporating the substantial changes
introduced in recent years following a number of serious fire
casualties. The revised chapter includes seven parts, each
including requirements applicable to all or specified ship
types, while the Fire Safety Systems (FSS) Code, which is made

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mandatory under the new chapter, includes detailed


specifications for fire safety systems in 15 Chapters.
A new regulation in SOLAS Chapter II-1 (Construction -
Structure, subdivision and stability, machinery and electrical
installations) prohibits the new installation of materials which
contain asbestos on all ships. The new regulation 3-5 is
included in SOLAS Chapter II-1 (Construction - Structure,
Subdivision and stability, machinery and electrical
installations.

Amendments to the 1988 SOLAS Protocol include amendments to


reflect the changes to SOLAS chapter V, such as the details of
navigational systems and equipment referred to in the records of
equipment attached to certificates.
Amendments to the International Code for the Application of Fire
Test Procedures (FTP Code) add new parts 10 and 11 to annex 1 on
Test for fire-restricting material for high-speed craft and test
for fire-resisting divisions of high-speed craft.

Amendments to the International Code for the Construction and


Equipment of Ships carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC
Code) and the Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships
carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (BCH Code) relate to cargo
hose requirements, protection of personnel and carriage of
carbon disulphide. Entry into force 1 July 2002 under tacit
acceptance.

Amendments to the International Safety Management Code (ISM


Code) include the replacement of Chapter 13 Certification,
verification and control with chapters 13 Certification; and
adding of chapters 14 Interim Certification; 15 Forms of
Certificate; and 16 Verification; as well as a new appendix
giving forms of documents and certificates.
Amendments to the Code for the Construction and equipment of
ships carrying dangerous chemicals in bulk (BCH Code) relate to
ship's cargo hoses, tank vent systems, safety equipment,
operational requirements; and amendments to the Code for the
construction and equipment of ships carrying liquefied gases in
bulk (GC Code) relate to ship's cargo hoses, personnel
protection and operating requirements.
The June 2001 Amendments
Adoption: June 2001
Entry into force: 1 January 2003 (Under tacit acceptance)
Amendments to Chapter VII - Carriage of Dangerous Goods - and to
the International Code for the Safe Carriage of Packaged

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Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium and High-Level Radioactive


Wastes on Board Ships (INF Code) to align them with Amendment 30
to the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code.
Also amendments to the International Code of Safety for High-
Speed Craft (1994 HSC Code) to bring the provisions for
navigational equipment of the 1994 HSC Code in line with the
relevant provisions of the 2000 HSC Code (which enters into
force on 1 July 2002 for ships built after that date). In
particular the amendments relate to carriage of voyage data
recorders and carriage of automatic identification systems
(AIS).
The May 2002 amendments
Adoption: 24 May 2002
Entry into force: 1 January 2004
The amendments to chapter SOLAS VII (Carriage of Dangerous
Goods) make the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code
(IMDG Code) mandatory. The MSC also adopted the IMDG Code in a
mandatory form.
However, the provisions of the following parts of the Code will
remain recommendatory:
chapter 1.3 (Training);
chapter 2.1 (Explosives, Introductory Notes 1 to 4 only);
chapter 2.3, section 2.3.3 (Determination of flashpoint only);
chapter 3.2 (columns 15 and 17 of the Dangerous Goods List
only);
chapter 3.5 (Transport schedule for Class 7 radioactive
material only),
chapter 5.4, section 5.4.5 (Multimodal dangerous goods form),
insofar as layout of the form is concerned;
chapter 7.3 (Special requirements in the event of an incident
and fire precautions involving dangerous goods only).
In practice, this means that from the legal point of view, the
whole of the IMDG Code is made mandatory, but provisions of
recommendatory nature are editorially expressed in the Code
(e.g. using the word "should" instead of "shall") to clarify
their status.
The mandatory IMDG Code incorporates certain changes relating to
specific products, as well as relevant elements of the
amendments to the UN Recommendations on the Transport of
Dangerous Goods, Model Regulations adopted by the UN Committee

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of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods at its twenty-


first session in Geneva from 4 to 13 December 2000.
Also, amendments to the 1978 SOLAS Protocol, make changes to the
Record of Equipment for the Passenger Ship Safety Certificate
(Form P); Record of Equipment for the Cargo Ship Safety Radio
Certificate (Form R); and Record of Equipment for the Cargo Ship
Safety Certificate (Form C).
The December 2002 amendments (Conference) - Measures to enhance
maritime security
Adoption: 13 December 2002
Entry into force: 1 July 2004 (Under tacit acceptance)
The amendments to the 1974 SOLAS Convention were adopted by a
Diplomatic Conference on Maritime Security and are aimed at enhancing
maritime security on board ships and at ship/port interface
areas. Among other things, these amendments create a new SOLAS
chapter dealing specifically with maritime security, which in
turn contains the mandatory requirement for ships to comply with
the the new International Ship and Port Facility Security Code
(ISPS Code). The Code contains detailed security-related
requirements for Governments, port authorities and shipping
companies in a mandatory section (Part A), together with a
series of guidelines about how to meet these requirements in a
second, non-mandatory section (Part B). The Conference also
adopted a series of resolutions designed to add weight to the
amendments, encourage the application of the measures to ships
and port facilities not covered by the Code and pave the way for
future work on the subject..
Modifications to Chapter V (Safety of Navigation) contain a new
timetable for the fitting of Automatic Information Systems
(AIS). Ships, other than passenger ships and tankers, of 300
gross tonnage and upwards but less than 50,000 gross tonnage,
will be required to fit AIS not later than the first safety
equipment survey after 1 July 2004 or by 31 December 2004,
whichever occurs earlier. Ships fitted with AIS shall maintain
AIS in operation at all times except where international
agreements, rules or standards provide for the protection of
navigational information."
The existing SOLAS Chapter XI (Special measures to enhance
maritime safety) has been re-numbered as Chapter XI-1.
Regulation XI-1/3 is modified to require ships' identification
numbers to be permanently marked in a visible place either on
the ship's hull or superstructure. Passenger ships should carry
the marking on a horizontal surface visible from the air. Ships
should also be marked with their ID numbers internally.

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And a new regulation XI-1/5 requires ships to be issued with a


Continuous Synopsis Record (CSR) which is intended to provide an
on-board record of the history of the ship. The CSR shall be
issued by the Administration and shall contain information such
as the name of the ship and of the State whose flag the ship is
entitled to fly, the date on which the ship was registered with
that State, the ship's identification number, the port at which
the ship is registered and the name of the registered owner(s)
and their registered address. Any changes shall be recorded in
the CSR so as to provide updated and current information
together with the history of the changes.
New Chapter XI-2 (Special measures to enhance maritime security)
A brand-new Chapter XI-2 (Special measures to enhance maritime
security) is added after the renumbered Chapter XI-1.
This chapter applies to passenger ships and cargo ships of 500
gross tonnage and upwards, including high speed craft, mobile
offshore drilling units and port facilities serving such ships
engaged on international voyages.
Regulation XI-2/3 of the new chapter enshrines the International
Ship and Port Facilities Security Code (ISPS Code). Part A of
this Code will become mandatory and part B contains guidance as
to how best to comply with the mandatory requirements.
The regulation requires Administrations to set security levels
and ensure the provision of security level information to ships
entitled to fly their flag. Prior to entering a port, or whilst
in a port, within the territory of a Contracting Government, a
ship shall comply with the requirements for the security level
set by that Contracting Government, if that security level is
higher than the security level set by the Administration for
that ship.
Regulation XI-2/4 confirms the role of the Master in exercising
his professional judgement over decisions necessary to maintain
the security of the ship. It says he shall not be constrained by
the Company, the charterer or any other person in this respect.
Regulation XI-2/4 confirms the role of the Master in exercising
his professional judgement over decisions necessary to maintain
the security of the ship. It says he shall not be constrained by
the Company, the chartered or any other person in this respect.
Regulation XI-2/5 requires all ships to be provided with a ship
security alert system, according to a strict timetable that will
see most vessels fitted by 2004 and the remainder by 2006. When
activated the ship security alert system shall initiate and
transmit a ship-to-shore security alert to a competent authority
designated by the Administration, identifying the ship, its
location and indicating that the security of the ship is under
threat or it has been compromised. The system will not raise any
alarm on-board the ship. The ship security alert system shall be

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capable of being activated from the navigation bridge and in at


least one other location.
Regulation XI-2/6 covers requirements for port facilities,
providing among other things for Contracting Governments to
ensure that port facility security assessments are carried out
and that port facility security plans are developed, implemented
and reviewed in accordance with the ISPS Code.
Other regulations in this chapter cover the provision of
information to IMO, the control of ships in port, (including
measures such as the delay, detention, restriction of operations
including movement within the port, or expulsion of a ship from
port), and the specific responsibility of Companies.
The December 2002 amendments (by the expanded MSC)
Adoption: 12 December 2002
Entry into force: 1 July 2004 (Under tacit acceptance)
Chapter XII (Additional Safety Measures for Bulk Carriers) -
New regulation XII/12 on Hold, ballast and dry space water
level detectors require the fitting of high level alarms
and level monitoring systems on all bulk carriers, in order
to detect water ingress. The regulation requires the
fitting of such alarms on all bulk carriers regardless of
their date of construction.
New regulation XII/13 on Availability of pumping systems
would require the means for draining and pumping dry space
bilges and ballast tanks any part of which is located
forward of the collision bulkhead to be capable of being
brought into operation from a readily accessible enclosed
space.
SOLAS chapter II-1 (Construction - structure, subdivision and
stability, machinery and electrical installations)-
In Part B (Subdivision and stability), new regulation II-
1/3-6 Access to spaces in cargo areas of oil tankers and
bulk carriers is intended to ensure that vessels can be
properly inspected throughout their lifespan, by designing
and building the ship to provide suitable means for access.
Associated Technical provisions for means of access for
inspections are mandatory under the regulation. Without
adequate access, the structural condition of the vessel can
deteriorate undetected and major structural failure can
arise. The regulation requires each space within the cargo
area to be provided with an appropriate means of access to
enable, throughout the life of a ship, overall and close-up
inspections and thickness measurements of the ship's

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structures to be carried out by the Administration, the


Company, and the ship's personnel and others as necessary.
In Part C (Machinery Installation), new paragraph added to
regulation 31 - Machinery control, to require automation
systems to be designed in a manner which ensures that
threshold warning of impending or imminent slowdown or
shutdown of the propulsion system is given to the officer
in charge of the navigational watch in time to assess
navigational circumstances in an emergency.
Chapter II-2 (Fire protection, fire detection and fire
extinction) -
The amendments concern references to the IMDG Code and
reflect amendments to SOLAS chapter VII (Carriage of
Dangerous Goods) adopted in May 2002 which make the
International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code)
mandatory.
Chapter III - Life-saving appliances and arrangements -
The amendments to Regulation 26 - Additional requirements
for ro-ro passenger ships, requires liferafts carried on
ro-ro passenger ships to be fitted with a radar transponder
in the ratio of one transponder for every four liferafts.
The regulation is made applicable to existing ships as well
as new ships.
Also adopted, amendments to the International Code for the Safe
Carriage of Packaged Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium and
High-Level Radioactive Wastes on
board Ships (INF Code) - The
amendments in the sections on
definitions and application
reflect amendments to SOLAS
chapter VII (Carriage of
Dangerous Goods) adopted in May
2002 which make the IMDG Code
mandatory.

The June 2003 amendments


Adoption: June 2003
Entry into force: 1 July 2006 (Under tacit acceptance)
Chapter V - Safety of Navigation
Amendments to SOLAS regulations V/2 Definitions and V/22
Navigation Bridge Visibility add the definition of "length" to
regulation V/2 and a consequential editorial change is made to

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regulation V/22. The definition states that "length of a ship


means its length overall".
Amendments to SOLAS regulation V/28 on Records of navigational
activities add a new paragraph on daily reporting. The amendment
will require all ships of 500 gross tonnage and above, engaged
on international voyages exceeding 48 hours, to submit a daily
report to their company, to include ship's position; ship's
course and speed; and details of any external or internal
conditions that are affecting the ship's voyage or the normal
safe operation of the ship. The aim of the amendments is to
address the responsibilities of ship operators to provide
information of benefit to those responsible for mounting rescue
operations.

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STCW

Behaviour Comportamiento
Crowd Gentio, multitud
Dealswith Se trata de
Deadline Fecha tope, cierre de plazo
Duty Deber, faena, Obligacion
Findings Descubrimiento, conclusion
Manning Tripular, dotar de personal
Proficiency Destreza, pericia
Rating Evaluacion, clasificacion
Reject Rechazar
Stringent Riguroso, estricto
Urges Urgir, acuciar

The Convention did not deal with manning


levels: IMO provisions in this area are
covered by regulation 13 of Chapter V of
the International Convention for the
Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974, whose
requirements are backed up by resolution
A.890(21) Principles of safe manning,
adopted by the IMO Assembly in 1999, which
replaced an earlier resolution A.481(XII)
adopted in 1981.

The Articles of the Convention include


requirements relating to issues
surrounding certification and port State
control.

One especially important feature of the Convention is that it


applies to ships of non-party States when visiting ports of
States which are Parties to the Convention. Article X requires
Parties to apply the control measures to ships of all flags to
the extent necessary to ensure that no more favourable treatment
is given to ships entitled to fly the flag of a State which is
not a Party than is given to ships entitled to fly the flag of a
State that is a Party.

The difficulties which could arise for ships of States which are
not Parties to the Convention is one reason why the Convention
has received such wide acceptance. By December 2000, the STCW
Convention had 135 Parties, representing 97.53 percent of world
shipping tonnage.

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The 1978 Convention Chapter I

The technical provisions of the 1978 Convention are contained in


an Annex, divided into six Chapters:

The 1978 Convention - Chapter I:


General provisions
Includes a list of definitions of terms used in the annex.
Regulation I/2 deals with the content of the certificate and
endorsement form. All certificates must include a translation
into English, if that is not the official language of the
issuing country.

The 1978 Convention - Chapter II: Master-deck department


The Chapter establishes basic principles
to be observed in keeping a navigational
watch, covering such matters as watch
arrangements, fitness for duty,
navigation, navigational equipment,
navigational duties and responsibilities,
the duties of the look-out, navigation
with a pilot on board and protection of
the marine environment.

The regulations include mandatory minimum


requirements for certificating masters
and chief mates; for certification of
officers in charge of a navigational
watch; and for certification of deck
ratings forming part of a navigational
watch. The regulations also include basic
principles to be observed in keeping watch in port and mandatory
minimum requirements for a watch in port on ships carrying
hazardous cargo.

The 1978 Convention - Chapter III: Engine department

Includes basic principles to be observed in keeping an


engineering watch; mandatory minimum requirements for
certification of chief engineer officers and second engineer
officers; mandatory minimum requirements for certification of
engineer officers in charge of a watch in a traditionally manned
engine room or designated duty officers in a periodically
unmanned engine room; requirements to ensure the continued
proficiency and updating of knowledge for engineer officers;
mandatory minimum requirements for ratings forming part of an
engine room watch.

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The 1978 Convention - Chapter IV: Radio department

Notes that mandatory provisions relating to radio watchkeeping


are set forth in the ITU Radio Regulations and safety radio
watchkeeping and maintenance provisions are included in the same
regulations and in SOLAS. The Chapter in STCW includes mandatory
minimum requirements for certification of radio officers;
provisions designed to ensure the continued proficiency and
updating of knowledge of radio officers; and minimum
requirements for certification of radiotelephone operators.

The 1978 Convention - Chapter V: Special requirements for


tankers

The Chapter was designed to ensure that officers and ratings who
are to have specific duties related to the cargo and cargo
equipment of tankers shall have completed an appropriate shore-
based fire-fighting course; and have completed either an
appropriate period of shipboard service or an approved
familiarization course. Requirements are more stringent for
masters and senior officers. Attention is paid not only to
safety aspects but also to pollution prevention. The Chapter
contains three regulations dealing with oil tankers, chemical
tankers and liquefied gas tankers, respectively.

The 1978 Convention - Chapter VI: Proficiency in survival craft


The Chapter establishes requirements governing the issuing of
certificates of proficiency in survival craft. An appendix lists
the minimum knowledge required for the issue of certificates of
proficiency.

Resolutions adopted by the 1978 Conference

The 1978 Conference which adopted the STCW Convention also


adopted a number of resolutions designed to back up the
Convention itself. The resolutions, which are recommendatory
rather than mandatory, incorporate more details than some of the
Convention regulations.

Resolution 1 - Basic principles to be observed in keeping a


navigational watch. An annex contains a recommendation on
operational guidance for officers in charge of a navigational
watch.

Resolution 2 - Operational guidance for engineer officers in


charge of an engineering watch. An annex to the resolution deals
with engineering watch underway and at an unsheltered anchorage.

Resolution 3 - Principles and operational guidance for deck

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officers in charge of a watch in port. Detailed recommendations


are contained in an annex.

Resolution 4 - Principles and operational guidance for engineer


officers in charge of an engineering watch in port.
Recommendations are in an annex.

Resolution 5 - Basic guidelines and operational guidance


relating to safety radio watchkeeping and maintenance for radio
officers. A comprehensive annex is divided into basic guidelines
and safety radio watchkeeping and maintenance.

Resolution 6 - Basic guidelines and operational guidance


relating to safety radio watchkeeping for radio telephone
operators.

Resolution 7 - Radio operators. Four recommendations are


annexed to this resolution
dealing with (i) minimum
requirements for certification of
radio officers; (ii) minimum
requirements to ensure the
continued proficiency and
updating of knowledge for radio
operators; (iii) basic guidelines
and operational guidance relating
to safety radio watchkeeping and
maintenance for radio operators;
and (iv) training for radio
operators.

Resolution 8 - Additional training for ratings forming part of a


navigational watch. Recommends that such ratings be trained in
use and operation of appropriate bridge equipment and basic
requirements for the prevention of pollution.

Resolution 9 - Minimum requirements for a rating nominated as


the assistant to the engineer officer in charge of the watch.
Recognizes that suitable training arrangements are not widely
available. Detailed requirements are contained in an annex.

Resolution 10 - Training and qualifications of officers and


ratings of oil tankers. Refers to resolution 8 adopted by the
International Conference on Tanker Safety and Pollution
Prevention, 1978 (TSPP), which deals with the improvement of
standards of crews on tankers. Recommendation in annex.

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Resolution 11 - Training and qualifications of officers and


ratings of chemical tankers.

Resolution 12 - Training and qualifications of masters, officers


and ratings of liquefied gas tankers.

Resolution 13 - Training and qualifications of officers and


ratings of ships carrying dangerous and hazardous cargo other
than in bulk.

Resolution 14 - Training for radio officers. Detailed


recommendations in annex.

Resolution 15 - Training for radiotelephone operators

Resolution 16 - Technical assistance for the training and


qualifications of masters and other responsible personnel of
oil, chemical and liquefied gas tankers. Refers to requirements
in several Convention regulations and recognizes that training
facilities may be limited in some countries. Urges Governments
which can provide assistance to do so.

Resolution 17 - Additional training for masters and chief mates


of large ships and of ships with unusual manoeuvring
characteristics. Is designed to assist those moving to ships of
this type from smaller vessels, where characteristics may be
quite different.

Resolution 18 - Radar simulator training. Recommends that such


training be given to all masters and deck officers
.

Resolution 19 - Training of seafarers in personal survival


techniques. A recommendation is annexed.

Resolution 20 - Training in the use of collision avoidance aids.

Resolution 21 - International Certificate of Competency. Invites


IMO to develop a standard form and title for this certificate.

Resolution 22 - Human relationships. Emphasizes the importance


to safety of good human relationships between seafarers on

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board.

Resolution 23 - Promotion of technical co-operation. Records


appreciation of IMO's work in assisting developing countries to
establish maritime training facilities in conformity with global
standards of training and invites the organization to intensify
its efforts with a view to promoting universal acceptance and
implementation of the STCW Convention.

Amendment Procedure
Amendments to the 1978 STCW Convention's technical Annex may be
adopted by a Conference of STCW Parties or by IMO's Maritime
Safety Committee, expanded to include all Contracting Parties,
some of whom may not be members of the Organization.

Amendments to the STCW Annex will normally enter into force one
and a half years after being communicated to all Parties unless,
in the meantime, they are rejected by one-third of the Parties
or by Parties whose combined fleets represent 50 per cent of
world tonnage.

The 1991 amendments


Adoption: 22 May 1991
Entry into force: 1 December 1992

The amendments were mostly concerned with additional


requirements made necessary by the implementation of the Global
Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS).

The 1994 amendments


Adoption: 25 May 1994
Entry into force: 1 January 1996

The amendments replaced Chapter V on special training for crews


on tankers.

The 1995 amendments


Adoption: 7 July 1995
Entry into force: 1 February 1997
The 1995 amendments, adopted by a Conference, represented a
major revision of the Convention, in response to a recognized
need to bring the Convention up to date and to respond to
critics who pointed out the many vague phrases, such as "to the
satisfaction of the Administration", which resulted in different
interpretations being made.

Others complained that the Convention was never uniformly


applied and did not impose any strict obligations on Parties
regarding implementation. The 1995 amendments entered into force

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on 1 February 1997. However, until 1 February 2002, Parties may


continue to issue, recognize and endorse certificates which
applied before that date in respect of seafarers who began
training or seagoing service before 1 August 1998.

One of the major features of the revision was the division of


the technical annex into regulations, divided into Chapters as
before, and a new STCW Code, to which many technical regulations
have been transferred. Part A of the Code is mandatory while
Part B is recommended.

Dividing the regulations up in this way makes administration


easier and it also makes the task of revising and updating them
more simple: for procedural and legal reasons there is no need
to call a full conference to make changes to Codes.

Some of the most important amendments adopted by the Conference


concern

Chapter I - General Provisions. They include the following:


Ensuring compliance with the Convention

Parties to the Convention are required to provide detailed


information to IMO concerning administrative measures taken to
ensure compliance with the Convention. This represented the
first time that IMO had been called upon to act in relation to
compliance and implementation - generally, implementation is
down to the flag States, while port State control also acts to
ensure compliance. Under Chapter I, regulation I/7 of the
revised Convention, Parties are required to provide detailed
information to IMO concerning administrative measures taken to
ensure compliance with the Convention, education and training
courses, certification procedures and other factors relevant to
implementation.

By 1 August 1998 - the deadline for submission of information


established in section A-I/7 of the STCW Code - 82 out of the
133 STCW Parties had communicated information on compliance with
the requirements of the revised Convention. The 82 Parties which
met the deadline represent well over 90% of the world's ships
and seafarers.

The information is reviewed by panels of competent persons,


nominated by Parties to the STCW Convention, who report on their
findings to the IMO Secretary-General, who, in turn, reports to
the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) on the Parties which fully
comply. The MSC then produces a list of Parties in compliance
with the 1995 amendments.

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The first list of countries was approved by the MSC at its 73rd
session held from 27 November to 6 December 2000 it included
71 countries and one Associate Member of IMO.

Port State control

The revised Chapter I includes enhanced procedures concerning


the exercise of port State to allow intervention in the case of
deficiencies deemed to pose a danger to persons, property or the
environment (regulation I/4). This can take place if
certificates are not in order or if the ship is involved in a
collision or grounding, if
there is an illegal
discharge of substances
(causing pollution) or if
the ship is manoeuvred in
an erratic or unsafe
manner, etc.

Other regulations in
chapter I include:
Measures are introduced for
watchkeeping personnel to
prevent fatigue.
Parties are required to
establish procedures for investigating acts by persons to whom
they have issued certificates that endanger safety or the
environment. Penalties and other disciplinary measures must be
prescribed and enforced where the Convention is not complied
with.

Technical innovations, such as the use of simulators for


training and assessment purposes have been recognized.
Simulators are mandatory for training in the use of radar and
automatic radar plotting aids (regulation I/12 and section A-
I/12 of the STCW Code).

Parties are required to ensure that training, certification and


other procedures are continuously monitored by means of a
quality standards system (regulation I/8).

Every master, officer and radio operator are required at


intervals not exceeding five years to meet the fitness standards
and the levels of professional competence contained in Section
A-I/11 of the STCW Code. In order to assess the need for
revalidation of certificates after 1 February 2002, Parties must
compare the standards of competence previously required with
those specified in the appropriate certificate in part A of the
STCW Code. If necessary, the holders of certificates may be

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required to undergo training or refresher courses (regulation


I/11).

Chapter II: Master and deck department


The Chapter was revised and updated.

Chapter III: Engine department


The Chapter was revised and updated.

Chapter IV: Radiocommunication and radio personnel


The Chapter was revised and updated.

Chapter V: Special training requirements for personnel on


certain types of ships
Special requirements were introduced concerning the training and
qualifications of personnel on board ro-ro passenger ships.
Previously the only special requirements in the Convention
concerned crews on tankers. This change was made in response to
proposals made by the Panel of Experts set up to look into ro-ro
safety following the capsize and sinking of the ferry Estonia in
September 1994. Crews on ro-ro ferries have to receive training
in technical aspects and also in crowd and crisis management and
human behaviour.

Chapter VI: Emergency, occupational safety, medical care and


survival functions
The Chapter incorporates the previous Chapter
VI: Proficiency in survival craft and includes
mandatory minimum requirements for
familiarization, basic safety training and
instruction for all seafarers; mandatory minimum
requirements for the issue of certificates of
proficiency in survival craft, rescue boats and
fast rescue boats; mandatory minimum
requirements for training in advanced
firefighting; and mandatory minimum requirements
relating to medical first aid and medical care.

Chapter VII: Alternative certification

Regulations regarding alternative certification (also known as


the functional approach) are included in a new Chapter VII. This
involves enabling crews to gain training and certification in
various departments of seafaring rather than being confined to
one branch (such as deck or engine room) for their entire
career.Although it is a relatively new concept, the 1995
Conference was anxious not to prevent its development. At the
same time, the new Chapter is intended to ensure that safety and
the environment are not threatened in any way. The use of

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equivalent educational and training arrangements is permitted


under article IX.

Chapter VIII: Watchkeeping

Measures were introduced for watchkeeping personnel to prevent


fatigue. Administrations are required to establish and enforce
rest periods for watchkeeping personnel and to ensure that watch
systems are so arranged that the efficiency of watchkeeping
personnel is not impaired by fatigue.

The STCW Code

The regulations contained in the Convention are supported by


sections in the STCW Code. Generally speaking, the Convention
contains basic requirements which are then enlarged upon and
explained in the Code.

Part A of the Code is mandatory. The minimum standards of


competence required for seagoing personnel are given in detail
in a series of tables. Chapter II of the Code, for example,
deals with standards regarding the master and deck department.

Part B of the Code contains recommended guidance which is


intended to help Parties implement the Convention. The measures
suggested are not mandatory and the examples given are only
intended to illustrate how certain Convention requirements may
be complied with. However, the recommendations in general
represent an approach that has been harmonized by discussions
within IMO and consultation with other international
organizations.

The 1997 Amendments

Adoption: June 1997

Entry into force: 1 January 1999

The amendments concern training for personnel on passenger


ships. The amendments include an additional Regulation V/3 in
Chapter V on Mandatory minimum requirements for the training and
qualifications of masters, officers, ratings and other personnel
on passenger ships other than ro-ro passenger ships. Related
additions are also made to the STCW Code, covering Crowd
management training; Familiarization training; Safety training
for personnel providing direct service to passengers in
passenger spaces; Passenger safety; and Crisis management and
human behaviour training.

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The 1998 Amendments

Adoption: 9 December 1998

Entry into force: 1 January 2003 (under tacit acceptance)

Amendments to the STCW Code are aimed at improving minimum


standards of competence of crews, in particular relating to
cargo securing, loading and unloading on bulk carriers, since
these procedures have the potential to put undue stresses on the
ship's structure. The amendments concern sections A-II/1 and A-
II/2 under "Cargo handling and stowage at the operational and
management levels".

The White List

The first so-called White List of countries deemed to be


giving full and complete effect to the revised STCW Convention
(STCW 95) was published by IMO following the 73rd session of the
Organizations Maritime Safety Committee (MSC), meeting from 27
November to 6 December 2000.

It is expected that ships flying flags of countries that are not


on the White List will be increasingly targeted by Port State
Control inspectors. A Flag state Party that is on the White List
may, as a matter of policy, elect not to accept seafarers with
certificates issued by non White List countries for service on
its ships. If it does accept such seafarers, they will be
required by 1 February 2002 also to have an endorsement, issued
by the flag state, to show that their certificate is recognized
by the flag state.

By 1 February 2002, masters and officers should hold STCW 95


certificates or endorsements issued by the flag State.
Certificates issued and endorsed under the provisions of the
1978 STCW Convention will be valid until their expiry date.

The list will be kept under review and may be added to as other
countries meet the criteria for inclusion.

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International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue, 1979

Adoption: 27 April 1979

Entry into force: 22 June 1985

Introduction
The 1979 Convention, adopted at a
Conference in Hamburg, was aimed at
developing an international SAR plan, so
that, no matter where an accident occurs,
the rescue of persons in distress at sea
will be co-ordinated by a SAR organization
and, when necessary, by co-operation
between neighbouring SAR organizations.

Although the obligation of ships to go to


the assistance of vessels in distress was
enshrined both in tradition and in
international treaties (such as the
International Convention for the Safety of
Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974), there was,
until the adoption of the SAR Convention,
no international system covering search and
rescue operations. In some areas there was a well-established
organization able to provide assistance promptly and
efficiently, in others there was nothing at all.

The technical requirements of the SAR Convention are contained


in an Annex, which was divided into five Chapters. Parties to
the Convention are required to ensure that arrangements are made
for the provision of adequate SAR services in their coastal
waters.

Parties are encouraged to enter into SAR agreements with


neighbouring States involving the establishment of SAR regions,
the pooling of facilities, establishment of common procedures,
training and liaison visits. The Convention states that Parties
should take measures to expedite entry into its territorial
waters of rescue units from other Parties.

The Convention then goes on to establish preparatory measures


which should be taken, including the establishment of rescue co-
ordination centres and subcentres. It outlines operating
procedures to be followed in the event of emergencies or alerts
and during SAR operations. This includes the designation of an
on-scene commander and his duties.

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Parties to the Convention are required to establish ship


reporting systems, under which ships report their position to a
coast radio station. This enables the interval between the loss
of contact with a vessel and the initiation of search operations
to be reduced. It also helps to permit the rapid determination
of vessels which may be called upon to provide assistance
including medical help when required.

Amendment Procedure

The SAR Convention allowed for amendments to the technical Annex


to be adopted by a Conference of STCW Parties or by IMO's
Maritime Safety Committee, expanded to include all Contracting
Parties, some of whom may not be members of the Organization.
Amendments to the SAR Convention enter into force on a specified
date unless objections are received from a required number of
Parties.

IMO search and rescue areas

Following the adoption of the 1979 SAR Convention, IMO's


Maritime Safety Committee divided the world's oceans into 13
search and rescue areas, in each of which the countries
concerned have delimited search and rescue regions for which
they are responsible.

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Provisional search and rescue plans for all of these areas were
completed when plans for the Indian Ocean were finalized at a
conference held in Fremantle, Western Australia in September
1998.

Revision of SAR Convention

The 1979 SAR Convention imposed considerable obligations on


Parties - such as setting up the shore installations required -
and as a result the Convention was not being ratified by as many
countries as some other treaties. Equally important, many of the
world's coastal States had not accepted the Convention and the
obligations it imposed.

It was generally agreed that one reason for the small number of
acceptances and the slow pace of implementation was due to
problems with the SAR Convention itself and that these could
best be overcome by amending the Convention.

At a meeting in October 1995 in Hamburg, Germany, it was agreed


that there were a number of substantial concerns that needed to
be taken into account, including:

-lessons learned from SAR operations;

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- experiences of States which had implemented the Convention;

- questions and concerns posed especially by developing States


which were not yet Party to the Convention;

- need to further harmonize the IMO and International Civil


Aviation Organization (ICAO) SAR provisions;

- inconsistent use of Convention terminology and phraseology.

IMO's Sub-Committee on Radio-Communications and Search and


Rescue (COMSAR) was requested to revise the technical Annex of
the Convention. A draft text was prepared and was approved by
the 68th session of the MSC in May 1997, and was then adopted by
the 69th MSC session in May 1998.

The 1998 amendments

Adopted: 18 May 1998

Entry into force: 1 January 2000

The revised technical Annex of the SAR Convention clarifies the


responsibilities of Governments and puts greater emphasis on the
regional approach and co-ordination between maritime and
aeronautical SAR operations.

The revised Annex includes five Chapters:

Chapter 1 - Terms and Definitions

This Chapter updates the original Chapter 1 of the same name.

Chapter 2 - Organization and Co-ordination

Replaces the 1979 Chapter 2 on Organization. The Chapter has


been re-drafted to make the responsibilities of Governments
clearer. It requires Parties, either individually or in co-
operation with other States, to establish basic elements of a
search and rescue service, to include:

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- Legal framework

- Assignment of a responsible authority

- Organization of available resources

- Communication facilities

- Co-ordination and operational functions

- Processes to improve the service including planning, domestic


and international co-operative relationships and training.

Parties should establish search and rescue regions within each


sea area - with the agreement of the Parties concerned. Parties
then accept responsibility for providing search and rescue
services for a specified area.
The Chapter also describes how SAR services should be arranged
and national capabilities be developed. Parties are required to
establish rescue co-ordination centres and to operate them on a
24-hour basis with trained staff who have a working knowledge of
English.

Parties are also required to "ensure the closest practicable co-


ordination between maritime and aeronautical services".

Chapter 3 - Co-operation between States

Replaces the original Chapter 3 on Co-operation.


Requires Parties to co-ordinate search and rescue organisations,
and, where necessary, search and rescue operations with those of
neighbouring States. The Chapter states that unless otherwise
agreed between the States concerned, a Party should authorize,
subject to applicable national laws, rules and regulations,
immediate entry into or over its territorial sea or territory
for rescue units of other Parties solely for the purpose of
search and rescue.

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Chapter 4 - Operating Procedures


Incorporates the previous Chapters 4 (Preparatory Measures) and
5 (Operating Procedures).
The Chapter says that each RCC (Rescue Co-ordination Centre) and
RSC (Rescue Sub-Centre) should have up-to-date information on
search and rescue facilities and communications in the area and
should have detailed plans for conduct of search and rescue
operations. Parties - individually or in co-operation with
others should be capable of receiving distress alerts on a 24-
hour basis. The regulations include procedures to be followed
during an emergency and state that search and rescue activities
should be co-ordinated on scene for the most effective results.
The Chapter says that "Search and rescue operations shall
continue, when practicable, until all reasonable hope of
rescuing survivors has passed".

Chapter 5 - Ship reporting systems

Includes recommendations on establishing ship reporting systems


for search and rescue purposes, noting that existing ship
reporting systems could provide adequate information for search
and rescue purposes in a given area.

IAMSAR Manual

Concurrently with the revision of the SAR Convention, the IMO


and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) jointly
developed the International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and
Rescue (IAMSAR) Manual, published in three volumes covering
Organization and Management; Mission Co-ordination; and Mobile
Facilities.

The IAMSAR Manual revises and replaces the


IMO Merchant Ship Search and Rescue Manual
(MERSAR), first published in 1971, and the
IMO Search and Rescue Manual (IMOSAR),
first published in 1978.

The MERSAR Manual was the first step


towards developing the 1979 SAR Convention
and it provided guidance for those who,
during emergencies at sea, may require
assistance from others or who may be able
to provide assistance themselves. In
particular, it was designed to aid the
master of any vessel who might be called

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upon to conduct SAR operations at sea for persons in distress.


The manual was updated several times with the latest amendments
being adopted in 1992 - they entered into force in 1993.

The second manual, the IMOSAR Manual, was adopted in l978. It


was designed to help Governments to implement the SAR Convention
and provided guidelines rather than requirements for a common
maritime search and rescue policy, encouraging all coastal
States to develop their organizations on similar lines and
enabling adjacent States to co-operate and provide mutual
assistance. It was also updated in 1992, with the amendments
entering into force in 1993.

This manual was aligned as closely as possible with ICAO Search


and Rescue Manual to ensure a common policy and to facilitate
consultation of the two manuals for administrative or
operational reasons. MERSAR was also aligned, where appropriate,
with IMOSAR.

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International Convention on Load Lines, 1966

Adoption: 5 April 1966

Entry into force: 21 July 1968

Aim at Tener como objetivo


Behaviour Comportamiento, conducta.
Behavior Comportamiento, conducta.
Besides Ademas, adicionamente
Below Debajo
Coamings Brazola
Draft Borrador, anteproyecto
Liaison Enlace, vinculacion.
Impaired Deteriorado, arruinado
Improving Mejora, adelanto
Pooling Asociacion
Restraimts Freno, abnegacion.

Introduction and history

It has long been recognized that limitations on the draught to


which a ship may be loaded make a significant contribution to
her safety. These limits
are given in the form of
freeboards, which
constitute, besides
external weathertight and
watertight integrity, the
main objective of the
Convention.

The first International


Convention on Load Lines,
adopted in 1930, was based
on the principle of
reserve buoyancy, although
it was recognized then
that the freeboard should
also ensure adequate
stability and avoid
excessive stress on the
ship's hull as a result of
overloading.

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In the 1966 Load Lines convention, adopted by IMO, provisions


are made determining the freeboard of tankers by subdivision and
damage stability calculations.

The regulations take into account the potential hazards present


in different zones and different seasons. The technical annex
contains several additional safety measures concerning doors,
freeing ports, hatchways and other items. The main purpose of
these measures is to ensure the watertight integrity of ships'
hulls below the freeboard deck.

All assigned load lines must be marked amidships on each side of


the ship, together with the deck line. Ships intended for the
carriage of timber deck cargo are assigned a smaller freeboard
as the deck cargo provides protection against the impact of
waves

Load Lines 1966 Annexes

The Convention includes Annex I, divided into four Chapters:

Chapter I - General;

Chapter II - Conditions of assignment of freeboard;

Chapter III - Freeboards;

Chapter IV - Special requirements for ships assigned timber


freeboards.

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Annex II covers Zones, areas and seasonal periods.

Annex III contains certificates, including the International


Load Line Certificate.

Amendments 1971, 1975, 1979, 1983

The 1966 Convention provided for amendments to be made by


positive acceptance. Amendments could be considered by the
Maritime Safety Committee, the IMO Assembly or by a Conference
of Governments. Amendments would then only come into force 12
months after being accepted by two-thirds of Contracting
Parties.In practice, amendments adopted between 1971 and 1983
never received enough acceptances to enter into force. These
included:

the 1971 amendments - to make certain improvements to the text


and to the chart of zones and seasonal areas;

the 1975 amendments - to introduce the principle of 'tacit


acceptance' into the Convention;

the 1979 amendments - to make some alterations to zone


boundaries off the coast of Australia; and

the 1983 amendments - to extend the summer and tropical zones


southward off the coast of Chile.

Adoption of tacit amendment procedure 1988

The 1988 Protocol

Adoption: 11 November 1988

Entry into force: 3 February 2000

The Protocol was primarily adopted in order to harmonize the


Convention's survey and certification requirement with those
contained in SOLAS and MARPOL 73/78.

All three instruments require the issuing of certificates to


show that requirements have been met and this has to be done by
means of a survey which can involve the ship being out of
service for several days.

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The harmonized system alleviates the problems caused by survey


dates and intervals between surveys which do not coincide, so
that a ship should no longer have to go into port or repair yard
for a survey required by one Convention shortly after doing the
same thing in connection with another instrument.

The 1988 Load Lines Protocol revised certain regulations in the


technical Annexes to the Load Lines Convention and introduced
the tacit amendment procedure (which was already applicable to
the 1974 SOLAS Convention).Amendments to the Convention may be
considered either by the Maritime Safety Committee or by a
Conference of Parties.

Amendments must be adopted by a two-thirds majority of Parties


to the Convention present and voting. Amendments enter into
force six months after the deemed date of acceptance - which
must be at least a year after the date of communication of
adoption of amendments unless they are rejected by one-third of
Parties. Usually, the date from adoption to deemed acceptance is
two years.

The 1995 amendments

Adopted: 23 November 1995

Entry into force: 12 months after being accepted by two-thirds


of Contracting Governments.

Status: 7 acceptances have been received. The amendments concern


the southern tropical zone off the coast of Australia and have
been incorporated in the 2003 amendments.

The 2003 amendments

Adopted: June 2003

Entry into force: 1 January 2005 (under tacit acceptance)


The amendments to Annex B to the 1988 Load Lines Protocol (i.e.
the International Convention on Load Lines, 1966, as modified by
the Protocol of 1988 relating thereto) include a number of
important revisions, in particular to regulations concerning:
strength and intact stability of ships; definitions;
superstructure and bulkheads; doors; position of hatchways,
doorways and ventilators; hatchway coamings; hatch covers;
machinery space openings; miscellaneous openings in freeboard
and superstructure decks; cargo ports and other similar
openings; spurling pipes and cable lockers; side scuttles;
windows and skylights; calculation of freeing ports; protection
of the crew and means of safe passage for crew; calculation of

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freeboard; sheer; minimum bow height and reserve buoyancy; and


others.
The amendments, which amount to a comprehensive revision of the
technical regulations of the original Load Lines Convention,
will not affect the 1966 LL Convention and will only apply to
approximately two-thirds of the world's fleet, i.e., to those
ships flying the flags of States Party to the 1988 LL Protocol.

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International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from


Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating
thereto (MARPOL 73/78)

Achieve Alcanzar, realizar


Ban Prohibir, suprimir
Binding Obligatorio
Despite A pesar de
Hence Por lo tanto
Prime face A primera vista
Overcome Vencer, superar
Ozone layer Capa de ozono
Scrap Desguace, chatarra
Spate of Torrente, cantidad
Slop tank Tanke de decantacion
Suitable Conveniente
The afore said Lo citado antes
Taint Manchar, echar a perder
Whatsoever = Whatever Cualquiera
Whichever Cualquiera que

Introduction
The MARPOL Convention is the main international convention
covering prevention of pollution of the marine environment by
ships from operational or accidental causes. It is a combination
of two treaties adopted in 1973 and 1978 respectively and
updated by amendments through the years.
The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution
from Ships (MARPOL) was adopted on 2 November 1973 at IMO and
covered pollution by oil, chemicals, harmful substances in
packaged form, sewage and garbage. The Protocol of 1978 relating
to the 1973 International Convention for
the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
(1978 MARPOL Protocol) was adopted at a
Conference on Tanker Safety and Pollution
Prevention in February 1978 held in
response to a spate of tanker accidents in
1976-1977. (Measures relating to tanker
design and operation were also incorporated
into a Protocol of 1978 relating to the
1974 Convention on the Safety of Life at
Sea, 1974).
As the 1973 MARPOL Convention had not yet
entered into force, the 1978 MARPOL
Protocol absorbed the parent Convention.

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The combined instrument is referred to as the International


Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships,
1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto
(MARPOL 73/78), and it entered into force on 2 October 1983
(Annexes I and II).
The Convention includes regulations aimed at preventing and
minimizing pollution from ships - both accidental pollution and
that from routine operations - and currently includes six
technical Annexes:

Annex I Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by


Oil
Annex Regulations for the Control of Pollution by
II Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk
Annex Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances
III Carried by Sea in Packaged Form
Annex Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships
IV (entry into force date 27 September 2003)
Annex V Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships
Annex Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships (adopted
VI September 1997 - not yet in force)
States Parties must accept Annexes I and II, but the other
Annexes are voluntary.
History of MARPOL 73/78

Oil pollution of the seas was recognized as a problem in the


first half of the 20th century and various countries introduced
P P

national regulations to control discharges of oil within their


territorial waters. In 1954, the United Kingdom organized a
conference on oil pollution which resulted in the adoption of
the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of
the Sea by Oil (OILPOL), 1954. Following entry into force of the
IMO Convention in 1958, the depository and Secretariat functions
in relation to the Convention were transferred from the United
Kingdom Government to IMO.
OILPOL Convention

The 1954 Convention, which was amended in 1962, 1969 and 1971,
primarily addressed pollution resulting from routine tanker
operations and from the discharge of oily wastes from machinery
spaces - regarded as the major causes of oil pollution from
ships.
The 1954 OILPOL Convention, which entered into force on 26 July
1958, attempted to tackle the problem of pollution of the seas
by oil - defined as crude oil, fuel oil, heavy diesel oil and
lubricating oil - in two main ways:

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it established "prohibited zones" extending at least 50 miles


from the nearest land in which the discharge of oil or of
mixtures containing more than 100 parts of oil per million was
forbidden;
it required Contracting Parties to take all appropriate steps to
promote the provision of facilities for the reception of oily
water and residues.
In 1962, IMO adopted amendments to the Convention which extended
its application to ships of a lower tonnage and also extended
the "prohibited zones". Amendments adopted in 1969 contained
regulations to further restrict operational discharge of oil
from oil tankers and from machinery spaces of all ships.
Although the 1954 OILPOL Convention went some way in dealing
with oil pollution, growth in oil trade and developments in
industrial practices were beginning to make it clear that
further action, was required. Nonetheless, pollution control was
at the time still a minor concern for IMO, and indeed the world
was only beginning to wake up to the environmental consequences
of an increasingly industrialised society.

Torrey Canyon
In 1967, the tanker Torrey Canyon ran aground while entering the
English Channel and spilled her entire cargo of 120,000 tons of
crude oil into the sea. This resulted in the biggest oil
pollution incident ever recorded up to that time. The incident
raised questions about measures then in place to prevent oil
pollution from ships and also exposed deficiencies in the
existing system for providing
compensation following accidents at sea.
First, IMO called an Extraordinary
session of its Council, which drew up a
plan of action on technical and legal
aspects of the Torrey Canyon incident.
Then, the IMO Assembly decided in 1969
to convene an international conference
in 1973 to prepare a suitable
international agreement for placing
restraints on the contamination of the
sea, land and air by ships.
In the meantime, in 1971, IMO adopted
further amendments to OILPOL 1954 to afford additional
protection to the Great Barrier Reef of Australia and also to
limit the size of tanks on oil tankers, thereby minimizing the
amount of oil which could escape in the event of a collision or
stranding.
1973 Convention

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Finally, an international Conference in 1973 adopted the


International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from
Ships. While it was recognized that accidental pollution was
spectacular, the Conference considered that operational
pollution was still the bigger threat. As a result, the 1973
Convention incorporated much of OILPOL 1954 and its amendments
into Annex I, covering oil.
But the Convention was also intended to address other forms of
pollution from ships and therefore other annexes covered
chemicals, harmful substances carried in packaged form, sewage
and garbage. The 1973 Convention also included two Protocols
dealing with Reports on Incidents involving Harmful Substances
and Arbitration.
The 1973 Convention required ratification by 15 States, with a
combined merchant fleet of not less than 50 percent of world
shipping by gross tonnage, to enter into force. By 1976, it had
only received three ratifications - Jordan, Kenya and Tunisia -
representing less than one percent of the world's merchant
shipping fleet. This was despite the fact that States could
become Party to the Convention by only ratifying Annexes I (oil)
and II (chemicals). Annexes III to V, covering harmful goods in
packaged form, sewage and garbage, were optional.
It began to look as though the 1973 Convention might never enter
into force, despite its importance.

1978 Conference

In 1978, in response to a spate of tanker accidents in 1976-


1977, IMO spate a Conference on Tanker Safety and Pollution
Prevention in February 1978. The conference adopted measures
affecting tanker design and operation, which were incorporated
into both the Protocol of 1978 relating to the 1974 Convention
on the Safety of Life at Sea (1978 SOLAS Protocol) and the
Protocol of 1978 relating to the 1973 International Convention
for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (1978 MARPOL
Protocol) - adopted on 17 February 1978.
More importantly in terms of achieving the entry into force of
MARPOL, the 1978 MARPOL Protocol allowed States to become Party
to the Convention by first implementing Annex I (oil), as it was
decided that Annex II (chemicals) would not become binding until
three years after the Protocol entered into force.
This gave States time to overcome technical problems in Annex
II, which for some had been a major obstacle in ratifying the
Convention.

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As the 1973 Convention had not yet entered into force, the 1978
MARPOL Protocol absorbed the parent Convention. The combined
instrument - the International Convention for the Prevention of
Marine Pollution from Ships, 1973 as modified by the Protocol of
1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78) - finally entered into
force on 2 October 1983 (for Annexes I and II).
Annex V, covering garbage, achieved sufficient ratifications to
enter into force on 31 December 1988, while Annex III, covering
harmful substances carried in packaged form, entered into force
on 1 July 1992. Annex IV, covering sewage, enters into force on
27 September 2003. Annex VI, covering air pollution, was adopted
in September 1997 and has also not yet entered into force.

Annex I: Prevention of pollution by oil


Entry into force: 2 October 1983
The 1973 Convention maintained the oil discharge criteria
prescribed in the 1969 amendments to the 1954 Oil Pollution
Convention, without substantial changes, namely:
Operational discharges of oil from tankers are allowed only when
all of the following conditions are met:
1. the total quantity of oil which a tanker may discharge in
any ballast voyage whilst under way must not exceed 1/15,000 of
the total cargo carrying capacity of the vessel;
2. the rate at which oil may be discharged must not exceed 60
litres per mile travelled by the ship; and
3. no discharge of any oil whatsoever must be made from the
cargo spaces of a tanker within 50 miles of the nearest land.
An oil record book is required, in which is recorded the
movement of cargo oil and its residues from loading to
discharging on a tank-to-tank basis.
In addition, in the 1973 Convention, the maximum quantity of oil
permitted to be discharged on a ballast voyage of new oil
tankers was reduced from 1/15,000 of the cargo capacity to
1/30,000 of the amount of cargo carried. These criteria applied
equally both to persistent (black) and non-persistent (white)
oils.
As with the 1969 OILPOL amendments, the 1973 Convention
recognized the "load on top" (LOT) system which had been
developed by the oil industry in the 1960s. On a ballast voyage
the tanker takes on ballast water (departure ballast) in dirty
cargo tanks. Other tanks are washed to take on clean ballast.
The tank washings are pumped into a special slop tank. After a
few days, the departure ballast settles and oil flows to the

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top. Clean water beneath is then decanted while new arrival


ballast water is taken on. The upper layer of the departure
ballast is transferred to the slop tanks. After further settling
and decanting, the next cargo is loaded on top of the remaining
oil in the slop tank, hence the term load on top.
A new and important feature of the 1973 Convention was the
concept of "special areas" which are considered to be so
vulnerable to pollution by oil that oil discharges within them
have been completely prohibited, with minor and well-defined
exceptions. The 1973 Convention identified the Mediterranean
Sea, the Black Sea, and the Baltic Sea, the Red Sea and the
Gulfs area as special areas. All oil-carrying ships are required
to be capable of operating the method of retaining oily wastes
on board through the "load on top" system or for discharge to
shore reception facilities.
This involves the fitting of appropriate equipment, including an
oil-discharge monitoring and control system, oily-water
separating equipment and a filtering system, slop tanks, sludge
tanks, piping and pumping arrangements.
New oil tankers (i.e. those for which the building contract was
placed after 31 December 1975) of 70,000 tons deadweight and
above, must be fitted with segregated ballast tanks large enough
to provide adequate operating draught without the need to carry
ballast water in cargo oil tanks.
Secondly, new oil tankers are required to meet certain
subdivision and damage stability requirements so that, in any
loading conditions, they can survive after damage by collision
or stranding.
The Protocol of 1978 made a number of changes to Annex I of the
parent convention. Segregated ballast tanks (SBT) are required
on all new tankers of 20,000 dwt and above (in the parent
convention SBTs were only required on new tankers of 70,000 dwt
and above). The Protocol also required SBTs to be protectively
located - that is, they must be positioned in such a way that
they will help protect the cargo tanks in the event of a
collision or grounding.
Another important innovation concerned crude oil
washing (COW), which had been developed by the
oil industry in the 1970s and offered major
benefits. Under COW, tanks are washed not with
water but with crude oil - the cargo itself.
COW was accepted as an alternative to SBTs on
existing tankers and is an additional
requirement on new tankers.
For existing crude oil tankers (built before entry into force of
the Protocol) a third alternative was permissible for a period

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of two to four years after entry into force of MARPOL 73/78. The
dedicated clean ballast tanks (CBT) system meant that certain
tanks are dedicated solely to the carriage of ballast water.
This was cheaper than a full SBT system since it utilized
existing pumping and piping, but when the period of grace has
expired other systems must be used.
Drainage and discharge arrangements were also altered in the
Protocol, regulations for improved stripping systems were
introduced.
Some oil tankers operate solely in specific trades between ports
which are provided with adequate reception facilities. Some
others do not use water as ballast. The TSPP Conference
recognized that such ships should not be subject to all MARPOL
requirements and they were consequently exempted from the SBT,
COW and CBT requirements. It is generally recognized that the
effectiveness of international conventions depends upon the
degree to which they are obeyed and this in turn depends largely
upon the extent to which they are enforced. The 1978 Protocol
to MARPOL therefore introduced stricter regulations for the
survey and certification of ships.
The 1992 amendments to Annex I made it mandatory for new oil
tankers to have double hulls and it brought in a phase-in
schedule for existing tankers to fit double hulls.

Annex II: Control of pollution by noxious liquid substances


Entry into force: 6 April 1987
Annex II details the discharge criteria and measures for the
control of pollution by noxious liquid substances carried in
bulk.
Some 250 substances were evaluated and included in the list
appended to the Convention. The discharge of their residues is
allowed only to reception facilities until certain
concentrations and conditions (which vary with the category of
substances) are complied with.
In any case, no discharge of residues containing noxious
substances is permitted within 12 miles of the nearest land.
More stringent restrictions applied to the Baltic and Black Sea
areas.
Annex III: Prevention of pollution by harmful substances in
packaged form
Entry into force: 1 July 1992
The first of the convention's optional annexes. States
ratifying the Convention must accept Annexes I and II but can

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choose not to accept the other three - hence they have taken
much longer to enter into force.
Annex III contains general requirements for the issuing of
detailed standards on packing, marking, labelling,
documentation, stowage, quantity limitations, exceptions and
notifications for preventing pollution by harmful substances.
The International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code has,
since 1991, included marine pollutants.

Annex IV: Prevention of pollution by sewage from ships


Entry into force: 27 September 2003
The second of the optional Annexes, Annex IV contains requirements to control pollution of the
sea by sewage.
Annex V: Prevention of pollution by garbage from ships
Entry into force: 31 December 1988
This deals with different types of garbage and specifies the
distances from land and the manner in which they may be disposed
of. The requirements are much stricter in a number of "special
areas" but perhaps the most important feature of the Annex is
the complete ban imposed on the dumping into the sea of all
forms of plastic.
Annex VI: Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships
Adopted September 1997
Entry into force: 12 months after being ratified by 15 States
whose combined fleets of merchant shipping constitute at least
50% of the world fleet.
Status: See status of conventions
The regulations in this annex, when they come into force, will set limits on sulphur oxide and
nitrogen oxide emissions from ship exhausts and prohibit deliberate emissions of ozone
depleting substances.

See 1997 amendments

Enforcement
Any violation of the MARPOL 73/78 Convention within the
jurisdiction of any Party to the Convention is punishable either
under the law of that Party or under the law of the flag State.
In this respect, the term "jurisdiction" in the Convention

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should be construed in the light of international law in force


at the time the Convention is applied or interpreted.
With the exception of very small vessels, ships engaged on
international voyages must carry on board valid international
certificates which may be accepted at foreign ports as prima
facie evidence that the ship complies with the requirements of
the Convention.
If, however, there are clear grounds for believing that the
condition of the ship or its equipment does not correspond
substantially with the particulars of the certificate, or if the
ship does not carry a valid certificate, the authority carrying
out the inspection may detain the ship until it is satisfied
that the ship can proceed to sea without presenting unreasonable
threat of harm to the marine environment.
Under Article 17, the Parties to the Convention accept the
obligation to promote, in consultation with other international
bodies and with the assistance of UNEP, support for those
Parties which request technical assistance for various purposes,
such as training, the supply of equipment, research, and
combating pollution.
Amendment Procedure
Amendments to the technical Annexes of MARPOL 73/78 can be
adopted using the "tacit acceptance" procedure, whereby the
amendments enter into force on a specified date unless an agreed
number of States Parties object by an agreed date.
In practice, amendments are usually adopted either by IMO's
Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) or by a
Conference of Parties to MARPOL.

The 1984 amendments


Adoption: 7 September 1984
Entry into force: 7 January 1986
The amendments to Annex I were designed to make implementation
easier and more effective. New requirements were designed to
prevent oily water being discharged in special areas, and other
requirements were strengthened. But in some cases they were
eased, provided that various conditions were met: some
discharges were now permitted below the waterline, for example,
which helps to cut costs by reducing the need for extra piping.

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The 1985 (Annex II) amendments


Adoption: 5 December 1985
Entry into force: 6 April 1987
The amendments to Annex II, which deals with liquid noxious
substances (such as chemicals), were intended to take into
account technological developments since the Annex was drafted
in 1973 and to simplify its implementation. In particular, the
aim was to reduce the need for reception facilities for chemical
wastes and to improve cargo tank stripping efficiencies.
The amendments also made the International Code for the
Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals
in Bulk (IBC Code) mandatory for ships built on or after 1 July
1986. This is important because the Annex itself is concerned
only with discharge procedures: the Code contains carriage
requirements. The Code itself was revised to take into account
anti-pollution requirements and therefore make the amended Annex
more effective in reducing accidental pollution

The 1985 (Protocol I) amendments


Adoption: 5 December 1985
Entry into force: 6 April 1987
The amendments made it an explicit requirement to report
incidents involving discharge into the sea of harmful substances
in packaged form.

The 1987 Amendments


Adoption: December 1987
Entry into force: 1 April 1989
The amendments extended Annex I Special Area status to the Gulf
of Aden
The 1989 (March) amendments
Adoption: March 1989
Entry into force: 13 October
1990
The amendments affected the
International Code for the
Construction and Equipment
of Ships Carrying Dangerous

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Chemicals in Bulk (IBC Code), mandatory under both MARPOL 73/78


and SOLAS and applies to ships built on or after 1 July 1986 and
the Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying
Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (BCH). In both cases, the
amendments included a revised list of chemicals. The BCH Code
is mandatory under MARPOL 73/78 but voluntary under SOLAS 1974.
Further amendments affected Annex II of MARPOL - updating and
replacing the lists of chemicals in appendices II and III.

The October 1989 amendments


Adoption: 17 October 1989
Entry into force: 18 February 1991
The amendments make the North Sea a "special area" under Annex V
of the convention. This greatly increases the protection of the
sea against the dumping of garbage from ships
The 1990 (HSSC) amendments
Adoption: March 1990
Entry into force: 3 February 2000 (Coinciding with the entry
into force of the 1988 SOLAS and Load Lines Protocols.
The amendments are designed to introduce the harmonized system
of survey and certificates (HSSC) into MARPOL 73/78 at the same
time as it enters into force for the SOLAS and Load Lines
Conventions.
All three instruments require the issuing of certificates to
show that requirements have been met and this has to be done by
means of a survey which can involve the ship being out of
service for several days.
The harmonized system alleviates the problems caused by survey
dates and intervals between surveys which do not coincide, so
that a ship should no longer have to go into port or repair yard
for a survey required by one convention shortly after doing the
same thing in connection with another instrument.
The 1990 (IBC Code) amendments
Adoption: March 1990
Entry into force: On the same date as the March 1990 HSSC
amendments i.e. 3 February 2000.
The amendments introduced the HSSC into the IBC Code
The 1990 (BCH) amendments

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Adoption: March 1990


Entry into force: On the same date as the March 1990 HSSC
amendments i.e. 3 February 2000.
The amendments introduced the HSSC into the BCH Code.
The 1990 (Annexes I and V) amendments
Adoption: November 1990
Entry into force: 17 March 1992
The amendments extended Special Area Status under Annexes I and
V to the Antarctic.
The 1991 amendments
Adoption: 4 July 1991
Entry into force: 4 April 1993
The amendments made the Wider Caribbean a Special Area under
Annex V.
Other amendments added a new chapter IV to Annex I, requiring
ships to carry an oil pollution emergency plan.
The 1992 amendments
Adoption: 6 March 1992
Entry into force: 6 July 1993
The amendments to Annex I of the convention which deals with
pollution by oil brought in the "double hull" requirements for
tankers, applicable to new ships (tankers ordered after 6 July
1993, whose keels were laid on or after 6 January 1994 or which
are delivered on or after 6 July 1996) as well as existing ships
built before that date, with a phase-in period.
New-build tankers are covered by Regulation 13F, while
regulation 13G applies to existing crude oil tankers of 20,000
dwt and product carriers of 30,000 dwt and above. Regulation 13G
came into effect on 6 July 1995.
Regulation 13F requires all new tankers of 5,000 dwt and above
to be fitted with double hulls separated by a space of up to 2
metres (on tankers below 5,000 dwt the space must be at least
0.76m).
As an alternative, tankers may incorporate the "mid-deck"
concept under which the pressure within the cargo tank does not
exceed the external hydrostatic water pressure. Tankers built to
this design have double sides but not a double bottom. Instead,
another deck is installed inside the cargo tank with the venting

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arranged in such a way that there is an upward pressure on the


bottom of the hull.
Other methods of design and construction may be accepted as
alternatives "provided that such methods ensure at least the
same level of protection against oil pollution in the event of a
collision or stranding and are approved in principle by the
Marine Environment Protection Committee based on guidelines
developed by the Organization.
For oil tankers of 20,000 dwt and above new requirements were
introduced concerning subdivision and stability.
The amendments also considerably reduced the amount of oil which
can be discharged into the sea from ships (for example,
following the cleaning of cargo tanks or from engine room
bilges). Originally oil tankers were permitted to discharge oil
or oily mixtures at the rate of 60 litres per nautical mile.
The amendments reduced this to 30 litres. For non-tankers of 400
grt and above the permitted oil content of the effluent which
may be discharged into the sea is cut from 100 parts per million
to 15 parts per million.
Regulation 24(4), which deals with the limitation of size and
arrangement of cargo tanks, was also modified.
Regulation 13G applies to existing crude oil tankers of 20,000
dwt and product carriers of 30,000 dwt and above.
Tankers that are 25 years old and which were not constructed
according to the requirements of the 1978 Protocol to MARPOL
73/78 have to be fitted with double sides and double bottoms.
The Protocol applies to tankers ordered after 1 June 1979, which
were begun after 1 January 1980 or completed after 1 June 1982.
Tankers built according to the standards of the Protocol are
exempt until they reach the age of 30.
Existing tankers are subject to an enhanced programme of
inspections during their periodical, intermediate and annual
surveys. Tankers that are five years old or more must carry on
board a completed file of survey reports together with a
conditional evaluation report endorsed by the flag
Administration.
Tankers built in the 1970s which are at or past their 25th must
comply with Regulation 13F. If not, their owners must decide
whether to convert them to the standards set out in regulation
13F, or to scrap them.
Another set of tankers built according to the standards of the
1978 protocol will soon be approaching their 30th birthday - and
the same decisions must be taken.

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The 1994 amendments


Adoption: 13 November 1994
Entry into force: 3 March 1996
The amendments affect four of the Convention's five technical
annexes (II III, V, and I) and are all designed to improve the
way it is implemented. They make it possible for ships to be
inspected when in the ports of other Parties to the Convention
to ensure that crews are able to carry out essential shipboard
procedures relating to marine pollution prevention. These are
contained in resolution A.742 (18), which was adopted by the IMO
Assembly in November 1993.
The amendments are similar to those made to SOLAS in May 1994.
Extending port State control to operational requirements is seen
as an important way of improving the efficiency with which
international safety and anti-pollution treaties are
implemented.
The 1995 amendments
Adoption: 14 September 1995
Entry into force: 1 July 1997
The amendments concern Annex V. They are designed to improve the
way the Convention is implemented. Regulation 2 was clarified
and a new regulation 9 added dealing with placards, garbage
management plans and garbage record keeping.
The 1996 amendments
Adoption: 10 July 1996
Entry into force: 1 January 1998
One set of amendments concerned Protocol I to the Convention
which contains provisions for reporting incidents involving
harmful substances. The amendments included more precise
requirements for the sending of such reports.
Other amendments brought requirements in MARPOL concerning the
IBC and BCH Codes into line with amendments adopted to
SOLAS.
The 1997 amendments
Adoption: 23 September 1997
Entry into force: 1 February 1999
Regulation 25A to Annex 1 specifies intact stability criteria
for double hull tankers.

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Another amendment made the North West European waters a "special


area" under Regulation 10 of Annex 1. The waters cover the
North Sea and its approaches, the Irish Sea and its approaches,
the Celtic Sea, the English Channel and its approaches and part
of the North East Atlantic immediately to the West of Ireland.
In special areas, discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixture
from any oil tanker and ship over 400 gt is prohibited. Other
special areas already designated under Annex I of MARPOL
include: the Mediterranean Sea area, the Baltic Sea area, the
Red Sea area, the Gulf of Aden area and the Antarctic area.
The Protocol of 1997 (Annex VI - Regulations for the Prevention
of Air Pollution from Ships)
Adoption: 26 September 1997
Entry into force: 19 May 2005
The Protocol was adopted at a Conference held from 15 to 26
September 1997 and adds a new Annex VI on Regulations for the
Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships to the Convention.
The rules, when they come into force, will set limits on sulphur
oxide (SOx) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from ship
exhausts and prohibit deliberate emissions of ozone depleting
substances.
The new Annex VI includes a global cap of 4.5% m/m on the
sulphur content of fuel oil and calls on IMO to monitor the
worldwide average sulphur content of fuel once the Protocol
comes into force.
Annex VI contains provisions allowing for special "SOx Emission
Control Areas" to be established with more stringent control on
sulphur emissions. In these areas, the sulphur content of fuel
oil used on board ships must not exceed 1.5% m/m. Alternatively,
ships must fit an exhaust gas cleaning system or use any other
technological method to limit SOx emissions.
The Baltic Sea is designated as a SOx Emission Control area in
the Protocol.
Annex VI prohibits deliberate emissions of ozone depleting
substances, which include halons and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
New installations containing ozone-depleting substances are
prohibited on all ships. But new installations containing hydro-
chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are permitted until 1 January 2020.
The requirements of the IMO Protocol are in accordance with the
Montreal Protocol of 1987, as amended in London in 1990. The
Montreal Protocol is an international environmental treaty,
drawn up under the auspices of the United Nations, under which

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nations agreed to cut CFC consumption and production in order to


protect the ozone layer.
Annex VI sets limits on emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from
diesel engines. A mandatory NOx Technical Code, developed by
IMO, defines how this is to be done.
The Annex also prohibits the incineration on board ship of
certain products, such as contaminated packaging materials and
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
Format of Annex VI
Annex VI consists of three Chapters and a number of Appendices:
Chapter 1 - General
Chapter II - Survey, Certification and Means of Control
Chapter III - Requirements for Control of Emissions from Ships
Appendices including the form of the International Air
Pollution Prevention Certificate; criteria and procedures for
designation of SOx emission control areas; information for
inclusion in the bunker delivery note; approval and operating
limits for shipboard incinerators; test cycles and weighting
factors for verification of compliance of marine diesel engines
with the NOx limits; and details of surveys and inspections to
be carried out.
The 1999 amendments
Adoption: 1 July 1999
Entry into force: 1 January 2001 (under tacit acceptance)
Amendments to Regulation 13G of Annex I (Regulations for the
Prevention of Pollution by Oil) make existing oil tankers
between 20,000 and 30,000 tons deadweight carrying persistent
product oil, including heavy diesel oil and fuel oil, subject to
the same construction requirements as crude oil tankers.
Regulation 13G requires, in principle, existing tankers to
comply with requirements for new tankers in Regulation 13F,
including double hull requirements for new tankers or
alternative arrangements, not later than 25 years after date of
delivery.
The amendments extend the application from applying to crude oil
tankers of 20,000 tons deadweight and above and product carriers
of 30,000 tons deadweight and above, to also apply to tankers
between 20,000 and 30,000 tons deadweight which carry heavy
diesel oil or fuel oil.

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The aim of the amendments is to address concerns that oil


pollution incidents involving persistent oils are as severe as
those involving crude oil, so regulations applicable to crude
oil tankers should also apply to tankers carrying persistent
oils.

Related amendments to the Supplement of the IOPP


(International Oil Pollution Prevention) Certificate, covering
in particular oil separating/filtering equipment and retention
and disposal of oil residues were also adopted.
A third MARPOL 73/78 amendment adopted relates to Annex II of
MARPOL Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious
Liquid Substances in Bulk. The amendment adds a new regulation
16 requiring a Shipboard marine pollution emergency plan for
noxious liquid substances.
Amendments were also made to the International Code for the
Construction and Equipment of Ships carrying Dangerous Chemicals
in Bulk (IBC Code) and the Code for the Construction and
Equipment of Ships carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (BCH
Code). The amendments address the maintenance of venting
systems,
The 2000 amendments
Adoption: 13 March 2000
Entry into force: 1 January 2002 (under tacit acceptance)
The amendment to Annex III (Prevention of Pollution by Harmful
Substances Carried by Sea in Packaged Form) deletes tainting as
a criterion for marine pollutants from the Guidelines for the
identification of harmful substances in packaged form. Tainting
refers to the ability of a product to be taken up by an organism
and thereby affect the taste or smell of seafood making it
unpalatable. A substance is defined as tainting when it has been
found to taint seafood.
The amendment means that products identified as being marine
pollutants solely on the basis of their tainting properties will
no longer be classified as marine pollutants.

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The 2001 amendments


Adoption: 27 April 2001
Entry into force: 1 September 2002
The amendment to Annex I brings in a new global timetable for
accelerating the phase-out of single-hull oil tankers. The
timetable will see most single-hull oil tankers eliminated by
2015 or earlier. Double-hull tankers offer greater protection of
the environment from pollution in
certain types of accident. All new
oil tankers built since 1996 are
required to have double hulls.

The revised regulation identifies


three categories of tankers, as
follows:
"Category 1 oil tanker" means oil
tankers of 20,000 tons deadweight and
above carrying crude oil, fuel oil,
heavy diesel oil or lubricating oil
as cargo, and of 30,000 tons
deadweight and above carrying other
oils, which do not comply with the
requirements for protectively located segregated ballast tanks
(commonly known as Pre-MARPOL tankers).
"Category 2 oil tanker" means oil tankers of 20,000 tons
deadweight and above carrying crude oil, fuel oil, heavy diesel
oil or lubricating oil as cargo, and of 30,000 tons deadweight
and above carrying other oils, which do comply with the
protectively located segregated ballast tank requirements
(MARPOL tankers), while

"Category 3 oil tanker" means an oil tanker of 5,000 tons


deadweight and above but less than the tonnage specified for
Category 1 and 2 tankers.

Although the new phase-out timetable sets 2015 as the principal


cut-off date for all single-hull tankers, the flag state
administration may allow for some newer single hull ships
registered in its country that conform to certain technical
specifications to continue trading until the 25th anniversary of
their delivery.
However, under the provisions of paragraph 8(b), any Port State
can deny entry of those single hull tankers which are allowed to
operate until their 25th anniversary to ports or offshore

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terminals. They must communicate their intention to do this to


IMO.
As an additional precautionary measure, a Condition Assessment
Scheme (CAS) will have to be applied to all Category 1 vessels
continuing to trade after 2005 and all Category 2 vessels after
2010.
Although the CAS does not specify structural standards in excess
of the provisions of other IMO conventions, codes and
recommendations, its requirements stipulate more stringent and
transparent verification of the reported structural condition of
the ship and that documentary and survey procedures have been
properly carried out and completed.
The requirements of the CAS include enhanced and transparent
verification of the reported structural condition and of the
ship and verification that the documentary and survey procedures
have been properly carried out and completed. The Scheme
requires that compliance with the CAS is assessed during the
Enhanced Survey Programme of Inspections concurrent with
intermediate or renewal surveys currently required by resolution
A.744(18), as amended.
The 2003 Amenedments
Adoption: 4 December 2003
Entry into force: (under tacit acceptance): 5 April 2005
Under a revised regulation 13G of Annex I of MARPOL, the final
phasing-out date for Category 1 tankers (pre-MARPOL tankers) is
brought forward to 2005, from 2007. The final phasing-out date
for category 2 and 3 tankers (MARPOL tankers and smaller
tankers) is brought forward to 2010, from 2015.
The full timetable for the phasing out of single-hull tankers is
as follows:

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Category of
Date or year
oil tanker
Category 1 5 April 2005 for ships delivered on 5 April
1982 or earlier 2005 for ships delivered after
5 April 1982
Category 2 5 April 2005 for ships delivered on 5 April
and 1977 or earlier
Category 3 2005 for ships delivered after 5 April 1977
but before 1 January 1978
2006 for ships delivered in 1978 and 1979
2007 for ships delivered in 1980 and 1981
2008 for ships delivered in 1982
2009 for ships delivered in 1983
2010 for ships delivered in 1984 or later
Under the revised regulation, the Condition Assessment Scheme
(CAS) is to be made applicable to all single-hull tankers of 15
years, or older. Previously it was applicable to all Category 1
vessels continuing to trade after 2005 and all Category 2
vessels after 2010. Consequential enhancements to the CAS scheme
were also adopted.
The revised regulation allows the Administration (flag State) to
permit continued operation of category 2 or 3 tankers beyond
2010 subject to satisfactory results from the CAS, but the
continued operation must not go beyond the anniversary of the
date of delivery of the ship in 2015 or the date on which the
ship reaches 25 years of age after the date of its delivery,
whichever is earlier.
In the case of certain Category 2 or 3 oil tankers fitted with
only double bottoms or double sides not used for the carriage of
oil and extending to the entire cargo tank length or double hull
spaces, not meeting the minimum distance protection
requirements, which are not used for the carriage of oil and
extend to the entire cargo tank length, the Administration may
allow continued operation beyond 2010, provided that the ship
was in service on 1 July 2001, the Administration is satisfied
by verification of the official records that the ship complied
with the conditions specified and that those conditions remain
unchanged. Again, such continued operation must not go beyond
the date on which the ship reaches 25 years of age after the
date of its delivery.
Carriage of heavy grade oil
A new MARPOL regulation 13H on the prevention of oil pollution
from oil tankers when carrying heavy grade oil (HGO) bans the
carriage of HGO in single-hull tankers of 5,000 tons dwt and
above after the date of entry into force of the regulation (5
April 2005), and in single-hull oil tankers of 600 tons dwt and

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above but less than 5,000 tons dwt, not later than the
anniversary of their delivery date in 2008.
Under the new regulation, HGO means any of the following:
a) crude oils having a density at 15C higher than 900 kg/m3;
b) fuel oils having either a density at 15C higher than 900 kg/
m3 or a kinematic viscosity at 50C higher than 180 mm2/s;
c) bitumen, tar and their emulsions.
In the case of certain Category 2 or 3 tankers carrying heavy
grade oil as cargo, fitted only with double bottoms or double
sides, not used for the carriage of oil and extending to the
entire cargo tank length, or double hull spaces not meeting the
minimum distance protection requirements which are not used for
the carriage of oil and extend to the entire cargo tank length,
the Administration may allow continued operation of such ships
beyond 5 April 2005 until the date on which the ship reaches 25
years of age after the date of its delivery.
Regulation 13(H) also allows for continued operation of oil
tankers of 5,000 tons dwt and above, carrying crude oil with a
density at 15C higher than 900 kg/ m3 but lower than 945 kg/
m3, if satisfactory results of the Condition Assessment Scheme
warrant that, in the opinion of the Administration, the ship is
fit to continue such operation, having regard to the size, age,
operational area and structural conditions of the ship and
provided that the continued operation shall not go beyond the
date on which the ship reaches 25 years after the date of its
delivery.
The Administration may allow continued operation of a single
hull oil tanker of 600 tons deadweight and above but less than
5,000 tons deadweight, carrying heavy grade oil as cargo, if, in
the opinion of the Administration, the ship is fit to continue
such operation, having regard to the size, age, operational area
and structural conditions of the ship, provided that the
operation shall not go beyond the date on which the ship reaches
25 years after the date of its delivery.
The Administration of a Party to the present Convention may
exempt an oil tanker of 600 tons deadweight and above carrying
heavy grade oil as cargo if the ship is either engaged in
voyages exclusively within an area under the Party's
jurisdiction, or is engaged in voyages exclusively within an
area under the jurisdiction of another Party, provided the Party
within whose jurisdiction the ship will be operating agrees. The
same applies to vessels operating as floating storage units of
heavy grade oil.

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A Party to MARPOL 73/78 shall be
entitled to deny entry of single hull
tankers carrying heavy grade oil
which have been allowed to continue
operation under the exemptions
mentioned above, into the ports or
offshore terminals under its jurisdiction, or deny ship-to-ship
transfer of heavy grade oil in areas under its jurisdiction
except when this is necessary for the purpose of securing the
safety of a ship or saving life at sea.
Resolutions adopted
The amendments to MARPOL regulation 13G, the addition of a new
regulation 13H, consequential amendments to the IOPP Certificate
and the amendments to the Condition Assessment Scheme were
adopted by the Committee as MEPC Resolutions
Among other resolutions adopted by the Committee, another on
early implementation urged Parties to MARPOL 73/78 seriously to
consider the application of the amendments as soon as possible
to ships entitled to fly their flag, without waiting for the
amendments to enter into force and to communicate this action to
the Organization. It also invited the maritime industry to
implement the aforesaid amendments to Annex I of MARPOL 73/78
effectively as soon as possible.

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CAPITULO 20 REGLAMENTO DE ABORDAJES

Assumptions Suposicin, conjetura


Construing interpretar
Deem Estimar, conceptuar
Namely A saber, particularmente.
Notwithstanding No obstante, a pesar de
Look-out Vigilancia
roadstead Rada
Scanty Escasa, deficiente
Slacken Disminuir, aflojar
Therewith Con eso

INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS FOR PREVENTING COLLISIONS AT SEA, 1972


Introduction
The 1972 Convention was designed to update and replace the
Collision Regulations of 1960 which were adopted at the same
time as the 1960 SOLAS Convention.

One of the most important innovations in the


1972 COLREGs was the recognition given to
traffic separation schemes - Rule 10 gives
guidance in determining safe speed, the risk
of collision and the conduct of vessels
operating in or near traffic separation
schemes.
The first such traffic separation scheme was
established in the Dover Strait in 1967. It
was operated on a voluntary basis at first
but in 1971 the IMO Assembly adopted a resolution stating that
observance of all traffic separation schemes be made mandatory -
and the COLREGs make this obligation clear.

Technical provisions

The COLREGs include 38 rules divided into five sections: Part A


- General; Part B - Steering and Sailing; Part C - Lights and
Shapes; Part D - Sound and Light signals; and Part E -
Exemptions. There are also four Annexes containing technical
requirements concerning lights and shapes and their positioning;
sound signalling appliances; additional signals for fishing

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vessels when operating in close proximity, and international


distress signals.

PART A-GENERAL
Rule 1
Application
(a) These Rules shall apply to all vessels upon the high seas
and in all waters connected therewith navigable by seagoing
vessels.

(b) Nothing in these Rules shall interfere with the operation of


special rules made by an appropriate authority for roadsteads,
harbors, rivers, lakes or inland waterways connected with the
high seas and navigable by seagoing vessels. Such special rules
shall conform as closely as possible to these Rules.
(c) Nothing in these Rules shall interfere with the operation of
any special rules made by the Government of any State with
respect to additional station or signal lights, shapes or
whistle signals for ships of war and vessels proceeding under
convoy, or with respect to additional station or signal lights
or shapes for fishing vessels engaged in fishing as a fleet.
These additional station or signal lights, shapes or whistle
signals shall, so far as possible, be such that they cannot be
mistaken for any light, shape or signal authorized elsewhere
under these Rules.
(d) Traffic separation schemes may be adopted by the
Organization for the purpose of these Rules.
(e) Whenever the Government concerned shall have determined that
a vessel of special construction or purpose cannot comply fully
with the provisions of any of these Rules with respect to the
number, position, range or arc of visibility of lights or
shapes, as well as to the disposition and characteristics of
sound-signaling appliances, such vessel shall comply with such
other provisions in regard to the number, position, range or arc
of visibility of lights or shapes, as well as to the disposition
and characteristics of sound-signaling appliances, as her
Government shall have determined to be the closest possible
compliance with these Rules in respect of that vessel.

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Rule 2
Responsibility
(a) Nothing in these Rules shall exonerate any vessel, or the
owner, master or crew thereof, from the consequences of any
neglect to comply with these Rules or of the neglect of any
precaution which may be required by the ordinary practice of
seamen, or by the special circumstances of the case.
(b) In construing and complying with these Rules due regard
shall be had to all dangers of navigation and collision and to
any special circumstances, including the limitations of the
vessels involved, which may make a departure from these Rules
necessary to avoid immediate danger
Rule 3
General Definitions
For the purpose of these Rules, except where the context
otherwise requires
(a) The word "vessel" includes every description of water craft,
including non-displacement craft and seaplanes, used or capable
of being used as a means of transportation on water
(b) The term "power-driven vessel" means any vessel propelled by
machinery.

(c) The term "sailing vessel" means any vessel under sail
provided that propelling machinery, if fitted, is not being
used.
(d) The term "vessel engaged in fishing" means any vessel
fishing with nets, lines, trawls or other fishing apparatus
which restrict maneuverability, but does not include a vessel
fishing with trolling lines or other fishing apparatus which do
not restrict maneuverability.
(e) The word "seaplane" includes any aircraft designed to
maneuver on the water.
(f) The term "vessel not under command" means a vessel which
through some exceptional circumstance is unable to maneuver as
required by these Rules and is therefore unable to keep out of
the way of another vessel.
(g) The term "vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver"
means a vessel which from the nature of her work is restricted
in her ability to maneuver as required by these Rules and is
therefore unable to keep out of the way of another vessel.

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The term vessels restricted in their ability to maneuver shall


include but not be limited to
(i) a vessel engaged in laying, servicing or picking up a
navigation mark, submarine cable or pipeline;
(ii) a vessel engaged in dredging, surveying or underwater
operations;
(iii) a vessel engaged in replenishment or transferring persons,
provisions or cargo while underway;
(iv) a vessel engaged in the launching or recovery of aircraft;
(v) a vessel engaged in mine clearance operations;
(vi) a vessel engaged in a towing operation such as severely
restricts the towing vessel and her tow in their ability to
deviate from their course.
(h) The term "vessel constrained by her draught" means a power-
driven vessel which, because of her draught in relation to the
available depth and width of navigable water, is severely
restricted in her ability to deviate from the course she is
following.
(i) The word "underway" means that a vessel is not at anchor, or
made fast to the shore, or aground.
(j) The words "length" and "breadth" of a vessel mean her length
overall and greatest breadth.
(k) Vessels shall be deemed to be in sight of one another only
when one can be observed visually from the other
(l) The term "restricted visibility" means any condition in
which visibility is restricted by fog, mist, falling snow, heavy
rainstorms, sandstorms or any other similar causes.

PART B - STEERING AND SAILING RULES


SECTION I - CONDUCT OF VESSELS IN ANY CONDITION OF VISIBILITY
Rule 4
Application
Rules in this Section apply in any condition of visibility.

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Rule 5
Look-out
Every vessel shall at all times maintain a proper look-out by
sight and hearing as well as by all available means appropriate
in the prevailing circumstances and conditions so as to make a
full appraisal of the situation and of the risk of collision.
Rule 6
Safe Speed
Every vessel shall at all times proceed at a safe speed so that
she can take proper and effective action to avoid collision and
be stopped within a distance appropriate to the prevailing
circumstances and conditions.
In determining a safe speed the following factors shall be among
those taken into account
(a) By all vessels
(i) the state of visibility;
(ii) the traffic density including concentrations of fishing
vessels or any other vessels;
(iii) the manoeuvrability of the vessel with special reference
to stopping distance and turning ability in the prevailing
conditions;

(iv) at night the presence of background light such as from


shore lights or from back scatter of her own lights;
(v) the state of wind, sea and current, and the proximity of
navigational hazards;
(vi) the draught in relation to the available depth of water
(b) Additionally, by vessels with operational radar:
(i) the characteristics, efficiency and limitations of the radar
equipment;
(ii) any constraints imposed by the radar range scale in use;
(iii) the effect on radar detection of the sea state, weather
and other sources of interference.

(vi) the more exact assessment of the visibility that may be


possible when radar is used to determine the range of vessels or
other objects in the vicinity.

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Rule 7
Risk of Collision
(a) Every vessel shall use all available means appropriate to
the prevailing circumstances and conditions to determine if risk
of collision exists. If there is any doubt such risk shall be
deemed to exist.
(b) Proper use shall be made of radar equipment if fitted and
operational, including long-range scanning to obtain early
warning of risk of collision and radar plotting or equivalent
systematic observation of detected objects.
(c) Assumptions shall not be made on the basis of scanty
information, especially scanty radar information.
(d) In determining if risk of collision exists the following
considerations shall be among those taken into account:
(I) such risk shall be deemed to exist if the compass bearing of
an approaching vessel does not appreciably change;
(ii) such risk may sometimes exist even when an appreciable
bearing change is evident, particularly when approaching a very
large vessel or a tow or when approaching a vessel at close
range.
Rule 8
Action to avoid Collision
(a) Any action to avoid collision shall, if the circumstances of
the case admit, be positive, made in ample time and with due
regard to the observance of good seamanship.
(b) Any alteration of course and/or speed to avoid collision
shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, be large enough
to be readily apparent to another vessel observing visually or
by radar; a succession of small alterations of course and/or
speed should be avoided.
(c) If there is sufficient sea-room, alteration of course alone
may be the most effective action to avoid a close-quarters
situation provided that it is made in good time, is substantial
and does not result in another close-quarters situation.
(d) Action taken to avoid collision with another vessel shall be
such as to result in passing at a safe distance. The
effectiveness of the action shall be carefully checked until the
other vessel is finally past and clean

(e) If necessary to avoid collision or allow more time to assess

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the situation, a vessel shall slacken her speed or take all way
off by stopping or reversing her means of propulsion.
(f) (i) A vessel which, by any of these Rules, is required not
to impede the passage or safe passage of another vessel shall,
when required by the circumstances of the case, take early
action to allow sufficient sea-room for the safe passage of the
other vessel.
(ii) A vessel required not to impede the passage or safe passage
of another vessel is not relieved of this obligation if
approaching the other vessel so as to involve risk of collision
and shall, when takimg action, have full regard to the action
which may be required by the Rules of this part.
(iii) A vessel the passage of which is not to be impeded remains
fully obliged to comply with the Rules of this part when the two
vessels are approaching one another so as to involve risk of
collision.
Rule 9
Narrow Channels
(a) A vessel proceeding along the course of a narrow channel of
fairway shall keep as near to the outer limit of the channel or
fairway which lies on her starboard side as is safe and
practicable.
(b) A vessel of less than 20 metres in length or a sailing
vessel shall not impede the passage of a vessel which can safely
navigate only within a narrow channel or fairway.
(c) A vessel engaged in fishing shall not impede the passage of
any other vessel navigating within a narrow channel or fairway.
(d) A vessel shall not cross a narrow channel or fairway if such
crossing impedes the passage of a vessel which can safely
navigate only within such channel or fairway. The latter vessel
may use the sound signal prescribed in Rule 34(d) if in doubt as
to the intention of the crossing vessel.
(e) (i) In a narrow channel or fairway when overtaking can take
place only if the vessel to be overtaken has to take action to
permit safe passing, the vessel intending to overtake shall
indicate her intention by sounding the appropriate signal
prescribed in Rule 34(c)(i). The vessel to be overtaken shall,
if in agreement, sound the appropriate signal prescribed in Rule
34(c)(ii) and take steps to permit safe passing. If in doubt she
may sound the signals prescribed in Rule 34(d).
(ii) This Rule does not relieve the overtaking vessel of her
obligation under Rule 13.

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(f) A vessel nearing a bend or an area of a narrow channel or


fairway where other vessels may be obscured by an intervening
obstruction shall navigate with particular alertness and caution
and shall sound the appropriate signal prescribed in Rule 34(e).
(g) Any vessel shall, if the circumstances of the case admit,
avoid anchoring in a narrow channel.

Rule 10
Traffic Separation Schemes

(a) This Rule applies to traffic separation schemes adopted by


the Organization and does not relieve any vessel of her
obligation under any other rule.

(b) A vessel using a traffic separation scheme shall:

(i) proceed in the appropriate traffic lane in the general


direction of traffic flow for that lane.

(ii) so far as practicable keep clear of a traffic separation


line or separation zone;

(iii) normally join or leave a traffic lane at the termination


of the lane, but when joining or leaving from either side shall
do so at as small an angle to the general direction of traffic
flow as practicable.

(c) A vessel shall, so far as practicable, avoid crossing


traffic lanes but if obliged to do so shall cross on a heading
as nearly as practicable at right angles to the general
direction of traffic flow.

(d) (i) A vessel shall not use an inshore traffic zone when
she can safely use the appropriate traffic lane within the
adjacent traffic separation scheme. However, vessels of less
than 20 metres in length, sailing vessels and vessels engaged in
fishing may use the inshore traffic zone.
(ii) Notwithstanding subparagraph (d) (i), a vessel may use an
inshore traffic zone when en route to or from a port, offshore
installation or structure, pilot station or any other place
situated within the inshore traffic zone, or to avoid immediate
danger.

(e) A vessel other than a crossing vessel or a vessel joining or


leaving a lane shall not normally enter a separation zone or
cross a separation line except:

(i) in cases of emergency to avoid immediate danger;

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(ii) to engage in fishing within a separation zone.

(f) A vessel navigating in areas near the terminations of


traffic separation schemes shall do so with particular caution.

(g) A vessel shall so far as practicable avoid anchoring in a


traffic separation scheme or in areas near its terminations.

(h) A vessel not using a traffic separation scheme shall avoid


it by as wide a margin as is practicable.

(i) A vessel engaged in fishing shall not impede the passage of


any vessel following a traffic lane.

(j) A vessel of less than 20 metres in length or a sailing


vessel shall not impede the safe passage of a power-driven
vessel following a traffic lane.

(k) A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre when engaged


in an operation for the maintenance of safety of navigation in a
traffic separation scheme is exempted from complying with this
Rule to the extent necessary to carry out the operation.

(I) A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre when engaged


in an operation for the laying, servicing or picking up a
submarine cable, within a traffic separation scheme, is exempted
from complying with this Rule to the extent necessary to carry
out the operation.

SECTION II- CONDUCT OF VESSELS IN SIGHT OF ONE ANOTHER


Rule 11
Application
Rules in this Section apply to vessels in sight of one another.
Rule 12
Sailing Vessels
(a) When two sailing vessels are approaching one another, so as
to involve risk of collision, one of them shall keep out of the
way of the other as follows:

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(i) when each has the wind on a different side, the vessel which
has the wind on the port side shall keep out of the way of the
other;
(ii) when both have the wind on the same side, the vessel which
is to windward shall keep out of the way of the vessel which is
to leeward;
(iii)if a vessel with the wind on the port side sees a vessel to
windward and cannot determine with certainty whether the other
vessel has the wind on the port or on the starboard side, she
shall keep out of the way of the other.
(b) For the purpose of this Rule the windward side shall be
deemed to be the side opposite to that on which the mainsail is
carried or, in the case of a square-rigged vessel, the side
opposite to that on which the largest fore-and-aft sail is
carried
Rule 13
Overtaking
(a) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Rules of Part B,
Sections I and II, any vessel overtaking any other shall keep
out of the way of the vessel being overtaken.
(b) A vessel shall be deemed to be overtaking when coming up
with another vessel from a direction more than 22.5 degrees
abaft her beam, that is, in such a position with reference to
the vessel she is overtaking, that at night she would be able to
see only the sternlight of that vessel but neither of her
sidelights.
(c) When a vessel is in any doubt as to whether she is
overtaking another, she shall assume that this is the case and
act accordingly.
(d) Any subsequent alteration of the bearing between the two
vessels shall not make the overtaking vessel a crossing vessel
within the meaning of these
Rules or relieve her of the duty
of keeping clear of the
overtaken vessel until she is
finally past and clear.
Rule 14
Head-on Situation
(a) When two power-driven
vessels are meeting on
reciprocal or nearly reciprocal
courses so as to involve risk of

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 20 Reglamento de abordajes

collision each shall alter her course to starboard so that each


shall pass on the port side of the other.

(b) Such a situation shall be deemed to exist when a vessel sees


the other ahead or nearly ahead and by night she could see the
masthead lights of the other in a line or nearly in a line
and/or both sidelights and by day she observes the corresponding
aspect of the other vessel.
(c) When a vessel is in any doubt as to whether such a situation
exists she shall assume that it does exist and act accordingly.

Rule 15
Crossing Situation
When two power-driven vessels are
crossing so as to involve risk of
collision, the vessel which has the
other on her own starboard side
shall keep out of the way and shall,
if the circumstances of the case
admit, avoid crossing ahead of the
other vessel.

Rule 16
Action by Give-way Vessel
Every vessel which is directed to keep out of the way of another
vessel shall, so far as possible, take early and substantial
action to keep well clear.
Rule 17
Action by Stand-on Vessel
(a) (i) Where one of two vessels is to keep out of the way the
other shall keep her course and speed.
(ii) The latter vessel may however take action to avoid
collision by her manoeuvre alone, as soon as it becomes apparent

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 20 Reglamento de abordajes

to her that the vessel required to keep out of the way is not
taking appropriate action in compliance with these Rules.
(b) When, from any cause, the vessel required to keep her course
and speed finds herself so close that collision cannot be
avoided by the action of the give-way vessel alone, she shall
take such action as will best aid to avoid collision.

(c) A power-driven vessel which takes action in a crossing


situation in accordance with subparagraph (a) (ii) of this Rule
to avoid collision with another power-driven vessel shall, if
the circumstances of the case admit, not alter course to port
for a vessel on her own port side.
(d) This Rule does not relieve the give-way vessel of her
obligation to keep out of the way.

Rule 18
Responsibilities between Vessels
Except where Rules 9, 10 and 13 otherwise require:
(a) A power-driven vessel underway shall keep out of the way of:
(i) a vessel not under command;
(ii) a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre;
(iii) a vessel engaged in fishing;
(iv) a sailing vessel.
(b) A sailing vessel underway shall keep out of the way of:
(I) a vessel not under command;
(ii) a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre;
(iii) a vessel engaged in fishing.
(c) A vessel engaged in fishing when underway shall, so far as
possible, keep out of the way of:
(i) a vessel not under command;
(ii) a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre.
(d) (i) Any vessel other than a vessel not under command or a
vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre shall, if the
circumstances of the case admit, avoid impeding the safe passage
of a vessel constrained by her draught, exhibiting the signals
in Rule 28.

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Capitulo 20 Reglamento de abordajes

(ii) A vessel constrained by her draught shall navigate with


particular caution having full regard to her special condition.
(e) A seaplane on the water shall, in general, keep well clear
of all vessels and avoid impeding their navigation. In
circumstances, however, where risk of collision exists, she
shall comply with the Rules of this Part.
SECTION III- CONDUCT OF VESSELS IN RESTRICTED VISIBILITY
Rule 19
Conduct of Vessels in Restricted Visibility
(a) This Rule applies to vessels not in sight of one another
when navigating in or near an area of restricted visibility.
(b) Every vessel shall proceed at a safe speed adapted to the
prevailing circumstances and conditions of restricted
visibility. A power-driven vessel shall have her engines ready
for immediate manoeuvre.
(c) Every vessel shall have due regard to the prevailing
circumstances and conditions of restricted visibility when
complying with the Rules of Section 1 of this Part.
(d) A vessel which detects by radar alone the presence of
another vessel shall determine if a close-quarters situation is
developing and/or risk of collision exists. If so, she shall
take avoiding action in ample time, provided that when such
action consists of an alteration of course, so far as possible
the following shall be avoided:
(i) an alteration of course to port for a vessel forward of the
beam, other than for a vessel being overtaken;
(ii) an alteration of course towards a vessel abeam or abaft the
beam.
(e) Except where it has been determined that a risk of collision
does not exist, every vessel which hears apparently forward of
her beam the fog signal of another vessel, or which cannot avoid
a close-quarters situation with another vessel forward of her
beam, shall reduce her speed to the minimum at which she can be
kept on her course. She shall if necessary take all her way off
and in any event navigate with extreme caution until danger of
collision is oven

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 20 Reglamento de abordajes

PART C - LIGHTS AND SHAPES


Rule 20
Application
(a) Rules in this Part shall be complied with in all weathers.
(b) The Rules concerning lights shall be complied with from
sunset to sunrise, and during such times no other lights shall
be exhibited, except such lights as cannot be mistaken for the
lights specified in these Rules or do not impair their
visibility or distinctive character, or interfere with the
keeping of a proper look-out.

(c) The lights prescribed by these Rules shall, if carried, also


be exhibited from sunrise to sunset in restricted visibility and
may be exhibited in all other circumstances when it is deemed
necessary.
(d) The Rules concerning shapes shall be complied with by day.
(e) The lights and shapes specified in these Rules shall comply
with the provisions of Annex I to these Regulations.
Rule 21
Definitions
(a) "Masthead light" means a white light placed over the fore
and aft centerline of the vessel showing an unbroken light over
an arc of the horizon of 225 degrees and so fixed as to show the
light from right ahead to 22.5 degrees abaft the beam on either
side of the vessel.
(b) "Sidelights" means a green light on the starboard side and a
red light on the port side each showing an unbroken light over
an arc of the horizon of 112.5 degrees and so fixed as to show
the light from right ahead to 22.5 degrees abaft the beam on its
respective side. In a vessel of less than 20 metres in length
the sidelights may be combined in one lantern carried on the
fore and aft centerline of the vessel.
(c) "Stemlight" means a white light placed as nearly as
practicable at the stem showing an unbroken light over an arc of
the horizon of 135 degrees and so fixed as to show the light
67.5 degrees from right aft on each side of the vessel.
(d) "Towing light" means a yellow light having the same
characteristics as the "stemlight" defined in paragraph (c) of
this Rule.
(e) "All-round light" means a light showing an unbroken light
over an arc of the horizon of 360 degrees.

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Capitulo 20 Reglamento de abordajes

(C) "Flashing light" means a light flashing at regular intervals


at a frequency of 120 flashes or more per minute.
Rule 22
Visibility of Lights
The lights prescribed in these Rules shall have an intensity as
specified in Section 8 of Annex I to these Regulations so as to
be visible at the following minumum ranges
(a) In vessels of 50 metres or more in length
- a masthead light, 6 miles;
- a sidelight, 3 miles;
- a stemlight, 3 miles;
- a towing light, 3 miles;
- a white, red, green or yellow all-round li~ht, 3 miles.

(b) In vessels of 12 metres or more in length but less than 50


metres in length:

- a masthead light, 5 miles; except that where the length of


the vessel is less
than 20 metres, 3 miles;
- a sidelight, 2 miles;
- a stemlight, 2 miles;
- a towing light, 2 miles;
- a white, red, green or yellow all-round light, 2 miles.
(c) In vessels of less than 12 metres in length:
- a masthead light, 2 miles;
- a sidelight, 1 miles;
- a stemlight, 2 miles;
- a towing light, 2 miles;
- a white, red, green or yellow all-round light, 2 miles.
(d) In inconspicious, partly submerged vessels or objects being
towed:
- a white all-round light, 3 miles.
Rule 23
Power-driven Vessels underway
(a) A power-driven vessel underway shall exhibit:
(i) a masthead light forward;
(ii) a second masthead light abaft of and higher than the
forward one; except that a vessel of less than 50 metres in
length shall not be obliged to exhibit such light but may do so;
(iii) sidelights;

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Capitulo 20 Reglamento de abordajes

(iv) a sternlight.
(b) An air-cushion vessel when operating in the non-displacement
mode shall, in addition to the lights prescribed in paragraph
(a) of this Rule, exhibit an all-round flashing yellow light.
(c) (i) a power-driven vessel of less than 12 metres in length
may in lieu of the lights prescribed in paragraph (a) of this
Rule exhibit an all-round white light and sidelights;
(ii) a power-driven vessel of less than 7 metres in length whose
maximum speed does not exceed 7 knots may in lieu of the lights
prescribed in paragraph (a) of this Rule exhibit an all-round
white light and shall, if practicable, also exhibit sidelights;
(iii) the masthead light or all-round white light on a power-
driven vessel of less than 12 metres in length may be displaced
from the fore and aft centreline of the vessel if centreline
fitting is not practicable, provided that the sidelights are
combined in one lantern which shall be carried on the
Rule 24
.
.
.
Rule 29
Pilot Vessels
(a) A vessel engaged on pilotage duty shall exhibit
(i) at or near the masthead, two all-round lights in a vertical
line, the upper being white and the lower red;
(ii) when underway, in addition, sidelights and a stemlight;
(iii) when at anchor, in addition to the lights prescribed in
subparagraph (i), the light, lights or shape prescribed in Rule
30 for vessels at anchor
(b) A pilot vessel when not engaged on pilotage duty shall
exhibit the lights or shapes prescribed for a similar vessel of
her length.
.
.
.

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Capitulo 20 Reglamento de abordajes

PART D - SOUND AND LIGHT SIGNALS


Rule 32
Definitions
(a) The word "whistle" means any sound signalling appliance
capable of producing the prescribed blasts and which complies
with the specifications in Annex III to these Regulations.
(b) The term "short blast" means a blast of about one second's
duration.
(c) The term "prolonged blast" means a blast of from four to six
seconds' duration.

Rule 33
Equipment for Sound Signals
(a) A vessel of 12 metres or more in length shall be provided
with a whistle and a bell and a vessel of 100 metres or more in
length shall, in addition, be provided with a gong, the tone and
sound of which cannot be confused with that of the bell. The
whistle, bell and gong shall comply with the specifications in
Annex III to these Regulations. The bell or gong or both may be
replaced by other equipment having the same respective sound
characteristics, provided that manual sounding of the prescribed
signals shall always be possible.
(b) A vessel of less than 12 metres in length shall not be
obliged to carry the sound signalling appliances prescribed in
paragraph (a) of this Rule but if she does not, she shall be
provided with some other means of making an efficient sound
signal.
Rule 34
Manoeuvring and Warning Signals
(a) When vessels are in sight of one another, a power-driven
vessel underway, when manoeuvring as authorized or required by
these Rules, shall indicate that manoeuvre by the following
signals on her whistle:
- one short blast to mean "I am altering my course to
starboard",
- two short blasts to mean "I am altering my course to port";
- three short blasts to mean "I am operating astern propulsion"
(b) Any vessel may supplement the whistle signals prescribed in
paragraph (a) of this Rule by light signals, repeated as
appropriate, whilst the manoeuvre is being carried out
(i) these light signals shall have the following significance

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Capitulo 20 Reglamento de abordajes

- one flash to mean "I am altering my course to starboard";


- two flashes to mean "I am altering my course to port";
- three flashes to mean "I am operating astern propulsion";
(ii) the duration of each flash shall be about one second, the
interval between flashes shall be about one second, and the
interval between successive signals shall be not less than ten
seconds;
(iii) the light used for this signal shall, if fitted, be an
all-round white light, visible at a minimum range of 5 miles,
and shall comply with the provisions of Annex I to these
Regulations.
(c) When in sight of one another in a narrow channel or fairway
(i) a vessel intending to overtake another shall in compliance
with Rule 9 (e) (i) indicate her intention by the following
signals on her whistle
- two prolonged blasts followed by one short blast to mean "I
intend to overtake you on your starboard side"
- two prolonged blasts followed by two short blasts to mean "I
intend to overtake you on your port side";
(ii) the vessel about to be overtaken when acting in accordance
with Rule 9 (e) (i) shall indicate her agreement by tile
following signal on her whistle:
- one prolonged, one short, one prolonged and one short blast,
in that order
(d) When vessels in sight of one another are approaching each
other and from any cause either vessel fails to understand the
intentions or actions of the other, or is in doubt whether
sufficient action is being taken by the other to avoid
collision, the vessel in doubt shall immediately indicate such
doubt by giving at least five short and rapid blasts on the
whistle. Such signal may be supplemented by a light signal of at
least five short and rapid flashes.

(e) A vessel nearing a bend or an area of a channel or fairway


where other vessels may be obscured by an intervening
obstruction shall sound one prolonged blast. Such signal shall
be answered with a prolonged blast by any approaching vessel
that may be within hearing around the bend or behind the
intervening obstruction.
(f) If whistles are fitted on a vessel at a distance apart of
more than 100 metres, one whistle only shall be used for giving
manoeuvring and warning signals.

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Rule 35
Sound Signals in restricted visibility
In or near an area of restricted visibility, whether by day or
night, the signals prescribed in this Rule shall be used as
follows:
(a) A power-driven vessel making way through the water shall
sound at intervals of not more than 2 minutes one prolonged
blast.
(b) A power-driven vessel underway but stopped and making no way
through the water shall sound at intervals of not more than 2
minutes two prolonged blasts in succession with an interval of
about 2 seconds between them.
(c) A vessel not under command, a vessel restricted in her
ability to manoeuvre, a vessel constrained by her draught, a
sailing vessel, a vessel engaged in fishing and a vessel engaged
in towing or pushing another vessel shall, instead of the
signals prescribed in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this Rule, sound
at intervals of not more than 2 minutes three blasts in
succession, namely one prolonged followed by two short blasts.
(d) A vessel engaged in fishing, when at anchor, and a vessel
restricted in her ability to manoeuvre when carrying out her
work at anchor, shall instead of the signals prescribed in
paragraph (g) of this Rule sound the signal prescribed in
paragraph (c) of this Rule.
(e) A vessel towed or if more than one vessel is towed the last
vessel of the tow, if manned, shall at intervals of not more
than 2 minutes sound four blasts in succession, namely one
prolonged followed by three short blasts. When practicable, this
signal shall be made immediately after the signal made by the
towing vessel.
(f) When a pushed vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are
rigidly connected in a composite unit they shall be regarded as
a power-driven vessel and shall give the signals prescribed in
paragraphs (a) or (b) of this Rule.
(g) A vessel at anchor shall at intervals of not more than one
minute ring the bell rapidly for about 5 seconds. In a vessel of
100 metres or more in length the bell shall be sounded in the
forepart of the vessel and immediately after the ringing of the
bell the gong shall be sounded rapidly for about 5 seconds in
the after part of the vessel. A vessel at anchor may in addition
sound three blasts in succession, namely one short, one
prolonged and one short blast, to give warning of her position
and of the possibility of collision to an approaching vessel.

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Capitulo 20 Reglamento de abordajes

(h) A vessel aground shall give the bell signal and if required
the gong signal prescribed in paragraph (g) of this Rule and
shall, in addition, give three separate and distinct strokes on
the bell immediately before and after the rapid ringing of the
bell. A vessel aground may in addition sound an appropriate
whistle signal.
(i) A vessel of less than 12 metres in length shall not be
obliged to give the above-mentioned signals but, if she does
not, shall make some other efficient sound signal at intervals
of not more than 2 minutes.
(ii) A pilot vessel when engaged on pilotage duty may in
addition to the signals prescribed in paraghaphs (a), (b) or (g)
of this Rule sound an identity signal consisting of four short
blasts.
Rule 36
Signals to attract Attention
If necessary to attract the attention of another vessel any
vessel may make light or sound signals that cannot be mistaken
for any signal authorized elsewhere in these Rules, or may
direct the beam of her searchlight in the direction of the
danger, in such a way as not to embarrass any vessel. Any light
to attract the attention of another vessel shall be such that it
cannot be mistaken for any aid to navigation. For the purpose of
this Rule the use of light intensity intermittent or revolving
lights, such as strobe lights, shall be avoided.
Rule 37
Distress Signals
When a vessel is in distress and requires assistance she shall
use or exhibit the signals described in Annex IV to these
Regulations.
PART E - EXEMPTIONS
Rule 38
Exemptions
Any vessel (or class of vessels) provided that she complies with
the requirements of the International Regulations for Preventing
Collisions at Sea, 1960, the keel of which is laid or which is
at a corresponding stage of construction before the entry into

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 20 Reglamento de abordajes

force of these Regulations may be exempted from compliance


therewith as follows:
(a) The installation of lights with ranges prescribed in Rule
22, until four years after the date of entry into force of these
Regulations.
(b) The installation of lights with colour specifications as
prescribed in Section 7 of Annex I to these Regulations, until
four years after the date of entry into force of these
Regulations.
(c) The repositioning of lights as a result of conversion from
Imperial to metric units and rounding off measurement figures,
permanent exemption.

(d) (i) The repositioning of masthead lights on vessels of less


than 150 metres in length, resulting from the prescriptions of
Section 3 (a) of Annex I to these Regulations, permanent
exemption.
(ii) The repositioning of masthead lights on vessels of 150
metres or more in length, resulting from the prescriptions of
Section 3(a) of Annex I to these Regulations, until nine years
after the date of entry into force of these Regulations.
(e) The repositioning of masthead lights resulting from the
prescriptions of Section 2(b) of Annex I to these Regulations,
until nine years after the date of entry into force of these
Regulations.
(f) The repositioning of sidelights resulting from the
prescriptions of Sections 2(g) and 3(b) of Annex I to these
Regulations, until nine years after the date of entry into force
of these Regulations.
(g) The requirements for sound signal appliances prescribed in
Annex III to these Regulations, until nine years after the date
of entry into force of these Regulations.
(h) The repositioning of all-round lights resulting from the
prescription of section 9(b) of Annex I to these Regulations,
permanent exemption.

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Capitulo 21 Documentacin

CAPITULO 21 DOCUMENTACION

Behave
T T comportarse, comportarse como
es debido, conducirse,
Dispatches
T T Despachante.
Factual
T T objetivo, actual, basado en
hechos, basado en los hechos,
exacto
Neatly
T T pulcramente, aseadamente, con
esmero, limpiamente,
lindamente, ntidamente
Regarding
T T relativo a, respecto a, tocante
a
Tallymen apuntador
Shoremen Portuario
Sluices trancanil

The ships log book

The purpose of the LOG BOOK is to record the ships progress so


that her position by dead reckoning may be found at any time. It
is an important book of reference with respect to anything that
occurs on board. There are few documents on the vessel of as much
importance and concern as the official log book. It is required
by the law and must be kept in strict accordance with statutory
requirements.

Usual daily entries made when at sea:

The ordinary navigation entries are: the courses steered and


distance by log for each watch of four hours. Compass error for
standard and gyro compasses. Direction and force of the wind.
State of the sea and weather information regarding the sky,
visibility, air and sea temperature.

When sailing along the coast:

We must record the time of passing the principal points, and


distance off them abeam, also ships position by cross bearings,
sextant angles, etc.

Entries in heavy weather:

The kind of sea that is running, that is, whether a cross sea or
a very high sea, etc., also how the vessel is behaving, if
labouring heavily and whether shipping heavy seas; if there is
any evidence of straining in any part of the vessel, and if
anything is carried or waned away. How the engine is going, if
the propeller is racing much, hatches inspected, etc.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 21 Documentacin

It is very important to have entries of bad weather in the log


book ,so that in case the cargo gets damage through stress of
weather, the log book may be produced in evidence thereof.

Entries in foggy or thick weather:

The time it came and which fog signal were started, speed of the
vessel. Any others to the engines and times they were given.

Entries after anchoring in a river or harbour:

Depth of water ,time of anchor let go, amount of cable out,


direction of wind and tide, and the bearings of some fixed
objects ashore.

Entries in port:

Hours during which discharging or loading is carried on, and


amount put out or taken in, if possible, also the draught both
aft & forward on arrival and departure. If any delay is caused
by rain, meals, etc., or any other circumstances.

Usual entries in manoeuvre and port:

27/6 1854 End of sea passage.


1906 Pilot aboard.
1912 Let go stb. anchor
1918 V/L brought up. 3 shackles in the water.
1924 Pilot away.
V/L at anchor awaiting berth/tide.
Bearing frequently checked.
28/6 0630 Pilot aboard. Started heaving anchor.
0642 Anchor aweigh. Proceeding to berth.
Proceeding to berth.
0654 First line ashore forward.
0658 Line ashore aft. Vessel brought
alongside.
0712 V/L secure in position.
0718 Pilot away. Hatches opened up.
0800 Labour aboard. Commence
discharging/loading all holds
1200 Meal time break.
/1400
1520 Stopped discharging operations due the
heavy rain.
1545 Resume discharging.

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Capitulo 21 Documentacin

1800 Complete discharging for this day.


29/6 0800 Started discharging cargo all holds
1130 Completed discharging hold 3
1200 Meal time break.
/1400
1412 Shell 2 barge alongside. Started
bunkering.
1524 Ended bunkering.
1718 Completed discharging all cargo this
port.
1745 Steering gear ,telegraph, whistle and
communications tested. Found OK.
1815 Pilot aboard.
1830 Started to single up.
1842 All lines in. V/L proceeding out of
harbour
1845 Pilot away
1900 Full ahead on passage.

...Instructions as to keeping this log book...

In addition to the ordinary Navigation Entries the attention of


the Master and mate is specially called to the following
instructions:-

All logs to contain the following careful ,full, and correct


entries:
I. Accidents to crew or vessel, damages, and all unusual
circumstances.
II. a)The time each day of commencing to load or discharge.
b)Details and duration of any delays on account of weather,
or otherwise.
c)Time of finishing work each day.
d)Quantity of cargo loaded or discharged each day.
e)Names of each days tallymen.
f)By whom winches have been run, i.e ,crew or shoremen.
III. Receipts and duplicates of receipts for cargo discharged or
loaded to be carefully filed on board, that same may be
forwarded to Owners if called for.

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Capitulo 21 Documentacin

IV. One page in each Log Book is reserved for List of Crew on
board, and must contain date of joining, and in the case of
men leave the ship aboard, the date of their leaving and
cause.
V. Sluices, steering gear and windlass to be kept in good
order, and weekly entry to be made.
VI. The regulation lights to be kept burning brightly from
sunset to sunrise, and daily entry made to that effect.
VII. At sea the deck is always to be in charge of a Certificate
Officer, and all courses steered to be entered, as per
standard compass.
VIII. No erasion should ever be made ,and great care should be
taken to avoid having to make any alteration. If any
alteration is necessary, it should be made by ruling a line
through the part required to be altered but not so as to
render it illegible- and the correction should be then made
and must be initialled and dated.

---------------------

Note: All entries in the Log Book to be examined by Master, and


each day to be signed by him and the Mate: Loog Books to be
forwarded to owners on completion of the voyage ,if instructions
to the contrary have not previously been received.

Evidences in investigations.

Certain items of evidence, such as log books, Masters reports


and notebooks, are fundamental importance in the investigation
of any type of incidents which may occur on board a vessel.

A number of different types of log books will be kept on board


every vessel. These will include the official log, the deck or
mates log, engine room log, rough logs, as well as the radio
log, and sick bay log.

Judges and arbitrators place the great evidential value on these


logs as a contemporaneous record of the vessel. Therefore ,it is
of a paramount importance that all log books are maintained in a
orderly manner and fully and accurately record are relevant
factual information. Movements books, bell books, or any other
type of rough logs are also important items of evidence and
should be maintained in a neat and orderly manner.

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Capitulo 21 Documentacin

The Master should ensure that the officers and crew are aware of
the importance of a log book, and take care in making entries.
Entries in the log book should always be written neatly in ink.
If a mistake is made, a single line should be drawn through the
relevant passage. Words should never be erased, either by
rubbing out, or by painting with erasing fluid. Erasures appear
suspicious when log books are examined by the opposing party to
a dispute, and, in any event, techniques are available whereby
words which have been erased can be read. Furthermore, a judge
or arbitrator examining a log book which has many erasures and
is untidy may draw adverse inferences about the way a vessel is
generally maintained.

CREW
Captain Capitn
Chief mate Primer oficial
Deck officer Oficial de cubierta
Cadet Alumno
Chief engineer Jefe de maquinas
Engineer Oficial de maquinas
Able seaman Marinero preferente
Boatswain, bosum Contramaestre
Catering department Departamento de cmara
Cock Cocinero
Steward Camarero
Donkeyman Calderetero
Radio officer Radio
Galley boy Marmitn
Greaser, oilers Engrasador
Helmsman Timonel
Ordinary seaman Mozo
Mate Piloto
Purser Sobrecargo
Ratings Subalternos
Store keeper Paolero
Hostess Azafata

Absconds evadirse, escapar, fugarse,


esconderse, huir
Bill of health Permiso de sanidad
Bill of landing Conocimiento de embarque
Bear
T T soportar, aguantar, conllevar,
padecer, sobrellevar, sufrir;
producir, devengar, rendir;
llevar cargando, cargar, dar a
luz;
Discharge despido, destitucin

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Capitulo 21 Documentacin

duly
T T debidamente, apropiadamente,
como es debido,
Longshoreman Estibador, portuario
Lack falta, ausencia, carecimiento
Perform ejecutar, actuar, desempear
Refused rehusar, declinar
Thereof de eso, de ah, de all
Family name surname, last name
T T apellido
First name first name
Granted
T T a condicin que
Pratique Permiso de acceso
Oath Juramento
Steerage Pasajero tercera clase
Therein
T T all dentro, en ese lugar, en
ese sentido, en eso, en esto
Regardless of a pesar de, pese a, sin
preocuparse por
Visa
T T T visar, refrendar, visar un
T

pasaporte

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 21 Documentacin

U.S. Department of Justice


Immigration and Naturalization Service Passenger List Crew List

Prior to arrival in the United States, complete a separate form for a) working crew; and b) passengers and supernumeraries. In
addition to its initial completion, the crew list shall be updated to reflect crew changes and other relevant activity (or lack thereof)
until the vessel departs the United States.

Vessel Name: ________________________ Nationality: ____________________ Official Number: __________________


Last foreign port (Place & Country): ______________________________ Date sailed from foreign: __________________
Date of Arrival in U.S.: _________ Arrival Port: __________ # of Crew (including Master): _____ # of Passengers: _____
Agent at Arrival (Name & Address): _____________________________________________________________________

Will crew perform longshore work while vessel is in the United States?
[ ] NO [ ] YES (Provide applicable INA Section 258 Exemption): __________________

PROPOSED ITINERARY

Next U.S.Port(s) Arrival Date Vessel Agent (Name & Address)

PASSENGER LIST CREW LIST - Page 1 of ____


List individuals alphabetically. Crew who join the vessel subsequent to its arrival while in the United States must be added to the
original list and the appropriate date recorded in the Date Joined column. The Date Separated column must be used when a
listed crewman deserts, absconds or is separated from the vessel while it is in the United States. Any crewman designated as
REFUSED in the Government Use Only column is to be detained on the vessel at all times.
Family First Name Date of Nationality/ Position/ Date Date Inspection Status
Name & Initial Birth Document # Place Embarked Joined Separated (INS Use Only)
(Crew Only) If crewman joined after Specify DISCHARGED,
vessels arrival in U.S. DESERTED, etc. Checked box indicates subsequent
parole.

RECEIPT FOR CREW LIST (INS Use Only). I-418 Receipt Number at right indicates that the Immigration and Naturalization
Service has received the CREW LIST containing the names of all members of crew, including Master, on board said vessel at time
of its arrival.

SUMMARY OF DEPARTURE

Vessel Agent (at Departure): Following this vessels departure from the United States, ensure that crew list reflects all crew
additions and separations and is promptly submitted to the Immigration and Naturalization Service office at the port of departure.
Summarize the departure circumstances by providing the following information:

Agent at Departure (Name & Address): ____________________________________________________________


Date of Departure: ________ Port of Departure: _______________Total Added Crew: _____ Total Separated Crew: _____

MASTERS CERTIFICATION

MASTER: Execute the following oath before a Customs Officer as to all arriving passengers on all vessels, and to a
Customs Officer and an Immigration Officer as to all departing crew on United States Flag Vessels, and before an
Immigration Officer authorized to administer oaths as to all departing passengers on vessels:

I certify that Customs baggage declaration requirements have been made known to incoming passengers, that any
required Customs baggage declarations have been or will simultaneously herewith be filed as required by law and
regulation with the proper Customs officer; and that the responsibilities devolving upon this vessel in connection therewith,
if any, have been or will be discharged as required by law or regulation before the proper Customs officer. I further certify
that there are no steerage passengers on board this vessel (46 U.S.C. 151-163).

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Capitulo 21 Documentacin

Signature of Master: ______________________________________

INSTRUCTIONS

ALL NAMES AND OTHER DATA INSCRIBED ON THIS FORM MUST BE IN THE ENGLISH
LANGUAGE.

PASSENGERS: Deliver one complete alphabetical passenger list, regardless of nationality, to United
States Public Health Service, United States Immigration Service, and two such lists to United States
Customs Bureau on arrival at first port in the United States.

CREW LIST VISA APPLICATION: Submit form in duplicate to U.S. consular officer, specifying each
alien crewman not in possession of a valid individual visa or lawful resident alien card.

ARRIVING CREW: Deliver one complete alphabetical crew list, regardless of nationality, to United
States Public Health Service, United States Immigration Service, and two such lists to United States
Customs Bureau on arrival at first port in the United States. Where a crewman is a returning resident,
show his/her alien registration receipt number where prompted for a document number. Where prompted
for a crewmans position/place embarked, list each crewmans position or title and the place where the
crewman signed on with the vessel.

CHANGES IN CREW: If an alien crewman is separating from the vessel while in the United States (and
will not be returning), discharge authorization must first be obtained from the United States Immigration
Service via Form I-408(Application to Pay Off or Discharge Alien Crewman) and the appropriate date of
separation must be recorded in the Date Separated column of this form for that crew member, along
with the specification DISCHARGED. If a crewman deserts or absconds, the date of the crewmans
departure from the vessel must be recorded in the Date Separated column with the specification
DESERTED or ABSCONDED. If a crew member joins the vessel subsequent to its arrival in the United
States, add the crewmans name and other requested information at the next available blank line of the
list and record the appropriate date in the Date Joined column.

DEPARTING CREW: When the vessel departs the United States, complete the SUMMARY OF
DEPARTURE section and deliver one complete list (whether or not there have been crew changes) to
the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service at the port of departure.

Bill of health
Certificate carried by a ship showing that its last port of call
was free of disease and, therefore, that ship is sanitary and
its crew free of disease; bill must be issued and signed by
designated port authorities; clean bill enables ship to be
granted pratique (use of desired port); developed in 16th
century as part of European quarantine system

The Bill of Health is the certificate issued by local medical


authorities indicating the general health conditions in the port
of departure or in the ports of call. The Bill of Health must
have been visaed before departure by the Consul of the country
of destination.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 21 Documentacin

When a vessel has free pratique, this means that the vessel has
a clean Bill of Health certifying that there is no question of
contagious disease and that all quarantine regulations have been
complied with, so that people may embark and disembark.

Bill of Lading

Abbreviation: B/L, plural Bs/L

A document which evidences a contract of carriage by sea.


The document has the following functions:
1. A receipt for goods, signed by a duly authorised person on
behalf of the carriers.
2. A document of title to the goods described therein.
3. Evidence of the terms and conditions of carriage agreed
upon between the two parties.
At the moment 3 different models are used:
1. A document for either Combined Transport or Port to Port
shipments depending whether the relevant spaces for place
of receipt and/or place of delivery are indicated on the
face of the document.
2. A classic marine Bill of Lading in which the carrier is
also responsible for the part of the transport actually
performed by himself.
3. Sea Waybill: A non-negotiable document, which can only be
made out to a named consignee. No surrender of the document
by the consignee is required.

Clean Bill of Lading is a Bill of Lading which does not contain


any qualification about the apparent order and condition of the
goods to be transported (it bears no stamped clauses on the
front of the B/L). It bears no superimposed clauses expressly
declaring a defective condition of the goods or packaging
(resolution of the ICS 1951).

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 21 Documentacin

IMO General declaration

1.Name and description of ship 2.Por of arrival / departure 3.Date-time of arraival/departure

4.Nationality of ship 5.Name of master 6.Port arrived from / port destination

7.Certificate of registry (port:date:number) 8.Name and address of shisp agent

9.Gross tonnage 10.Net tonnage

11.Position of ship in the port 8berth or station)

12.Brief particulars of voyage (previous and subsequent ports of call; underline where remaining cargo will nb discharged)

13. Brief description of the cargo

14.Number of crew (inc.master) 15.Numbers of passengers 16.Remarks

Attached documents
(indicate number of copies)
17.Cargo declaratio 18.Ships stores declaration

19.Crew list 20.Passanger list 21.Date and signature by master, authorised


agent or officer

22.Effects declaration(+) 23.Maritime declaration of helth (*)

IMO FAL FORM 1 04-03 (*) Only on arrival.

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Capitulo 21 Documentacin

Port of Zeebugger

Prearrival info
T T

Health regulations
The master must sign the Maritime Declaration of Health
issued by pilot.
Required documents upon arrival
(Remark : number of copies for each document will soon be
added to this list).
o Declaration of Health
o List of Dangerous Goods
o Crew List
o Passenger List
o Stowaway List
o Cargo Manifest
o Freight List (prepared by agents)
o Customs Provision List (prepared by agents)
o General Declaration (Benelux 20, prepared by agents)
o Personal effects list
o Certificate of Registry
o International Tonnage Certificate (Oslo 69), or
National Tonnage Certificate (if ITC not available)
o Civil Liability Certificate (if more than 2,000 T oil
in bulk)
o International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate
o Oil Record Book
o Passenger Ship Safety Certificate
o Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate
o Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate
o Cargo Ship Radio Construction Certificate of Exemption
o Load Line Certificate of Exemption

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Capitulo 21 Documentacin

o International Certificate of Fitness for carriage of


dangerous chemicals in bulk
o International Certificate of Fitness for carriage of
liquified gases in bulk.
Note : all passports or seaman's discharge books must be
kept available.

o Upon arival

The master is required to hand in properly


completed, dated and signed IMO-form crew list
and passenger list in duplicate as soon as
possible - within 12 hours after arrival at the
latest - to the office of the Maritime and River
Police, Veerbootstraat 1, 8380 Zeebrugge, tel.
050 55 76 30 and fax 050 55 76 46. They can do
so themselves or through their agent.

The master is required to report immediately to


the Maritime Commissioner any stowaways should
there be any on board his ship. The master will
be held responsible if stowaways disembark
without permission of the above mentioned
authority.

Yachtmen and passengers shall be in possession of


a valid passport (or ID-card), and eventually a
Benelux or Schengen visa.

o During the ship's stay in port

Crew members of seagoing vessels are allowed to


go ashore during the time their ship is berthed
in a Belgian port. The freedom of movement of
seamen on shore-leave, who are not in possession
of a valid travel document is limited to the
municipality where the ship is berthed and the
adjacent municipalities. It is, however,
recommended to be in possession of a document
proving one's identity.

In case crew members travel beyond this area,


they have to be in possession of a valid
passport, eventually with a valid Benelux or
Schengen visa. If the last port of call was in a
non-Schengen country, they have to apply to the
Maritime Commissioner's Office to have their
passport or visa stamped inbound. Before sailing,
they have to apply to the same office to have
their document stamped outbound.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 21 Documentacin

In case a crew member intends to sign off or sign


on, he has to apply to the Maritime
Commissioner's Office with his passport. If
signing off and when necessary, he eventually can
obtain a transit visa at this office (19.80 ).

o Upon departure

The master is to give notice in due time - two


hours before the actual sailing time at the
latest - to the Maritime Commissioner of his
intention to sail. After the departure control by
the Maritime Police, crew members and passengers
are no longer allowed to go ashore.

Non-EU passengers and yachtmen shall apply to the


Maritime Commissioner's Office to have their
documents stamped outbound, only when the next
port of call is in a non-Schengen country.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 22 Sociedades de clasificacin e inspecciones

CAPITULO 22 SOCIEDADES DE CLASIFICACIN & INSPECCIONES

Draw up, to Redactar


Compulsory Obligatorio
entail
T T conllevar, implicar, traer consigo
Intended
T T Pretendido deseado
faithfully
T T fielmente, lealmente
fitness
T T adaptabilidad, aptitud
nowadays
T T hoy en da, actualmente
provided
T T a condicin que;
Scantlings Escantillones
submit
T T proponer, someter a
consideracin
Survey Reconocimiento, inspeccin.
statutory
T T estatutario, establecido por la ley, reglamentario
themselves
T T ellos mismos, se
Underwriters Aseguradores

Classification societies

The primary purpose of this societies is to determine the


structural and mechanical fitness of ships and other marine
structures for their intended purpose. It does this through a
procedure known as classification.

The principal maritime nations have Classification societies


whose purpose is to survey vessels so as to ensure that ship are
properly built, equipped and maintenance. This societies draw up
rules governing the construction of ships. They have surveyors,
who sees that the ships are built in accordance with the rules
and who also survey ships periodically, to make sure that they
are kept in proper condition. Each society also keeps and
publishes a REGISTER BOOK, in which all the important particulars
of each ship are faithfully and accurately recorded.

The scantlings (sizes) of the materials to be used, as well as


certain items of equipment (anchor, cables, and warps) can be
found from Rule book of a Society.

The British society is Lloids Register of Shipping. Other


societies which are recognised by marine underwriters are:
Bureau Veritas France.
American Bureau of Shipping ABS- USA.
Germanisher Lloyd Germany.
Norske Verites-DNV- Norway.
Japanese Marine Corporation Japan.

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Capitulo 22 Sociedades de clasificacin e inspecciones

Registro Espaol Spain.

Apart from, and in addition to official national registration,


the vast majority of ships are classed or registered with one or
other Classification society or Shipping Registers. Such
registration is not compulsory, but is attended with so many
advantages that an unclassified ship is nowadays a comparative
rarity. In the absence of these registers much difficulties
would be experienced by marine underwriters, chartering brokers,
bankers...and other who need a ready access to the latest and
most reliable information regarding the ships in which they are
interested.

Lloyds Register of shipping.

Well over ninety per cent of British tonnage and more than a
third of the worlds tonnage is classed in Lloyd, which should
not be confused with corporation of Lloyds underwriters. It is
the latter which is familiarly referred to as Lloyds of
London and the former which gives points to the expression A1
at Lloyds.

Classes of Ships:

Ships built to the satisfaction of the societies are assigned a


class, which they normally retain throughout their life,
provided that they submit themselves for the required surveys
and are properly maintained.

Lloyds Rules quote different classes, in accordance to


following notations an symbols:

Class 100 A 1: Assigned to seagoing ships built in


accordance with the Society Rules and
Regulations for the draught required.

Class 100 A 1: Assigned to sea-going tankers intended to


oil tankers carry oil in bulk.

Class 100 A 1 Ore carried


Liquified gas carrier
Trawler
Stern trawler
Fishing vessel
Tug
Hopper barge

A vessel built to Lloyds Highest Class will be given this


character ? L.M.C. ? 100 A 1

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Capitulo 22 Sociedades de clasificacin e inspecciones

? Indicates built under survey which means


that all steel was manufactured at an
approved steelworks and that a surveyor
supervised the building. Also ,all the
plans have been submitted and approved.

L.M.C Lloyds Machinery Certificate

100 A Scantlings in accordance with the rules

1 Equipment in accordance with the rules

Periodical Surveys:

All steel ship classed with the Society are subject to survey in
accordance with the requirements of the rules. Ship should be
examined in dry dock or slipway approximately once a year ,and
the intervals between such examinations is not to exceed two
years.

This is done to make sure that a ship is maintained in a fit


condition to maintain her class.

Special surveys:

These surveys become due at four-yearly intervals, the firs four


years from the date of built or date of special survey for
classification , and thereafter 4 years from the date of the
previous special survey.

Surveys of machinery:

Main and auxiliary engines are required to be submitted for


complete survey concurrently with the special hull survey unless
they have been completely surveyed within the previous 12
months.

Certificates of seaworthiness:

If during her voyage a ship sustains an accident to hull or


machinery, or if she ground and refloat, even though the danmage
is so slight that there appears to be no reason why she should
not continue on her voyage, the master should on arrival to the
next port arrange for a survey and obtain a Certificate of
Seaworthiness. An official log book entry should have been made
to record the occurrence and protest should be noted at first
opportunity.

The local Lloyds agent may be consulted for advice and


recommendation as to the surveyor to be employed.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 22 Sociedades de clasificacin e inspecciones

DNV Ship Classification

Currently classify more than 5100 ships totalling more than 100
million grt. This constitutes 16 percent of the world's fleet in
tonnage terms.
Ship Classification is a system for safeguarding life, property
and the environment at sea. It entails verification against a
set of requirements during design, construction and operation of
ships and offshore units. These requirements are based on the
accumulated experience from DNVs large classed fleet, research
and development and almost 140 years of experience. Our
surveyors stationed around the world work with customers to
ensure compliance throughout the lifetime of the classified
object.
Registers in DNV Maritime
DNV Maritime's registers, including up-to-date vessel class and
survey status, Register of Vessels, Class Suspensions and
Withdrawals, Approved Service Suppliers, and Approved
Manufacturers and Products

Statutory Certification
DNV operate a world wide network of survey stations and is
authorised by more than 120 flag administrations to carry out
surveys and, in most cases, issue statutory certificates on
their behalf

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Capitulo 23 Comunicaciones

CAPITULO 23 COMUNICACIONES

Acknowledge receipt Acuse de recibo


Attention Atencin
Band Banda
Broadcast Radiodifusin
Call sing Distintivo de llamada
Depth of modulation Profundidad de modulacin
Jam, to Causar interferencias
Listen, to Escuchar
Out Terminacin de conversacin
Over Cambio
Radio log Diario de radio
Read, to Or
Range Alcance
Reply, to Contestar
Replying Contestando
Relay Retrasmitir
Shift frequency Cambiar frecuencia
Calling Llamando
How do you read me? Como me recibe
Understood Entendido
Switch over Cambio de canal

The concept of maritime communications

Maritime Communications are varied as shown below:


i. Emergency and Safety Communications
The Emergency Communication is the communication rendered when
an aircraft or vessel becomes embroided in a dangerous
situation, while the Safety Communication is the communication
rendered when there is a need to prevent navigation accidents.
ii. Navigation Assistance Communication
This is a type of radio communication for navigation utilizing
the radio wave and estimating the aircraft, vessel position or
its direction and distance against a radio wave source point.
iii. Telecommunication Work Communication
This is a radio communication used to provide telecommunications
with a vessel.

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Capitulo 23 Comunicaciones

iv. Work Communication


This is a self-sustaining radio communication rendered between a
coast station on land and a ship station, or between ship
stations themselves.
v. Harbor Communication
This is a radio communication rendered within or around a harbor
in order to control the navigation of any nearby ships, move
those ships, and secure their safety as well as human safety in
an emergency.

Maritime Communication System

i. Radio Telegraph and Radio Communication of Medium,


Intermediate, and High Frequencies
This is the oldest Maritime Communication system. (Radio
Telegraph begun between Choshi Coast Station and ships in 1908.)

Distance Range: This depends on the antenna power or whether it


is in the day time or late evening, while a possible distance
can be about 300 km for the Medium Frequency and about 500 km
for the Intermediate Frequency. As for the High Frequency, it's
possible to have a distance from several hundred to several
thousand kilometers, and by selecting the optimized frequency
utilizing ionospheric reflection depending on the season or the
time of day, it can realize worldwide communication.

Modes of transmission: 2 cycle single message transmission mode


or 1 cycle single message transmission mode.
ii. 27 MHz Band Wireless Telephone
1WDSB was institutionalized in July, 1955 as the cordless
telephone system for small fishing vessels, and SSB was
established in November, 1960. After 1965, its popularization
spread rapidly with the miniaturization of the equipment and the
financial aid of the subsidy, etc. WDSB is, in particular,
small-sized and easy to operate, so it spread at the fastest
rate as the cordless telephone system for small fishing vessels.

Distance Range: 1WDSB about 50km, SSB about 90km 1 cycle single
message transmission mode

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Capitulo 23 Comunicaciones

iii. 40MHz Band Cordless Telephone


This was institutionalized in June, 1983 for the coastal fishery
and leisure ships with the demand for the wireless
communication, leveraging both the wired and wireless
communication equipment on the coastal station to connect to the
public line, enabling the direct communication between the
vessel and the land-based resources such as search and rescue or
medical institutions.

Distance Range: about 50km; 1 cycle single message transmission


mode or 2 cycle alternate operating mode
iv. International VHF
This was institutionalized in September, 1964 and is called
"International VHF Cordless Telephone" using "the frequency band
between 156MHz and 174MHz" listed in the table of the S18 in RR
appendix, and is utilized for some purposes including harbor
service communication, electrical communication service,
navigation service, and distress safety communication.

Distance Range: about 50km

Depending on the channel, 1 cycle single message transmission


mode or 2 cycle alternate operating mode
v. Marine VHF
This cordless system was institutionalized in December, 1991 to
spread the wireless system to pleasure boats and other types of
vessels navigating only in coastal waters, using a part of the
frequency of the International VHF, whose wireless equipment is
divided into the deferment and portable types.

Marine VHF also enables ship-to-ship communication,


communication with leisure-purpose coastal stations, the receipt
of navigation alerts and weather information, communication with
the Maritime Safety Agency in emergency, and communication with
large vessels.
vi. 400MHz Band Cordless Telephone
This was institutionalized in June, 1986 to spread the wireless
system to pleasure boats including motor boats and yachts, and

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 23 Comunicaciones

is principally used by the Small Size Safety Association, Inc.


(That is why it's sometimes called "Shouankyou.")

This system is especially effective for vessels which have too


complicated a body structure to be loaded with the wireless
equipment at the 27MHz and 40MHz bands, or vessels whose engine
noise is extreme for the 27MHz band.

Distance Range: about 30km; 1 cycle single message transmission


mode
vii. Marine Community Horn
This was institutionalized in 1988 (official name: Fishery Area
Information System) to be used by such small-sized vessels
operating in the coastal waters that have too complicated a body
structure to be loaded with the wireless equipment or have no
power generator a board. Marine Community Horn uses the
frequency at 400MHz and adopts the MCA mode, securing the call
confidentiality and enabling group calls or general calls in
emergencies.

Distance Range: about 30km Qualification of Radio Operator: Not


required (Portable Station)
viii. Inmarsat Mobile Satellite Communication
The Inmarsat (International Maritime Satellite Organization )
was inaugurated as an international agency in 1979 to ameliorate
maritime radio communication, succeeding the marisat system in
place in the US since 1982, and has been in operation as a
worldwide maritime satellite communication system.

Each of the 4 satellites is distributed over the equator above


the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Atlantic Ocean
(east and west), so its service area is targeted as the entire
sea area (within the latitude of 70 degrees) except for the
polar regions.

One coastal ground station is made to be the Network


Coordination Station (NCS) according to the sea area and type
out of lots of coastal stations, and completes tasks including
the assignment of the frequency for the communication in the

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Capitulo 23 Comunicaciones

appropriate sea area. In Japan, KDDI is providing this service


as a party in the operation agreement.
ix. N-START Mobile Satellite Communication
This service was initiated in March, 1996 to succeed the service
of the coastal cordless telephone ("Ship telephone" which ends
its service on March31, 1999) and expand its service area, and
complement the service area of the ground system portable
telephone.

There are two categories of the fixed type and the portable type
of terminals: Single Mode (which connects only to the satellite)
and Dual Mode (which is given the priority to connect to the
ground system, otherwise connects to the satellite.) The calling
covers the Japanese mainland and the sorrounding the mailnland
marine area extending approximately 200 nautical miles.
x. Shipboard Communication Equipment
This is small-sized portable wireless equipment that deals only
with the following kinds of communications (40-3, Chapter 2,
Enforcement Regulation):
1. communication essential for the ship navigation tasks
including ship operation and cargo handling, which is
conducted within the vessel body
2. communication for rescue activity or rescue training,
which is conducted between the vessel and the craft in
distress.
3. communication for ship-operating assistance, which is
conducted between a towboat and the towed ship.
4. communication for the berthing and mooring of a
vessel, which is conducted between the vessel and the pier,
etc.
xi. Radio/Buoy
This is a system that targets a buoy with in-built wireless
equipment to receive radio waves emitted from there and measure
their direction between the ship and other points.

There are the 4 main radio/buoy systems as follows:


1. The system that repeats the emission and the pause of
the radio wave at all times (general radio/buoy)

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Capitulo 23 Comunicaciones

2. The system which has an in-built timer and repeats the


emission and the pause of the radio wave for a specified
duration of time initiated from a specified time
(radio/buoy with a timer)
3. The system which emits the radio wave only when it
receives a selection call (sel-call buoy)
4. The system which emits the radio wave only when it
receives the radar radio wave (radar buoy)
3. Navigation Assist Radio System
There are 18 medium frequency radio beacon stations and 4 Loran
C stations, etc. as the navigation assist radio system that
unitarily receives the radio wave emitted from the source point
on the ground. The Differential GPS has been operated since
April, 1999 as a higher-accuracy positioning system.
i. Loran C
This is a kind of the ground radio determination system and one
of the hyperbola navigation systems that determine the point
from the intersection point of the hyperbolas measured by the
difference of the pulse wave arriving time.

Loran C is a system evolved from the A mode (1,750kHz -


1,950kHz: already abolished) put into use in US in the 1940s and
uses the radio wave of the long frequency band.

The effective distance is between 1,500km (daytime) and 4,000km


(night).

The measurement accuracy is between several hundred meters and


several thousand meters.

The Loran C in Japanese waters is currently operated under the


Maritime Safety Agency and by Korea after it was transferred
from the US Coast Guard in July, 1993.
ii. Satellite Navigation Equipment (GPS)
This is a system which measures position by receiving the radio
wave from the military navigation positioning satellite NAVSTAR
developed and managed by the Pentagon.

4 GPSs are placed on each circle orbit with the tilt angle of
55'6" at the altitude of about 20,000km. The total number of

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 23 Comunicaciones

these GPSs is 24. GPS has been operated since December 8, 1993
when the Pentagon submitted the declaration about the official
operation for public welfare.

This is designed so that more than 4 satellites can be within


the visible range all the time and the distance of each
satellite can be measured by selecting 4 satellites randomly and
receiving the time signal from any point on the earth. As the
positions of those 4 satellites can be measured, the time
deviation for the user's 3D position and time can be estimated
with those parameters.
iii. Medium Frequency Radio Beacon
This is a radio beacon targeted at the medium and short
distances utilizing the radio wave at the medium frequency band.

It sends the beacon sign and long sound of its own station at a
regular time interval and the vessel measures the direction by
receiving the corresponding radio wave by the radio direction
finder. Finding multiple directions enables the vessel to
determine its own position.

Some radio stations transmit sound weather information targeted


for the vessel.
iv. RAMARK Beacon
This is a radio beacon to send the sequential pulse received by
the vessel radar (operation initiated in May, 1969).

The position of the emission station is shown as a dashed bright


line from the center towards the station on the vessel radar at
9GHz.

Positioning Distance: about 40km


v. Vessel Radar
This is a radio navigation radar in the vessel.

The vessel radar is a pulse mode radar that uses the radio wave
of the 3GHz, 5GHz, and 9GHz bands to show the relative position
of the other ships or the land coasts by the PPI Display Mode.

Frequency-specific function

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Capitulo 23 Comunicaciones

3GHz band: long-distance use without regard to the


weather, but with a low resolution
9GHz band: short-distance use with a high resolution
5GHz band: intermediate performance between 3GHz and
9GHz, while difficult to maintain
4. Maritime Distress Safety System
GMDSS (Global Maritime Distress and Safety System) is a system
in which the alter emitted from the vessel in distress, without
regard to the sea area, can be received with centainly by land
rescue agencies or nearby ships using digital communication
technology or the satellite communication technology, instead of
the past Morse communication, enabling the search rescue
activity which combines the land-based rescue agencies and the
vessel as a rescue unit.

Depending on the navigation area, the vessel scale, and other


factors, the following equipment is to be loaded.
Section Specific Radio Equipment
Communication Equipment Cordless Telephone, Digital Selection
by the Medium Frequency, Call Equipment, Narrow Band Direct
the High Frequency, and Printing Equipment
the Very-High Frequency
Automatic Distress Satellite EPIRB, Search Rescue Radar
Reporting Equipment Transponder
Safety Information NAVTEX Receiver, Insarmat High-
Receiver Performance Group Call Receiver
Other Equipment Bidirectional cordless telephone,
Bidirectional cordless telephone for
the vessel and the aircraft, Digital
selection call-specific receiver for
the medium, high, and very-high
frequencies.
General Communication Inmarsat Vessel Earth Station, N-STAR
Equipment Satellite Vessel Telephone, etc.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 23 Comunicaciones

Frequency of the radio wave used for the maritime communication

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 23 Comunicaciones

IMO STANDARD MARINE COMMUNICATION PHRASES

FOREWORD
As navigational and safety communications from ship to shore and
vice versa, from ship to ship,and on board ship must be precise,
simple and unambiguous so as to avoid confusion and error,there
is a need to standardize the language used. This is of particular
importance in the light of the increasing number of
internationally trading vessels with crews speaking many
different languages, since problems of communication may cause
misunderstandings leading to dangers to the vessel, the people on
board and the environment.

In 1973, the Maritime Safety Committee agreed, at its twenty-


seventh session that where language difficulties arise a common
language should be used for navigational purposes, and that
language should be English. In consequence the Standard Marine
Navigational Vocabulary (SMNV) was developed, adopted in 1977 and
amended in 1985.

In 1992, the Maritime Safety Committee, at its sixtieth session,


instructed the Sub-Committee on Safety of Navigation to develop a
more comprehensive standardized safety language than SMNV 1985,
taking into account the changing conditions in modern seafaring
and covering all major safety-related verbal communications.

At its sixty-eighth session in 1997, the Maritime Safety


Committee adopted the Draft IMO Standard Marine Communication
Phrases (SMCP) developed by the Sub-Committee on Safety of
Navigation. The draft IMO SMCP, following international trials,
was amended at the forty-sixth session of this Sub-Committee, and
was given final consideration by the Maritime Safety Committee at
its seventy-fourth session in the light of remarks received by
the Organization. The IMO SMCP was adopted by the Assembly in
November 2001 as resolution A.918(22).

Under the International Convention on Standards of Training,


Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978, as revised
1995, the ability to use and understand the IMO SMCP is required
for the certification of officers in charge of a navigational
watch on ships of 500 gross tonnage or more.

Position of the IMO SMCP in maritime practice

The IMO Standard Marine Communication Phrases (SMCP) has been


compiled:
- to assist in the greater safety of navigation and of the
conduct of the ship,

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 23 Comunicaciones

- to standardize the language used in communication for


navigation at sea, in port approaches, waterways and harbours,
and on board vessels with multilingual crews,
and

- to assist maritime training institutions in meeting the


objectives mentioned above.
-
These phrases are not intended to supplant or contradict the
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972
or special local rules or recommendations made by IMO concerning
ships'routeing, neither are they intended to supersede the
International Code of Signals, and their use in ships external
communications has to be in strict compliance with the relevant
radiotelephone procedures as set out in the ITU Radio
Regulations. Furthermore, the IMO SMCP, as a collection of
individual phrases, should not be regarded as any kind of
technical manual providing operational instructions.

The IMO SMCP meets the requirements of the STCW Convention,


1978, as revised, and of the SOLAS Convention, 1974, as revised,
regarding verbal communications; moreover, the phrases cover the
relevant communication safety aspects laid down in these
Conventions.

Use of the IMO SMCP should be made as often as possible in


preference to other wording of similar meaning; as a minimum
requirement, users should adhere as closely as possible to them
in relevant situations. In this way they are intended to become
an acceptable safety language, using English for the verbal
interchange of intelligence among individuals of all maritime
nations on the many and varied occasions when precise meanings
and translations are in doubt, as is increasingly evident under
modern conditions at sea.

2 Organization of the IMO SMCP

The IMO SMCP is divided into External Communication Phrases and


On-board Communication Phrases as far as its application is
concerned, and into Part A and Part B as to its status within
the framework of STCW 1978 as revised.

Part A covers phrases applicable in external communications, and


may be regarded as the replacement of the Standard Marine
Navigational Vocabulary 1985, which is required to be used and
understood under the STCW Code, 1995, Table A-II/I. This part is
enriched by essential phrases
concerning ship handling and safety of navigation to be used in
on-board communications,particularly when the Pilot is on the
bridge, as required by Regulation 14(4), Chapter V,SOLAS 1974,
as revised.

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Capitulo 23 Comunicaciones

Part B calls attention to other on-board standard safety-related


phrases which, supplementary to

Part A may also be regarded as useful for maritime English


instruction.

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Capitulo 24 Banderas y seales

CAPITULO 24 BANDERAS Y SEALES

Answering pennant Gallardete de inteligencia


Burgee Corneta
Code pennant Gallardete caracteristico
Coding Cifrado
Dash Raya (Morse)
Dot Punto (Morse)
Dressing ship Engalanado del buque
Dip a flag ,to Saludar con la bandera
Ensign Bandera nacional
Flag-staff Asta de bandera
Flag ship Buque insignia
Fly, to Mostrar la bandera
Hoist, to Izar
House flag Bandera de la Cia
Jack Torrotito
Pennant Gallardete
Pilot flag Bandera de practico
Quarantine flag Bandera de cuarentena
Red flag Bandera de m. peligrosas
Staff Asta de bandera
Storm flag Bandera de temporal
Substitutes repetidores

Flag of nationality

The flag of nationality are:

The standard, which is the flag of naval forces, bearing the arms
of the nation.

The ensign, which is the flag indicating nationality.

The jack, which is a flag smaller than ensign usually hoisted on


the jack staff.

Flag of occupation

The flag of occupation are those flags indicating the service or


occupation of the ship flying them. The main are:
Pilot flag, red flag, quarantine flag, etc.

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Capitulo 24 Banderas y seales

International code of signals

As adopted by the Fourth Assembly of the Inter-Governmental


Maritime Consultative Organization in 1965 For Visual, Sound, and
Radio Communications.

CHAPTER 1
SECTION 1: EXPLANATION AND GENERAL REMARKS

1. The purpose of the International Code of Signals is to provide


ways and means of communication in situations related essentially
to safety of navigation and persons, especially when language
difficulties arise. In the preparation of the Code, account was
taken of the fact that wide application of radiotelephony and
radiotelegraphy can provide simple and effective means of
communication in plain language whenever language difficulties do
not exist.

2. The signals used consist of:


(a) Single-letter signals allocated to significations which are
very urgent, important, or of very common use;

(b) Two-letter signals for General Signal Code, Chapter 2.

(c) Three-letter signals beginning with M for Medical Signal


Code, Chapter 3.

3. The Code follows the basic principle that each signal should
have a complete meaning. This principle is followed throughout
the Code; in certain cases complements are used, where necessary
to supplement the available groups.

4. Complements express:

(a) Variations in the meaning of the basic signal.


Examples:
CP = I am (or vessel indicated is) proceeding to your
assistance.

CP 1 = SAR aircraft is coming to your assistance.


(b) Questions concerning the same basic subject or basic signal.

Examples:
DY = Vessel (name or identity signal) has sunk in lat . . .
long. . . ..
DY 4 = What is the depth of water where vessel sank?
(c) Answers to a question or request made by the basic signal.

Examples:
HX = Have you received any damage in collision?
HX 1 = I have received serious damage above the waterline.

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Capitulo 24 Banderas y seales

(d) Supplementary, specific or detailed information.

Examples:
IN = I require a diver.
IN 1 = I require a diver to clear propeller.

5. Complements appearing in the text more than once have been


grouped in three tables. These tables should be used only as and
when specified in the text of the signals.

6. The material is classified according to subject and meaning.


Extensive cross referencing of the signals in the right-hand
column is used to facilitate coding.

Methods of signalling

1. The methods of signaling which may be used are:

(a) Flag signaling, the flags used being those shown inside the
front cover.

(b) Flashing light signaling, using the Morse symbols shown in


Chapter 1.

(c) Sound signaling, using the Morse symbols.

(d) Voice over a loud hailer.

(e) Radiotelegraphy.

(f) Radiotelephony.

(g) Morse signaling by hand flags or arms.

Flag signaling

2. A set of signal flags consists of twenty-six alphabetical


flags, ten numeral pennants, three substitutes, and the answering
pen-nant.

Flashing light and sound signaling

3. The Morse symbols representing letters, numerals, etc., are


expressed by dots and dashes which are signaled either singly or
in combination. The dots and dashes and spaces between them
should be made to bear the following ratio, one to another, as
regards their duration:
(a) A dot is taken as the unit;
(b) A dash is equivalent to three units;
(c) The space of time between any two elements of a symbol is
equivalent to one unit; between two complete symbols it is

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 24 Banderas y seales

equivalent to three units; and between two words or groups it is


equivalent to seven units.

4. In flashing light and sound signaling, while generally obeying


the instructions laid down here, it is best to err on the side of
making the dots rather shorter in their proportion to the dashes
as it then makes the distinction between the elements plainer.

The standard rate of signaling by flashing light is to be


regarded as forty letters per minute.

Voice over a loud hailer

5. Whenever possible plain language should be used but where a


language difficulty exists groups from the International Code of
Signals could be transmitted using the phonetic spelling tables.

Radiotelegraphy and radiotelephony

6. When radiotelegraphy or radiotelephony is used for the


transmission of signals, operators should comply with the Radio
Regulations of the International Telecommunication Union

Flag
Although you may never see them displayed except at fleet
parades, around naval installations, and areas with heavy
international shipping traffic, International code flags are used
to signal between two ships or between ship and shore. Also
called signaling flags, they are a set of flags of different
colors, shapes and markings which used singly or in combination
have different meanings. The flags include 26 square flags which
depict the letters of the alphabet, ten numeral pendants, one
answering pendant, and three substituters or repeaters.
Only a few colors can be readily distinguished at sea. These are:
red, blue, yellow, black, and white; and these cannot be mixed
indiscriminately. You will notice, for clarity, the flags shown
are either red and white, yellow and blue, blue and white, or
black and white; besides plain red, white, and blue.

One-flag signals are urgent or very common signals (see


meanings below).

Two-flag signals are mostly distress and maneuvering


signals.

Three-flag signals are for points of the compass, relative


bearings, standard times, verbs, punctuation, also general
code and decode signals.

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Capitulo 24 Banderas y seales

Four-flags are used for geographical signals, names of


ships, bearings, etc.

Five-flag signals are those relating to time and position.

Six-flag signals are used when necessary to indicate north


or south or east or west in latitude and longitude signals.

Seven-flags are for longitude signals containing more than


one hundred degrees.

Phonetic Navy
International Meaning
Pronunciation Meaning
I have a diver down; keep well
Alfa AL-fah
clear at slow speed.
BRAH- I am taking in, discharging, or
Bravo
voh carrying dangerous cargo.
CHAR-
Charlie "Yes" or "affirmative".
lee
DELL- I am maneuvering with difficulty;
Delta
tah keep clear.
I am directing my course to
Echo ECK-oh
starboard.
I am disabled; communicate with me.
FOKS-
Foxtrot On aircraft carriers: Flight
trot
Operations underway
Golf GOLF I require a pilot.
hoh-
Hotel I have a pilot on board.
TELL
I am directing
IN-dee-
India Coming alongside. my course to
ah
port.
JEW- I am on fire and have dangerous
Juliet
lee-ett cargo; keep clear.
Kilo KEY-loh I wish to communicate with you.
You should stop your vessel
Lima LEE-mah
immediately.
My vessel is stopped; making no
Mike MIKE
way.
November no-VEM- No or negative.

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Capitulo 24 Banderas y seales

bur
Oscar OSS-kur Man overboard.
All personnel return to ship;
Papa pah-PAH
proceeding to sea (Inport).
Ship meets
Boat recall; all health regs;
kay-
Quebec boats return to request
BECK
ship. clearance into
port.
Preparing to
ROH-me- replenish (At sea).
Romeo None.
oh Ready duty ship
(Inport).
see- Conducting flag
Sierra Moving astern.
AIR-ah hoist drill.
Keep clear;
Do not pass ahead
Tango TANG-go engaged in
of me.
trawling.
YOU-
Uniform nee- You are running into danger.
form
Victor VIK-tah I require assistance.
WISS-
Whiskey I require medical assistance.
kee
ECKS- Stop carrying out your intentions
Xray
ray and watch for my signals.
Ship has visual
YANG- I am dragging
Yankee communications
kee anchor.
duty.
Zulu ZOO-loo I require a tug.
Flag that follows Message is
Code or is from the understood.
Code/Answer
Answer International Code Also, numeric
of Signals. decimal point.
Absence of flag Substitute for
First First
officer or unit the first flag
substitute sub
commander (Inport). in this hoist.
Substitute for
Second Second Absence of chief of
the second
substitute sub staff (Inport).
flag in this

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Capitulo 24 Banderas y seales

hoist.
Absence of Substitute for
Third Third
commanding officer the third flag
substitute sub
(Inport). in this hoist.
Absence of civil or
Substitute for
military official
Fourth Fourth the fourth
whose flag is
substitute sub flag in this
flying on this
hoist.
ship.
One WUN Numeral one. None.
Two TOO Numeral two. None.
Three TREE Numeral three. None.
Four FOW-er Numeral four. None.
Five FIFE Numeral five. None.
Six SICKS Numeral six. None.
Seven SEV-en Numeral seven. None.
Eight AIT Numeral eight. None.
Nine NIN-er Numeral nine. None.
Zero ZEE-roh Numeral zero. None.
PEN-ant
Pennant one Pennant one. Numeral one.
WUN
PEN-ant
Pennant two Pennant two. Numeral two.
TOO
PEN-ant
Pennant three Pennant three. Numeral three.
TREE
PEN-ant
Pennant four Pennant four. Numeral four.
FOW-er
PEN-ant
Pennant five Pennant five. Numeral five.
FIFE
PEN-ant
Pennant six Pennant six. Numeral six.
SICKS
PEN-ant
Pennant seven Pennant seven. Numeral seven.
SEV-en
PEN-ant
Pennant eight Pennant eight. Numeral eight
AIT
Pennant Nine PEN-ant Pennant nine. Numeral nine

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Capitulo 24 Banderas y seales

NIN-er
PEN-ant
Pennant zero Pennant zero. Numeral zero
ZEE-roh

AC - I am
T T LO - I am not
T T T RU - Keep clear
T

abandoning my in my correct of me; I am


vessel. position: used T maneuvering
by a light with
vessel. T difficulty.

AN - I need a
T T NC - I am in
T T SO - You should
T T

doctor. distress and stop your


require vessel
immediate instantly.
assistance.

BR - I require
T T PD - Your
T T UM - the
T T

a helicopter. navigation Harbour is


lights are not closed to
visible. traffic.

CD - I require
T T PP - Keep well
T T UP - Permission
T T

immediate clear of me. to enter


assistance. Harbour is
urgently
requested. I
have an
emergency.

DV - I am
T T QD - I am going
T T YU - I am going
T T

drifting. ahead. to communicate


with your
station by
means of the
International
code of
signals.

EF - SOS/MAYDAY
T T QT - I am going
T T ZD1 - Please
T T

has been astern. report me to


canceled. the Coast
Guard, New York

FA - Will you
T T QQ - I require
T T ZD2 - Please
T T

give me my health report me to


position? clearance. Lloyds, London.

GW - Man
T T QU - Anchoring
T T ZL - Your
T T

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Capitulo 24 Banderas y seales

overboard. is prohibited. signal has been


Please take received but
action to pick not understood.
him up.

JL - You are
T T QX - I request
T T

running the permission to


risk of going anchor.
aground.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 25 Estiba

CAPITULO 25 ESTIBA

Bags Sacos
Bales Balas, fardos
Bottles Botellas
Boxes Cajas
Breaking bulk Comenzar la descarga
Bridles Bragas, bridas
Broaching Avera en la carga por robo
Broken stowage Perdida de estiba
Bulck cargo Carga a granel
Bull rope Cabo de retorno
Bundles Atados
Can hook Gafa
Canvas net Red de carga
Carboys Bombonas de cristal para cidos
corrosivos
Cargo draft Izada
Carton Caja de cartn
Case Caja
Cask Barrica
Chain sling Eslinga de cadena
Checker Controlador
Chief stevedore Jefe de estibadores
Container Contenedor
Conveyor belt Correa trasportadora
Crane Gra
Crate Jaula, canasta
Crate Jaula, canasta
Crushing Aplastamiento
Damage from chafing Daos por movimiento
Deck cargo Cubertada
Dock superintendent Superintendente de la carga
Dockers Obrero portuario
Draft Izada, lingada
Drum Bidn
Dunnage Madera de estiba
Dunnage planks Tablones de estiba
Feeder Alimentador
Floating crane Gra flotante
Foodstuffs Productos alimenticios
Foreman Capataz
Forklift truck Carretilla elevadora
Gang Colla , mano
Gangwayman Amantero

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 25 Estiba

Gantry crane Gra de prtico


General cargo Carga general
Hand hook Gancho de mano
Heating Calentamiento
Hogshead Bocoy
Hook Gancho
Jib crane Gra de brazo horizontal
Lashing Trincage
Lashing chain Cadena para trincar
Longshoreman Estibador (USA)
Loses from pilferage Perdidas por robo
Magnet crane Gra magntica
Moisture Humedad
Movable belts Correas trasportadoras
Net Red
Overhead crane Puente gra
Package Paquete
Pallet Pallete
Quay crane Gra de muelle
Rope sling Estrobo de cabo
Shed Tinglado
Shore gang Colla, cuadrilla
Sling Eslinga
Sling Eslinga
Slingloads Izadas
Snotter Estrobo Cabo gancho
Stevedores Estibadores
Stowage Estiba
Stowage factor Factor de estiba
Strap Cincha, trinca
Strop Estrobo
Taiting Daos por manchas en la carga
Tally clerk Apuntador, confrontador
Terminal tractor / Roro Mafi
tractor
Tier Hilera, tongada
Tins Latas
Tray Plataforma, bandeja
Trimmer Palero
Ullage Merma
Vermin Daos a la carga por insectos o
gusanos
Web sling Estrobo de cabo con lona
Winchman Maquinillero
Wire sling Estrobo de alambre

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 25 Estiba

Expresiones usuales en el manejo de la carga

Haul in ! Hala
Slack Arria
Pull away! Cobra
Haul away! Cobra seguido
Heave! Vira
Heave away! Vira seguido
Heave easy! Vira despacio
Heve a little bit! Vira un poco
Stop heaving! Bueno virar
Let go! Larga
Snack away! Arra en banda
Hoist up! Iza
Haul down! Arra
Watch out! Cuidado
Fast Rpido
Slower Mas despacio
Hurry up! Dense prisa
Little by little Poco a poco
Hook on Enganche
Easy easy Despacio
Use no hooks No usar ganchos
Stow away from No estibar cerca de
Avast heaving Bueno virar
Handle with care Manjelo con cuidado
Swing here Eslingas aqu
Use no slings No usar eslingas

Cargo gear: The gear used in the handling of the cargo depends
upon the nature of the goods and consists of:

Rope slings : Are made from a piece of rope about six fathoms
long and three to four inches in circumference. They are used for
lifting general cargo and drafts of boxes, barrels, bales, etc.

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Capitulo 25 Estiba

How to measure slings

Chain slings : are made of chain with a hook at one end and a
link at the other, they are used for lifting heavy goods, such as
bundles of iron ,bars, girders, sheet iron etc.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 25 Estiba

Snotters: The snotter consists of a piece of rope or wire of


about four fathoms in length with an eye spliced at each end.
They are used for lifting packages.

Nets : are made of small hemp rope or wire and used for lifting
small packages.

Strap:

Trays: are used for lifting small pakages. A tray consists of a


wooden platform to the corners of wich are fastened a bridle made
of a four legs that have one end spliced aroun an iron ring and
at the other on iron hook

Can hooks: are used for lifting barrels, casks and drums. The
hooks fit at the ends of the casks or drums.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 25 Estiba

Bull ropes: Bull ropes are used for dragging cargo from the ends
Of the cargo holds, they are attached to the cargo falls.

Canvas sling or web sling : are


used for lifting sugar, flour,
coffee and similar merchandise
packed in bags that might be
cut by the pressure of an ordinary rope sling.

Pallets : Is a platform having two decks with a space between


them of several inches into which a fork of a forklift truck
enters. The top deck takes the load and the other deck acts as a
base. Its size is about five or six four square.

Forklift truck : Is a truck which can


pick up a package and can transport it
a certain distance; It is able o lift
it high in the air and piling it for
storage, or it may deposit it on the
ground. The most common has a capacity
of two tons and can lift as high as
seven feet.

Straddle trucks: these carriers were


built to handle stacks of lumber, but
have been useful for a variety of other commodities of
considerable length. They are also used for handling containers.

Carlos Duclos Ingles Nutico


Capitulo 25 Estiba

Containers: Containers have a capacity of up to 30 tons, and most


are built in accordance with the standards setting by ISO, this
organisation is responsible for setting standards in the
constructions, and fixtures and methods of handling of
containers.

ISO has classified the containers in seven groups which are:


General cargo, thermal , Tank, Bulk, platform, collapsible and
air mode.

The advantages of the containers are: reduced handling cost


eliminating handling of placing and door to door service can be
offered between consignors to consignee.

The international Standards Organisation has a system for coding


containers, and in this way it can be found the name of the
owner, country of origin and other important data.

Container handling and labeling


To gain full advantage of containership operations, the container
must be moved efficiently, speedily, and safely through the
terminal. This is accomplished by using special handling equipment
and proper labelling. The type of handling and lifting equipment
varies from terminal to terminal. The container storage method
used, the modes serving the terminal, and the overall layout of
the terminal storage area all determine the type of equipment
used. The design of a new terminal is often determined by the type
of handling equipment to be used as well

Containers types

Standard containers
Standard containers are also known as general purpose containers.
They are closed containers, i.e. they are closed on all sides. A
distinction may be drawn between the following types of standard
container:
Standard containers with doors at one or both
end(s)
Standard containers with doors at one or both
end(s) and