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Integrated Control of the Cardiovascular System

Chapter 24

Integrated Control of the Cardiovascular System CO = SV x HR

SV = EDV ESV EDV (Pre Load):

Chapter 24

Filling Pressure is determined by rate of venous return Muscle Pump and Thoracic pump aid venous return Heart Rate; SA node SNS increases and PSN decreases, Epi of 1 increases Threshold depolarized and Maximum hyperpolarized by PSN Slope is Decreases by PSN and Increased by SNS

MAP = CO x TPR Closed system so increasing CO decreases Filling Pressure and visa versa (Red line) TPR: Vasoconstriction will increases TPR while Vasodilatation will decreases TPR Baroreceptor monitors and regulates MAP

Orthostasis, living in Gravity

Orthostatic Hypotension (OH) Myogenic response minimizes OH

Blood will pool in lower body

SNS stimulation decreases the dispensability (compliance) of the lower body veins to minimize the pooling of blood Muscle Pump prevents pooling 1 cm of water is about 1 mmHg pressure Standing: capillary pressure in the feet can be at least 100 mmHg an cause fluid movement into the interstitial space, feet swell

Fight or Flight Response Response from Higher Centers through the ANS SNS alfa1, vasoconstriction

Dogs only

Vagovagal Syncope, Heart Stops Momentarily Increase output of PSN and decrease of SNS AVP (ADH) increases Blood levels high enough to stimulate the V1 receptor of the vascular smooth muscle to constrict Explains why after the syncope episode the person may be flushed and pallor, no blood flow to the shin. Lower Pressure Greatest Stimulus for ADH release Blood osmolality less of a stimulus but it is the most common regulator


Higher brain levels initiate ANS

Activated immediately on movement SNS initially causes constriction of the arterioles in muscle (Alfa1) but this is quickly over ridden by local metabolic control and epinephrine stimulating the 2 adrenergic receptor Exercise Hyperthermia Reset in Hypothalamus Increase MAP, 120 mmHg Reset baroreceptor reflex

Exercising Muscle Effects

During exercise TPR decreases

Set point is increased to about 120 mmHg

Hemorrhage, Reversible Thirst and Na+ appetite (low pressure receptors) ADH (Low pressure baroreceptors) ANP (right atria) Transcapillary Refilling Lower Capillary Pressure

ADH and AVP are the same

Hemorrhage greatest stimulus for release V1 receptor of vascular smooth muscle, not very sensitive, need > 100 pM, vasoconstrictor V2 receptor in kidney, very sensitive, < 15 pM, save water Irreversible Low AVP High NO

Transcapillary Refilling Low capillary pressure permits High capillary Colloid Osmotic Pressure (25 mmHg) to pull interstitial fluid into blood Interstitial fluid is replaced with cellular fluid