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H THNG THNG TIN QUANG


GVHD : Th.S NG C THUN
Sinh vin: Trng Th Ton Nguyn Quang Hng ng V Thin L Minh Qun 0520082(*) 0520030 0520071 0520065

Ni dung
1-Gii thiu 2-Ngun quang 3-Tch sng quang 4-H thng thng tin quang WDM 5-Thit k h thng thng tin quang 6-ng dng tinh th LiNbO3 trong chuyn mch quang 7-u th v{ hn ch ca vic ph|t trin thng tin quang Vit Nam

1.Gii thiu
1.1 Khi nim thng tin quang 1.2 c tnh c bn ca thng tin quang 1.3 Cc nh lut c bn

1.1 Khi nim


Thng tin quang l h thng truyn tin thng qua si

quang, c ngha l thng tin c truyn dng tn hiu quang (khng phi tn hiu in) t my pht n my thu. Phng tin truyn dn l cp quang
My pht: tn hiu in tn hiu quang

My thu: tn hiu quang tn hiu in

1.1 Khi nim

1.2 c im c bn ca cp quang
suy hao truyn dn thp (c ly trn 50km mi

cn b lp) Bng thng ln


Chng c th s dng thit lp c|c ng truyn

dn nh v{ mng (nh)
Khng c xuyn }m vi c|c ng si quang bn

cnh
Khng chu nh hng ca nhiu cm ng sng in

1.2 c im c bn ca thng tin quang


Tc cao (>10Gb/s).
C an to{n, bo mt cao. Tui th d{i. C th trin khai trong nhiu a hnh kh|c nhau. Khng b r r tn hiu v{ d ko d{i khi cn.

u-nhc im c bn ca cp quang
u im
-

Nhc im
-Chi ph lp t cao -Kh u ni -Kh sa cha nu b t cp -Kh th lp t theo nhng ng gp khc.

tn hao thp nn cn t repeater. -D lp t v{ bo dng. -Di thng ln, truyn c nhiu ng dng. -Tc cao (565 Mb/s). -Chng nhiu cao. -Tnh bo mt cao.

1.3 Cc nh lut c bn
c tnh truyn: nh s|ng truyn trong si quang c 3 c tnh c bn l{ truyn thng, phn x v{ khc x. S truyn thng l{ |nh s|ng c truyn trong mi trng ng nht, tia s|ng i theo ng thng, khng b gp khc.
Hin tng khc x: nh s|ng truyn t mi trng c chit sut ln sang mi trng c chit sut nh s b thay i hng truyn ti mt ph}n c|ch gia hai mi trng.

Hin tng phn x: L{ hin tng tia s|ng quay tr li mi trng ca tia ti khi gp mt ph}n c|ch gia hai mi trng c chit sut kh|c nhau.

1.3 Cc nh lut c bn
Nguyn l truyn: Ty theo gc |nh s|ng i v{o c|p quang m{ ta c nhng hng i ca |nh s|ng trong c|p quang kh|c nhau. Nhng tia s|ng i v{o t}m ca si quang vi nhng gc ti nh th dng nh i theo mt ng thng dc theo trc si quang.

1.3 Cc nh lut c bn
Nguyn l truyn: Nhng tia s|ng i v{o si quang vi gc ti ln hn th thng i theo l trnh phn x nhiu ln, ng i d{i hn v{ chm hn. Ty theo gc ti m{ tia s|ng b suy hao nhiu hay t. Tia c gc ti nh nht t b suy hao nht v t b phn x hn.

Tm li:
-Thng tin quang l{ h thng m{ thng tin c truyn dng tn hiu quang thay v dng xung in. -L{ h thng c nhiu u im, c ng dng cho ph|t trin c|c h thng thng tin hin i, tc cao. -nh s|ng truyn trong si quang c 3 c tnh c bn l{ truyn thng, phn x v{ khc x. -T nh lut khc x ta ch to si quang c v bc c chit sut nh hn cht sut ca li si quang.

2.Ngun quang
2.1 Kh|i nim 2.2 Yu cu k thut 2.3 Hai loi linh kin ph|t quang

2.Ngun quang
2.1 Kh|i nim
- Linh kin bin i t tn hiu in sang tn hiu quang, c gi l ngun quang. - Linh kin ny c nhim v pht ra nh sng c cng sut t l vi dng in chy qua n.

2.Ngun quang
2.2 Yu cu k thut
Bc sng ca nh sng pht ra: Mc suy hao ca nh sng truyn trn si quang ph thuc vo bc sng ca nh sng. C ba bc sng thng dng l 850nm, 1300nm, 1550nm. Do nh sng do ngun quang pht ra cng phi c bc sng ph hp.

Thi gian chuyn:


c th truyn c tn hiu s c tc bit cng cao th thi gian chuyn trng thi ca ngun quang phi cng nhanh.

2.Ngun quang
2.2 Yu cu k thut
Cng sut pht: C ly thng tin ph thuc vo nhiu yu t trong cng sut pht ca ngun quang l mt trong nhng yu t chnh. Cng sut pht cng ln(trong gii hn cho php) th c ly thng tin cng xa. rng ph:

nh sng m ngun quang thc t pht ra khng phi l ch c mt bc sng duy nht m gm mt khong bc sng. Khong sng ny cng rng th tn sc cht liu cng ln do lm hn ch di thng ca tuyn truyn dn quang. Nh vy rng ph ca ngun quang cng hp cng tt.

2.Ngun quang
2.2 Yu cu k thut
Gc ti nh sng: Nh ta bit ng knh li ca si quang rt nh nu kch thc ca ngun quang ln v gc phong nh sng rng v cng sut pht quang vo c li s rt thp. Do ngun quang c vng pht sng v gc pht sng cng hp cng tt. n nh:

Cng sut quang m cc ngun quang thc t pht ra t nhiu ph thuc vo nhit mi trng, thi gian s dng v i khi cn ph thuc vo cng sng xung quanh. V vy cng sut do ngun quang pht ra cng n nh cng tt.
Thi gian s dng lu.

2.Ngun quang
2.3 Hai loi linh kin pht quang :
Diod pht quang ( LED )
C cng sut ph|t x thp (v{i mW)

Diod laser ( LD )
cng sut ph|t x cao(v{i chc mW)

Thng c s dng cho truyn quang c ly ngn v{ truyn trn c|p quang a mode Ch yu l{ c|c h thng thng tin quang c tc bit nh hn hoc bng100Mbit/s D ch to,r tin

Thng c s dng cho c|c thit b ng trc Ch yu l{ c|c h thng thng tin quang c tc bit ln hn100Mbit/s Kh ch to,chi ph cao

3. Tch sng quang


3.1 Kh|i nim 3.2 Yu cu k thut 3.3 C|c linh kin t|ch sng quang 3.4 C|c thng s k thut 3.5 So snh c tnh k thut ca PIN v APD

3. Tch sng quang


3.1 Kh|i nim
- Linh kin bin i tn hiu quang sang tn hiu in, cn gi l linh kin tch sng quang (hay linh kin thu quang). - Linh kin ny c nhim v ngc li so vi ngun quang , tc l to ra dng in t l vi cng sut quang chiu vo n.

3. Tch sng quang


3.2 Yu cu k thut
Bc sng:

Nhy i vi bc sng hot ng ca h thng


nhy: C nhy cng cao(trong gii hn cho php) cng tt. Tc l kh nng tch c cc tn hiu quang tht nh vi s li (BER) trong phm vi cho php. Linh kin tch sng quang cng nhy th cng c kh nng ni rng c ly thng tin.

3. Tch sng quang


3.2 Yu cu k thut
Phn ng nhanh:
c th lm vic trong h thng c tc bit cao Dng ti:

Khi cha c nh sng chiu vo nhng linh kin tch sng quang vn c dng in tch sng nhiu chy qua. Dng in ny cng nh cng tt.
Tp m: C tp m cng thp cng tt(trong gii hn cho php) m bo t s tn hiu trn tp m (S/N). tin cy cao.

3. Tch sng quang


3.3 Cc linh kin tch sng quang
- PIN: loi diode thu quang gm ba lp bn dn P,I v N. Trong P v N l hai lp bn dn c pha tp cht cn I (Intrinsic) khng pha tp cht hoc pha vi nng rt thp. - APD (Avalanche Photo Diode): Diode thu quang c nhy v tc cao. Ngoi ra cn c transistor quang (Phototransistor) c kh nng bin i tn hiu quang sang tn hiu in nhng c thi gian p ng chm nn t c s dng. Nu c cng ch xut hin trong cc h thng c c ly ngn v tc chm. Cc linh kin tch sng quang hot ng theo nguyn tc ca mt tip gip PN phn cc ngc.

3. Tch sng quang


3.4 Nhng thng s c bn
Hiu sut lng t: Hiu sut lng t c tnh bi t s lng in t tch ra v s photon c hp th.

Trong : : Hiu sut lng t nph : s lng photon hp th ne : s lng in t tch ra Gi tr ln nht ca l 1, tc l mt photon c hp th s lm bc x nhiu nht mt cp in t v l trng. Thng thng nh hn 1 v c tnh theo phn trm (%). Trong nhng trng hp c bit (c hiu ng nhn) mt photon c hp th c th lm pht sinh nhiu in t.

nne

ph

3. Tch sng quang


3.4 Nhng thng s c bn
p ng: p ng ca linh kin tch sng quang l t s ca dng in sinh ra v cng sut quang a vo.

Ie ne .e R Popt n ph .hV
Trong : R: p ng Ie: Dng quang in Popt: cng sut quang Tp m: Tp m trong cc linh kin thu quang c th hin di dng dng in tp m.

3. Tch sng quang


3.4 Nhng thng s c bn
nhy: nhy ca linh kin thu quang l mc cng sut quang thp nht m linh kin c th thu c v mt t s li (BER) nht nh. Theo tiu chun G956 ca CCITT, BER = 10-10. nhy ca linh kin thu quang ph thuc loi linh kin tch sng quang v mc nhiu ca b khuch i in. Ngoi ra tc bit truyn dn cng cao th nhy ca thit b thu cng km. Di ng: Di ng ca linh kin thu quang l khong chnh lch gia mc cng sut cao nht v mc cng sut thp nht (tc nhy) m linh kin c th thu c trong mt gii hn t s li (BER) nht nh.

3. Tch sng quang


3.5 So snh c tnh k thut ca PIN v APD
nhy: APD nhy hn PIN. nhy ca APD ln hn PIN t 5 n 15 dB
Nhy (dB) -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 1 10 100 PIN APD 1000 Mb/s

3. Tch sng quang


3.5 So snh c tnh k thut ca PIN v APD
Di ng: Di ng ca APD rng hn PIN v c th iu chnh c bng cc thay i in p phn cc thay i h s nhn M. Dng ti: Dng ti ca APD ln hn so vi PIN. n nh: n nh ca PIN tt hn so vi APD

3. Tch sng quang


3.5 So snh c tnh k thut ca PIN v APD
in p phn cc: APD cn in p phn cc ngc cao hn PIN. in p phn cc ca APD c th ln n hng trm volt trong khi in p phn cc cho PIN thng di 20 volt.

Cc mt hn ch ca APD l:
-Ch lm vic km n nh nn cn mch in phc tp. -Dng nhiu ln -in p phn cc cao v yu cu n nh cao -Gi thnh cao

4.H thng thng tin quang WDM


4.1 Khi nim
4.2 Cu hnh ca h thng WDM 4.3 Phn loi h thng WDM 4.4 c im ca h thng WDM

4.5 DWDM v CWDM


4.6 Li ITU

4.1.Khi nim
WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing ):ghp knh theo bc sng,cho php truyn

nhiu bc sng khc nhau trn cng 1 si quang Trong m hnh OSI th WDM nm layer 1. Trong Optical Network c gi l lp Optical Layer.Cung cp dch v cho cc lp mng cao hn nh SONET/SDH,IP,ATM

4.2 Cu hnh h thng WDM

+ u pht :
- Cc bc sng quang khc nhau c ghp li nh b ghp knh MUX (Multiplexer) - B ghp knh MUX phi m bo t suy hao v khng cho s xuyn nhiu gia cc knh - Cc lung tn hiu sau khi c ghp c truyn trn 1 si quang ti u thu - Trn mt ng truyn di th tn hiu c khuch i nh cc b khuch i.V d nh EDFA (Erbium-doped Fibre Amplifier) + u thu : - B DEMUX s tch tn hiu ra thnh cc tn hiu ring l v truyn ti cc b thu tng ng ca tng lung

4.3 Phn loi h thng WDM


H thng WDM n hng :
+ Ch truyn theo mt chiu trn si quang. + truyn thng tin gia hai im cn 2 si quang

H thng WDM song hng :


+ truyn hai chiu trn mt si quang nn ch cn 1 si quang trao i thng tin gia hai im

C 2 h thng u c u nhc im ring.Gi s truyn N bc sng trn mt si quang:


+ Xt v dung lng,h thng n hng c kh nng cung cp cao gp i so vi h thng song hng.Nhng s si quang cn dng cng tng gp i. + Khi c s c t cp,h thng song hng khng cn n c ch chuyn mch bo v t ng (Automatic Protection Switching APS),v 2 u ca lin kt u c kh nng nhn bit s c tc thi. + V mt thit k mng,h thng song hng kh thit k hn v phi xt thm nhiu yu t : vn xuyn nhiu,m bo nh tuyn v phn b bc sng sao cho 2 chiu trn si quang khng dng chung 1 bc sng

+ Cc b khuch i trong h thng song hng phc tp hn.Tuy nhin do s bc sng trong khuch i trong h thng song hng gim theo mi chiu nn s cho ra cng sut quang ng ra ln hn h thng n hng

4.4 c im ca h thng WDM


A.u im: + Tng bng thng truyn trn si quang theo s ln s bc sng c ghp vo truyn trn 1 si quang + Do cng ngh WDM thuc kin trc lp mng vt l nn n c th h tr cc nh dng s liu v thoi nh :ATM,Gigabit Ethernet (GE),Circuit Switching,ESCON(Enterprise Systems Connection ),IP
+ Kh nng m rng : nu vi lu lng 2,5Gb/s,ghp WDM 8 n 16 lung th ta c 1 ng thng tin quang vi lu lng l 20Gb/s n 40Gb/s trn 1 si n mode m vn dng li c ci thit b MUX v DEMUX vn c + Cng ngh WDM cho php xy dng mng truyn ti quang OTN,gip truyn ti nhiu loi hnh dch v i hi cht lng cao v bandwidth ln

B.Nhc im: + Cha khai thc ht bng tn hot ng c th ca si quang ( ch mi s dng c CBand v L-Band

O - band Wavelength 1280 1320 (nm) 1360

E - band 1400 1440

S - band 1480 1520

C - band 1552 1560

L - band 1600

C Band Range : 1530nm 1560nm L Band Range : 1570nm 1600nm

+ Qu trnh khai thc v bo dng phc tp

4.5 Hai cng ngh mi trong h thng WDM


+ DWDM:

- Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing :ghp knh theo bc


sng mt cao ,40 n 80 bc sng trn bng C v bng L - c s dng trong h thng cp quang bin hay h thng xuyn lc a - Khong cch c chun ha gia 2 bc sng theo li ITU l 0.8nm

+ CWDM :
- Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing : ghp knh theo bc sng th - Theo l thuyt c th ghp c ti a 18 bc sng,khong cch cc bc sng vo khong 20nm - c trin khai trong mng ca 1 thnh ph hay mt khu vc

+ u im ca DWDM so vi CWDM:

So snh DWDM v CWDM

- c kh nng tn dng ti a dung lng truyn dn ca si quang - C kh nng truyn dn khong cch xa (do ph quang ca tn hiu DWDM s dng trong min EDFA chnh (prime EDFA region) - D dang nng cp h thng (thm s lng bc sng ghp m khng cn phi thay ton b thit b mi- c bit l si quang v cc b lp/khuych i c th gi nguyn)
+ Nhc im ca DWDM so vi CWDM: - Yu cu cng ngh phc tp hn (laser chnh xc cao, b lc quang chnh xc v bng thng cc hp, nhiu boc sng th tiu th nhiu ngun hn, cc b EDFA t tin hn,...) - Chi ph thit lp h thng ban u cao hn nhiu so vi mt h thng CWDM tng ng

4.6 Li ITU
- Dng cho vic chun ha thit b gia cc nh sn xut m bo tnh tng thch ln
nhau

- Khong cch gia cc knh theo tn s l 50Ghz ( tng ng khong cch theo bc
sng l 0.4nm ) vi tn s trung tm l 193.1Thz (1552.52nm) theo chun ITU-G.692. - Khong cch ny ph hp vi kh nng phn gii ca cc b MUX/DEMUX hin nay, n nh tn s ca cc b laser.Khi cng ngh ngy cng hon thin khong cch ny s c gim i

- Chun ITU G.959 chun ha b 16 bc sng bt u t tn s 192.1Thz , rng 200Ghz mi bn cho giao din a knh gia cc thit b WDM.Xut pht t vic m bo tiu chun cho cc h thng c 4,8,16,32 bc sng hot ng tng thch nhau v cc nh sn xut u c cu hnh knh ti u ring v cc k hoch nng cp h thng t t knh ln nhiu knh khc nhau - Phi m bo lch tn s ti a cho php ,i vi lch >=200Ghz , lch tn s ti a cho php khng qu 1/5

5. Thit k h thng thng tin quang


Cu trc tuyn thng tin quang n gin nht l cc h thng

im im. Vai tr ca n l truyn ti lu lng thng tin, v ph bin nht l cc h thng truyn dn s.
Thit b pht Tx Thit b lp Rx Tx

Thit b thu
Rx

Khuch i quang
Thit b pht Tx OA Thit b thu Rx

5. Thit k h thng thng tin quang


Cc yu cu trng yu c t ra l:
- C ly truyn dn theo yu cu ( hoc c th t c). - Tc truyn dn hoc dung lng knh tng ng. - T s li bit BER.

Yu cu c tnh k thut:
- Si quang n mode hay a mode. - Ngun pht l diode laser LD hay diode pht quang LED. - Thu quang s dng photodiode p-i-n hay APD.

5. Thit k h thng thng tin quang


M ng truyn: - L phn quan trng trong thit k mt h thng thng tin quang. - M ha tn hiu s dng tp hp cc quy tc sp xp cc k hiu ca tn hiu theo mt mu c tnh c trng ring. - Chc nng l to ra s d tha trong chm tn hiu s mang thng tin gim li ti mc nh nht. - C 3 loi m nh phn: NRZ, RZ, PE

5. Thit k h thng thng tin quang


Cu hnh truyn dn cp quang c 2 loi:
- H thng truyn dn digital:

u vo M ha

Bin i in/quang

Si quang

Bin i quang/in

u ra

Gii m

Ti to ng nht

Khuch i cn bng

5. Thit k h thng thng tin quang


- H thng truyn dn analog:

u vo

Tin iu ch

Bin i in/quang

Si quang

Bin i quang/in

u ra

Gii iu ch

Khuch i

Cc k thut ghp knh


H thng ghp knh quang OFDM
H thng ghp knh quang OTDM

H thng ghp knh sng mang ph

H thng ghp knh quang OFDM


OFDM (Optical Frequency Division Multiplexing).
Bng tn ca sng nh sng c phn chia thnh mt s cc

knh thng tin ring bit.


Cc knh nh snh c cc tn s quang khc nhau s c bin

i thnh cc lung song song cng truyn ng thi trn

mt si quang.

H thng ghp knh quang OFDM


S1

Mix
f1

Mix
f1 B KT HP Si quang LASER
iu bin ngoi

S1

S2

Mix f2

TCH QUANG
PLL quang

B CHIA CNG SUT

Mix f2

S2

Sn

Mix fn

Mix fn

Sn

H thng ghp knh quang OFDM


Cng ngh OFDM ang c trin khai thc nghim, s

knh c th ghp trong mt lung quang c th ti hng trm.


OFDM c coi nh l bin php ghp quang c mt

dy c. Mi mt knh thng tin c tc ln hn 1Gbyte, nh ghp knh quang theo tn s OFDM ta c th thit lp c tc truyn dn cao hn 1Tbit/s (1 Tera = 103 Giga).

H thng ghp knh quang OTDM


OTDM (Optical Time Division Multiplexing)
Chui xung quang c chia u thnh N lung mi lung s

c a vo iu ch ngoi vi tn hiu nhnh tc B


Gbit/s, cc tn hiu nhnh sau c a qua cc b tr quang v lm y khe thi gian mt cch tng ng. Nh vy, tn hiu sau khi c ghp s c tc l (NxB) Gbit/s.

H thng ghp knh quang OTDM

Ghp knh sng mang ph SCM


Knh 1

SC1
Knh 2 SC2 B kt hp viba TX B pht quang Knh N Si quang D

Chn knh v tch sng B thu viba

Photodiode

SCN

6.Tinh th LiNb03(Liti Niobate) trong ch to chuyn mch quang


a.Gii thiu chung
b.Nguyn tc hot ng: c.Vn in cc trong chuyn mch quang d.Kt lun:

a.Gii thiu chung:


-Trong thc t , c|c phng ph|p chuyn mch c in hoc chuyn i quang-in , in-quang ( ghp ni c|c mng c|p quang) khng |p ng c yu cu v tc chuyn mch nhanh , v s a dng ca dung lng v{ c|c loi hnh thng tin trong c|c mng cc b cng nh v an to{n thit b. Trong nhng thp nin gn }y, ngi ta tp trung nghin cu ch to c|c linh kin v{ thit b chuyn mch quang s dng tinh th.

Trong khi , nhng u im ca tinh th LiNbO3 trong ch

to c|c thit b quang v{ trong ch to chuyn mch ~ c khng nh. Chnh v vy chuyn mch da trn tinh th n{y ang rt c quan t}m nghin cu, ch to v{ a v{o |p dng trong mng vin thng quang

c.Nguyn tc hot ng:


C|c b chuyn mch s dng tinh th LiNbO3 c tc chuyn mch rt cao da trn c|c hiu ng thay i chit sut theo c|c hng kh|c nhau ca tinh th khi c t|c dng ca in trng ngoi. Hiu ng n{y ph thuc v{o hng in trng |p t so vi hng truyn ca |nh s|ng ti, trc ca tinh th, tn s v{ cng in trng. Khi chit sut ca mi trng truyn sng thay i theo mt tn s nht nh, ta c th t|ch i chm s|ng truyn trong tinh th v{ iu bin chm s|ng.

Ba cu hnh c bn v{ ph bin nht ca chuyn mch quang

s dng tinh th LiNbO3 (cho c|c bc sng 630, 670, 850, v{ 1300nm trong h thng thng tin quang si) l{ :da trn giao thoa k Mach-Zehnder, hiu ng phn x chm tia v{ c ch ghp ng dn sng nh hng. C|c cu hnh chuyn mch n{y thch hp vi mng quang n mode v{ a mode hin ang s dng trong c|c h thng thng tin quang.

a. Cu hnh chuyn mch quang dng b ghp nh hng

b. Cu hnh chuyn mch quang dng giao thoa k Mach-Zehnder

c.Vn in cc trong chuyn mch


Vic gim thi gian chuyn mch hay m rng di thng cho

chuyn mch LiNbO3 cng ph thuc v{o kiu in cc. C hai kiu in cc l{ kiu in cc chm v{ kiu in cc gn sng c s dng dn sng |nh s|ng trong chuyn mch LiNbO3.

3a. in cc chm

3b. in cc kiu gn sng

i vi yu cu tc cao v{ thi gian chuyn mch

nh v{ ch cho php hot ng vi in |p iu khin thp th cn phi chn c|ch thit k chuyn mch quang c in cc kiu gn sng s tt hn kiu in cc chm. Trong trng hp mun x}y dng module chuyn mch cp cao t nhiu chuyn mch cp nh hn th nn chn phng |n cn li

d.Kt lun:
Hin nay vi nhu cu thng tin khng ngng gia tng v dung

lng v{ tc , c|c dng thng tin theo yu cu phi c tc bit ln v{ mang mt dung lng ln vi di thng truyn dn yu cu ln ti h{ng trm GHz. D nhin i vi c|c h thng truyn dn bng c|p quang hin nay trong vng bc sng c suy hao thp nht ho{n to{n c th |p ng c c|c yu cu trn.

. Tuy nhin mt vn quan trng l{ h thng chuyn mch


phi c dung lng chuyn mch cc ln v{ thi gian chuyn mch rt nh. C|c chuyn mch in t s ~ khng m bo c yu cu n{y v{ i hi h thng cn phi c c|c chuyn mch quang. Nh vy, ngo{i u im c bn v tc chuyn mch, bn th}n h thng mng cng tit kim c thi gian chuyn i quang in, in quang v{ bao gm thm c c|c thit b chuyn i trong h thng mng.

Trong s c|c chuyn mch quang hin nay, chuyn mch quang

trn nn tinh th Lithium Niobat Oxit ang c |p dng v{ nghin cu rt rng r~i vi cu hnh ph bin nht.Hin nay ~ ch to c chuyn mch ln ti hn 100Gbit/s, thi gian chuyn mch c nan gi}y hoc b hn v{ d d{ng ghp ni vi h thng mng bn ngo{i. C th ni }y l{ linh kin chuyn mch ti u cho c|c mng vin thng c|p quang hin nay v{ trong tng lai

7.Vn pht trin h thng thng tin quang ti Vit Nam:

a.tnh hnh hin ti: b.u th v hn ch ca vic trin khai h thng thng tin quang:

a.tnh hnh hin ti: Hin nay, ti Vit Nam c|p quang c ng dng v{ trin khai rt rng r~i.in hnh nh: -S dng trong c|c tuyn truyn dn quc t kt ni Vit Nam vi c|c nc kh|c trn th gii.C th nh:tuyn TVH(kt ni Thailand -VN-HongKong),tuyn c|p quang Lin . -S dung trong c|c tuyn truyn dn lin tnh v{ ni tnh kt ni thng tin gia c|c tng {i vi nhau nh tuyn c|p quang quc l 1A,tuyn c|p quang ng H Ch Minh

-S dng trong mng truy cp cung cp ng truyn tc

cao ti c|c c quan,doanh nghip hoc c| nh}n c nhu cu,v d nh cung cp ng truyn s liu tc cao hoc kt hp vi c|p ng trong c|c mng truyn hnh c|p. -Trong tng lai,h thng truyn dn ca Vit Nam s ph|t trin theo xu hng chung ca th gii l{ Cp Quang Ha.Cp quang s c trin khai ti a thay th c|c h thng viba(v tuyn) hin cn li( nhng ni cha trin khai c|p quang do a hnh).

b.u th v hn ch ca vic trin khai h thng thng tin quang:


u th: Dung lng ln. C|c si quang c kh nng truyn nhng lng ln thng tin. Vi cng ngh hin nay trn hai si quang c th truyn c ng thi 60.000 cuc {m thoi. Mt si c|p quang (c ng knh ngo{i 2 cm) c th cha c khong 200 si quang, s tng c dung lng ng truyn ln 6.O0O.OOO cuc {m thoi. So vi c|c phng tin truyn dn bng d}y thng thng, mt c|p ln gm nhiu i d}y c th truyn c 500 cuc {m thoi. mt c|p ng trc c kh nng vi 10.000 cuc {m thoi v{ mt tuyn viba hay v tinh c th mang c 2000 cuc gi ng thi.

Kch thc v trng lng nh. So vi mt c|p ng c cng

dung lng, c|p si quang c ng knh nh hn v{ khi lng nh hn nhiu. Do d lp t chng hn, c bit nhng v tr c sn d{nh cho c|p (nh trong c|c ng ng ng trong c|c ta nh{), khong khng l{ rt t.

Khng b nhiu in. Truyn dn bng si quang khng b nh

hng bi nhiu in t hay nhiu tn s v tuyn v{ n khng to ra bt k s nhiu ni ti n{o. Si quang c th cung cp mt ng truyn sch nhng mi trng khc nghit nht. C|c cng ty in lc s dng c|p quang, dc theo c|c ng d}y in cao th cung cp ng thng tin r r{ng gia c|c trm bin |p.Thm ch d |nh s|ng b bc x ra t mt si quang th n khng th th}m nhp v{o si quang kh|c c.

Tnh cch in. Si quang l{ mt vt c|ch in,n loi b nhu

cu v c|c dng in cho ng thng tin. C|p si quang l{m bng cht in mi thch hp khng cha vt dn in v{ c th cho php c|ch in ho{n to{n cho nhiu ng dng. N c th loi b c nhiu g}y bi c|c dng in chy vng di t hay nhng trng hp nguy him g}y bi s phng in trn c|c ng d}y thng tin nh st hay nhng trc trc v in. }y thc s l{ mt phng tin an to{n thng c dng ni cn c|ch in.

Tnh bo mt. Si quang cung cp bo mt thng tin cao.

Mt si quang khng th b ly trm thng tin bng c|c phng tin in thng thng nh s dn in trn b mt hay cm ng in t, v{ rt kh ly thng tin dng tn hiu quang. C|c tia s|ng truyn lan t}m si quang v{ rt t hoc khng c tia n{o tho|t khi si quang . Thm ch nu ~ th}m nhp v{o si quang c ri th n c th b ph|t hin nh kim tra cng sut |nh s|ng thu c ti u cui. Trong khi c|c tn hiu thng tin v tinh v{ viba c th d d{ng thu gii m~ c.

tin cy cao v d bo dng. Si quang l{ mt

phng tin truyn dn ng nht Nhng tuyn c|p quang c thit k thch hp c th chu ng c nhng iu kin v nhit v{ m khc nghit v{ thm ch c th hot ng di nc. Si quang c thi gian hot ng l}u , c tnh trn 30 nm i vi mt s c|p. Yu cu v bo dng i vi mt h thng c|p quang l{ t hn so vi yu cu ca mt h thng thng thng; trong c|p khng c d}y ng,vn l{ yu t c th b mn dn v{ g}y ra mt hoc lc c lc khng c tn hiu.

Tnh linh hot. C|c h thng thng tin quang u kh dng cho

hu ht c|c dng thng tin s liu , thoi v{ video.

Tnh m rng. C|c h thng si quang c thit k thch hp

c th d d{ng c m rng khi cn thit. Mt h thng dng cho tc s liu thp c th c n}ng cp tr th{nh mt h thng tc s liu cao hn bng c|ch thay i c|c thit b in t. H thng c|p si quang c th vn c gi nguyn nh c.

S ti to tn hiu. Cng ngh ng{y nay cho php thc hin

nhng ng truyn thng bng c|p quang d{i trn 70 km trc khi cn t|i to tn hiu , khong c|ch n{y cn c th tng ln ti 150 km nh s dng c|c b khuch i lazer. Trong tng lai, cng ngh c th m rng khong c|ch n{y ln ti 200 km v{ c th 1000 km. Chi ph tit kim c do s dng t c|c b lp trung gian v{ vic bo dng chng c th l{ kh| ln. Ngc li , c|c h thng c|p in thng thng c v{i km c th ~ cn c mt b lp.

b.Hn ch:
Vn bin i in - quang. Trc khi a mt tn hiu thng

tin in v{o mt si quang , tn hiu in phi c bin i th{nh sng |nh s|ng (c bc sng 850 , 1310 hoc 1550 nm). Cng vic n{y do c|c thit b in t thc hin ti u ph|t.Ti u thu , tn hiu quang phi c bin i tr v tn hiu in kh dng. Khi chi ph ca thit b in t bin i tn hiu cn c xem xt trong tt c c|c ng dng.

ng truyn thng. C|p quang cn c ng i thng. C|p

c chn trc tip , t trong c|c ng hoc treo trn khng theo mt ng thng. iu n{y c th i hi phi mua hoc thu t{i sn , ni c ng c|p quang i qua. i khi khng th c c nhng ng i thng cho c|c tuyn c|p. i vi nhng ni nh vng rng ni hay mt s khu vc th c|c phng ph|p thng tin v tuyn c th thch hp hn. Yu cu lp t c bit. Do si quang ch yu l{m bng thy tinh (silic) , nn cn phi c nhng k thut c bit khi x}y dng v{ lp t c|c tuyn thng tin c|p quang. C|c phng ph|p lp t c|p ng thng thng, v d un cong, bc d}y, hay h{n khng cn |p dng c na. ng thi cn phi c c|c thit b si quang thch hp kim tra o th c|c si quang.

Vn sa cha. Khng d d{ng sa cha c|c ng c|p

quang b h hng. C|c quy trnh sa cha i hi phi c k nng tt cng c|c thit b thch hp. Trong mt s trng hp c th cn thay to{n b on c|p b hng. Vn n{y tr nn phc tp hn nhiu khi c nhiu ngi s dng c phc v bng on c|p b hng . V th cn c s thit k h thng thch hp cng vi vic nh tuyn lin lc phng b cho nhng tnh hung hng hoc bt ng c|c ng c|p quang.

Cm n cc bn ch theo di!