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PHRASES, CLAUSES AND SENTENCES

 Example:  [Children] should watch less television.  [They] should watch less television  Here it is certainly true that the pronoun they replaces the noun children. we said that a pronoun can sometimes replace a noun in a sentence.DEFINING A PHRASE When we looked at nouns and pronouns.  .

IN OTHER WORDS A phrase is a group of two or more grammatically linked words that do not have subject and predicate.  For example:  The girl is at home.  . and tomorrow she is going to the amusement park.

 which is a unit consisting of a determiner and a noun.  .  Instead.NOUN PHRASE But consider:  [The children] should watch less television  ~[They] should watch less television  In this example. they does not replace children. it replaces the children.

the pronoun it replaces not just a noun but a five-word noun phrase. the title of your book.  Here is another example: I like [the title of your book]~  I like [it]  In this case.NOUN PHRASE We refer to this unit as a NOUN PHRASE (NP).  . and we define it as any unit in which the central element is a noun.

PHRASE TYPES .

PRACTICE  http://www.ac.htm .uk/internetgrammar/phrases/ap.ucl.

 Adjective [or relative].  .  and noun.  Every clause has at least a subject and a verb. Other characteristics will help you distinguish one type of clause from another.  Subordinate [or dependent].THE CLAUSE Clauses come in four types:  Main [or independent].

.THE MAIN CLAUSE Main Clauses (Independent)  Every main clause will follow this pattern:   subject + verb = complete thought.

Dog = subject  loves = verb  .EXAMPLE  My dog loves pizza.

but is not a complete sentence. .com/terms/clause.chompchomp.htm A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb.   However. a sentence containing only one clause is called a simple sentence.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SENTENCE AND CLAUSE  http://www.

ends with a full stop. subject and predicate.THE SENTENCE  A sentence begins with a capital letter. It also contains one or more clauses. . and contains a main verb.

A simple sentence has one clause. She has been afraid. She is afraid. beginning with a noun or a noun group called the subject. Ex.  .DIFFERENTE SENTENCE TYPES The Simple Sentence. I waited. This is followed by a verb or verb group. which tells you what the subject is doing or describes the subject’s situation. The girl screamed.

. She opened the car door. The verb group may be followed by another noun group.  Ex. She married a young engineer.THE SENTENCE Simple Sentence. The object is the person or thing affected by the action or situation. which is called the object.

Ex.THE SIMPLE SENTENCE After linking verbs. He was angry . The complement tells you more about the subject. called a complement. She was a doctor. the verb group may be followed by a noun group or an adjective.

or the complement can be followed by an adverb or a prepositional phrase. called an adverbial.  He was a policeman in Birmingham. The adverbial tells you more about the action or situation. the object.THE SIMPLE SENTENCE  The verb group. for example how. or where it happens. when.  She won the competition last week. Adverbial are also called adjuncts.  . They shouted loudly.

you usually omit the subject in the second clause.  You can come now or you can meet us there later. Ex. clauses which are equally important.  He met Jane at the station and went shopping.THE COMPOUND SENTENCE  A compound sentence has two or more main clauses: that is. You join them with “and”.  . “but”.  I wanted to go but I felt too ill. or “or”.  (when the subject of both clauses is the same.

no one said anything.  When he stopped. after or inside the main clause.  Ex. A subordinate clause gives information about a main clause.  .  They were going by car because it was more comfortable. “if”.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE A complex sentence contains a subordinate clause and at least one main clause. and is introduced by a conjunction such as “because”.  The man who came into the room was small.  Subordinate clauses can come before. “that” or a “WH” word.