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change in USA's attitude toward the league

but senate still voted against membership peace movements put pressure on the US to participate in disarmament movement hence Kellogg Briand pact rejecting war "as an instrument of national policy" 65 nations

Geneva Disarmament Conference 1932

organized by league of nations disputes over what type of weapons would be

disarmed if other countries didn't disarm enough, germany would demand right to rearm 1933 hitler takes germany out of conference

Why did the league fail to achieve disarmament?

-depression caused countries to concentrate

on their own problems not collective security political instability in europe made many countries wary to disarm (rise of nationalism in Germany, 1932 elections) Japan's invasion of Manchuria undermined power of league

Pre Crisis background

Japan had been involved in Washington

Naval, London conference, Kellogg-Briand, League of Nations-important player China had begun civil war, Marxism emerges and war weakens country

Japan and Depression

Largest silk producer, exports drop 40% Population boom Rely on exports Targets of racist anti-immigration laws

US/Australia Military resented cuts in favor of disarmament

Japanese controlled Korea (rusoJapwar) And South Manchurian railway book100 Kwangtung name of Japanese army in Manchuria, 15,000

Manchurian Crisis 1931

Manchuria produced almost of soya and

large supplies of coal, iron Most foreignors in China, Japanese Some hostile incidents Strikes and boycotts against J. goods Some sympathy

Manchurian Crisis
Sept. 18, 1931, bomb explodes in Mukden Japanese accuse China, but most likely they

planted it J forces advance beyond railway

China appeals to League

League condemns Japans actions Orders withdrawal of Japanese troops, army

refuses Lord Lytton investigates, takes more than a year pink 188 By then Japan has invaded and occupied League accepts report, Japan asked to return Manchuko Japan refuses, leaves league

Look at purple why it failed

After Corfu Mussolini draws closer to west,

help with Locarno 1925 Joined Kellogg Briand 1928 Invited to sign Stresa Front 1935, by UK and FRance 1935 UK and Germany sign Anglo-German Naval Agreement, UK did not notify Mussolini

Why did Mussolini invade Abyssinia?

Independent country between 2 Italian

colonies MAP 1896 Abyssinia had defeated Italy at Adowa, Muss wanted payback, as well as overseas colonies Aquire more raw materials, markets etc to counteract depression

Italian troops provoke clash at Wal Wal Oasis Muss demands Oasis and compensation for

death of his soldiers Halie Selassie, Emperor of Abyssinia hoped he would receive aid if attacked Arms embargo placed on Ab. And Italy, hurt Ab more

Sovereignty denied
Hurt Abyssinia as they could not use League

and had to give in to Mussolini UK and France offer him territory but he refuses

October 1935
Muss invades League declares him an aggressor, impose

economic sanctions Ineffective,

too long to apply, excluded coal, oil and steel not everyone applied them equally USA, JAP,GER

UK kept Suez canal open so Italy could send


Why werent sanctions enforced?

UK/France didnt want to lose Italy as an ally

against Germany Feared if sanctions affected I. economy Mussolini would want to go to war Mussolni thought it unfair to have sanctions when Japan had not

Reactions to invasion?
Uk malta gib keep navy strong for Japs Italy could prote frenc med Italy as corridor MAP Public against war pushed appease

Hoare-Laval Pact
Sam hoare who Pierre laval who offer muss pats Decide to offer halie somali and access to sea Leaked, lost jobs Ab devastated Muss mass abs Halie asked for arms embargo lifted

1936 king of it emp of ab! League done

Effect of Crisis
League a joke Stresa front ended Italy moves to germ rome berlin axis left

league Link with hit rhine, uses it as distract