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Competence only describes what has to be done, not how

A Competency illustrates how a job might be done, excellently


map mapping

A competency map is a list of an individuals competencies that represent the factors most critical to success in given jobs


Competency mapping is a process an individual uses to identify and describe competencies that are the most critical to success in a work situation or work role.



Competency assessment is a process whereby the competencies that are needed for performance of some kind are defined and then their use is assessed relative to how an individual used them to produce on or more expected outputs or results.

Helps measure performance Structured way of describing behavior Tool to help individuals identify strengths and development needs Mapping succession possibilities for employees within the organization Career development

An individuals An individuals competencies are a competencies are a key and driving key and driving element of their daily element of their daily performance, performance, achievements, and achievements, and their potential career their potential career paths. paths.

Result of collective individual competencies Organizational competencies have impact on organizational results WORTH IDENTIFYING




Types of Competency
These competencies include specific success factors within a given work function or industry

Personal Functioning


These competencies include broad These competencies include broad success factors not tied to a specific success factors not tied to a specific work function or industry (often focusing work function or industry (often focusing on leadership or emotional intelligence on leadership or emotional intelligence behaviors). behaviors).

Organizational competency They are usually the result of collective individual competencies common throughout the organization. Organizational competencies have significant impact on organizational results and are worth identifying, if not developing. Raymond competency : - leadership, excellence and innovation

Individual competency An individuals competencies are a key and driving element of their daily performance, achievements, and their potential career paths.

Personal Functioning Competencies. These competencies include broad success factors not tied to a specific work function or industry (often focusing on leadership or emotional intelligence behaviors).

Functional/Technical Competencies These competencies include specific success factors within a given work function or industry.

Competency mapping is a process through which one assesses and determines ones strengths as an individual worker and in some cases, as part of an organization .


room for an individual to work in a field Little short-term benefit


Behavioral Interviewing Open-ended and situation-based questions such as, Think of a specific time when you faced ____________? How did you handle the situation? How did it turn out? CAR (circumstance, action, results).


assessment is a process whereby the competencies that are needed for performance of some kind are defined and then their use is assessed relative to how an individual used them to produce on or more expected outputs or results


Specific objectives


Indicators for Success Successful completion of objectives for all team members

Timescales Objectives to be agreed at team members next appraisal meeting (within the next year)

1. Set and agree SMART Leading and Developing objectives with team members Individuals and Teams; Planning and Organizing; Demonstrating Interpersonal Skills 2. Plan and organise the workload for the team Leading and Developing Individuals and Teams; Planning and Organising; Managing Change

Successful completion of tasks One-to-one meetings with for all team members team members (on-going)

3. Discuss training and Leading and Developing development needs with team Individuals and Teams; members Interpersonal Skills; Driving Innovation

Successful completion of one- To be discussed at team to-one meetings to discuss members next appraisal training and development meeting (within the next year) needs and completion of Individual Development Plans

Management Competencies

Low 1

Med -2



Team Lead

Team Member


Team Lead

Team Member


Team Lead

Team Member

Being Customer Focused Driving Innovation Influencing Demonstrating Interpersonal Skills

* * * *

Management Competencies

1 Nil

2 Begin

3 Mature

4 Mastery

5 Excellence






Being Customer Focused

# #

Driving Innovation


Demonstrating Interpersonal Skills

Management Competencies Being Customer Focused Driving Innovation Influencing Demonstrating Interpersonal Skills

1 Nil

2 Begin

3 Mature

4 Mastery

5 Excellence

+ + + +

Being Customer Focused

L 1 *

M 2

H 3

1 2 3 4 5 # + # +

Person score 1 6

Position 4 6 15 4 29

Driving Innovation

* * * #


+ + #

6 4 17 58.62 percent

Demonstrating Interpersonal Skills

Identify employees performance improvement and competency development needs. Target specific employees as high potentials (hypos) for future assignments.

Match organization work that must be achieved with employees who possess the competencies required to successfully complete that work, preferably in an exemplary manner.

Provide managers and individuals with information needed for creating and implementing the use of individual development plans

Provide managers with insights needed to effectively coach employees on the application of key job competencies

Provide employees with information on their competency strengths which they can use for their own career planning and management

Recruitment based on competency Training program Tailor-made competency model

Compare their competency strengths with those required for successful performance of work of some kind Construct resumes or biographical sketches that match the individuals competency strengths with those required for specific work assignments in an organization or other setting Identify ones need to develop new or difference competency strengths or for fine-tuning existing competency strengths through the use of individual development planning

Identify and gain support for pursuing competency development opportunities. Make known ones competency strengths to those persons who are responsible for an organizations human resource planning activities or for administering an organizations succession efforts

Communicate their competency strengths to organization leaders. Identify those competencies where one does not yet exhibit strength and thereby align oneself with work that will use ones competency strengths to maximum advantage

Self assessment

Employee himself assess his competencies. Either by filling questionnaire or by mentioning certain incidents wherein he feels he has made good use of certain competencies.

360 Degree feedback involves questioning and consulting with everyone related to employee for e.g.:- peers, colleagues, customers, manager, friends, immediate boss, dealers etc. Main purpose of 360 degree feedback is to find out areas of strength and weakness, areas where individual perceptions about themselves is different form others perception. These hidden weakness present opportunities for self improvement and there development, training and future leadership can be taken by there hidden strengths

Manager observes employees behavior and try to map whether employees are making proper use of the competencies and which competencies are developing.

This mainly includes a short interview between manager and the employee in which manager asks him questions which are related to how that person would react in given situation. By this manager will come to know as to how well that person applies required competencies in given situations.

For e.g.:- while questioning a candidate who does sales role, manager might ask question like do u wish there your life should be more exciting. After listening to the answer of the questions then they will try and map whether in real situation will that person use the required competences needed.

To map employees competencies, it is useful to get information from job holders peers, colleagues and supervisors. It might be useful to get information from customers or user group of intended job holder. The major benefit of collecting data from other sources of job holder is that it is useful for comparison. For e.g.:- while collecting some critical incident data the views of job holder as how well employee did the work and how he made use of his competencies and which all competencies were improved in that process can be noted . Later the same questions can be asked to the other markers and see the difference on views or how was there feedback for the same.

Few incidents can be noticed by any of the peer or supervisors. In diary method of critical incident technique employee writes down the experiences and incidents in which one uses their competencies very well. Evaluation in such of technique is based on job behavior. It is comparatively easy to give job related feedback to employee. It reduces recency bias if recorders always keep on rating through the stipulated period. By noticing employee and writing down how well and when employee has being using his required competencies, it improves performance of person as well.

The main feature of assessment centre is that they are a multiple assessment process. There are five main ways in which that is so. A group of participants takes part in a variety of exercises observed by a team of trained assessors who evaluate each participant against a number of predetermined, job related behaviors. Decisions are then made by pooling shared data.

Iain Ballantyne and Nigel Povah

Job Analysis To understand job challenges and the competencies required for successful execution of the job. Predefine competencies - Modeling the competencies, which will be tested during the process.

Behavioral classification - Behaviors displayed by participants must be classified into meaningful and relevant categories such as dimensions, attributes, characteristics, aptitudes, qualities, skills, abilities, competencies, and knowledge.

Assessment techniques These include a number of exercises to test the assesses of their potentials. Each competency is tested through at least 2 exercises for gathering adequate evidence for the presence of particular competence.

Simulations The exercises should simulate the job responsibilities as closely as possible to eliminate potential errors in selection. Observations Accurate and unbiased observation is the most critical aspect of an AC. Observers Multiple observers are used to eliminate subjectivity and biases from the process. They are given thorough training in the process prior to participating in the AC.

Recording Behavior A systematic procedure of recording must be used by the assessors for future reference. The recording could be in the form of hand written note, behavioral checklist, audio-video recording etc. Reports Each observer must make a detailed report of his observation before going for the discussion of integration of scores. Data Integration The pooling of information from different assessors is done through statistical techniques.

Selection ACs help organizations in getting the right people in. Career development The identification of the competencies possessed by the individual helps organization decide his career plans.

Potential appraisal ACs help organizations identify if the person can handle the challenges offered in the next higher position. Identification of high potential managers This creates a pool of managerial talents & multifunctional managers that would be available across the business group etc. Succession planning Identifying the right individual for critical positions such as CEO, CFO etc is very important for the success of the organization. ACs reduces the risk of such wrong identification

Allocations of challenging assignments ACs provide the organization with the strengths and weaknesses of every participant. This helps the organization in deciding the candidates who would have the necessary abilities to undertake the proposed challenging assignments. Management development ACs provide ample opportunity to its participants to reflect on ones capabilities and to improve by observing others perform in the AC.

Identification of training needs Assessment centers provide candidates and organization with concrete data on the improvement areas, which can be utilized, for training. Identification of a global pool of talented managers - Adjusting oneself in the global scenario is a critical requirement of some positions in the organization. ACs help organizations to identify such managers.

Pre AC

During AC

Post AC

Defining the objective of AC. Explain participants the Compile reports of all purpose of the AC, the participants and submit the list Get approval for AC from the procedure it would follow and of selected concerned officials. its outcome. participants to the concerned authorities. Conduct job analysis. Give instructions to the participants, before every Make improvements in the Define the competencies exercise. design according to the required for the target recommendations. position. Distribute the competency exercise matrix sheets among Evaluate the validity of Identify the potential position observers. results after a definite period. holder and send them invitations. Conduct all exercises. Identify the observers. Conduct a discussion of all observers on every Train the observers. participants ratings, at the end of the session. Design the AC exercises Make a report of the Decide the rating strengths and improvement methodology. areas of every participant. Make infrastructural Give feedback to participants. arrangements. Get feedback from participants Schedule the AC. and observers about the conduction of AC. Inform the concerned people of the schedule.




Case study interview

Requires candidates to read a large set of information and then answer questions relating to the subject matter.

Analytical skills, prioritization of information, Timemanagement, working under pressure

Competencybased interview

Includes personal history questions Interpersonal skills, and problem-solving tasks and personal attributes, scenarios. Teamwork, business acumen, communication Includes research and retrieval of information on a given subject or interaction with the interviewer to obtain further information from them. Communication, professional Interaction

Fact-finding exercise

Group exercise

Includes problem solving Personal within a committee or assertiveness, team Teamwork, Interpersonal effectiveness

In-tray test

Includes prioritizing documents, drafting replies to letters, and delegating important tasks Includes building a structure with limited materials

Time-management, Business acumen

Problem-solving task

Creativity, lateral thinking, Resourcefulness, Analytical skills,


Involves a 10 to 15 minute Assimilation of presentation on a preinformation, determined topic. presentation delivery, Conscientiousness, Extroversion /introversion, Personal Assertiveness, teamwork, Agreeableness

Psychometric/Personality/ Includes a personality Aptitude Tests questionnaire and/or numerical, verbal, and diagrammatic reasoning tests.

Role-play exercise

Involves acting-out a Approach to business business-related situation situations, Behavioral interaction Involves producing a concise written summary from a collection of documents. Summarization, Written communication

Written exercise

ACs map the next level challenges and simulate them in exercises. This raises the validity of the assessment tool. The old way of evaluating the person based on past performance does not work many times, as the challenges of the next level are different from the challenges in the existing position Assessment centers not only help the organization in placing the right candidate for the right job/assignment but also helps in developing the participants. When participants see others handling the same exercise differently, it gives them an insight into their own performance thereby raises the credibility of the selection procedure.

It appeals to the lay persons logic and therefore is regarded as a fair means of assessment by the participants. Assessment Centers can be customized for different kinds of jobs, competencies and organizational requirements.

By involving the line managers in the procedure, assessment centers naturally gain support from them in the management decisions. Assessment Centers, even when conducted with selection purpose, do provide training to participants in the process. Also the assessors undergo training in the process which proves helpful for the organization.

Britvic operates a two-tiered graduate assessment centre recruitment process for its young manager graduate and mature graduate training programme. The first assessment centre typically involves up to 24 candidates across a general talent pool and tests six key competency areas within the following tests and exercises:

a) Numerical reasoning tests b) One-to-one competency-based interviews c) Practical problem-solving task d) Two group or discussion exercises e) Verbal reasoning tests f) Working on exercises with employees currently on the graduate programme The second assessment centre focuses on specific job types and typically involves between 10 and 12 candidates. The format of the assessment is similar to the first but in addition candidates must give a 15-minute presentation on a pre-determined topic.

KPMG Rolls

Royce Unilever U.S aerospace & Boeing Philips

Competency cannot be bought. One can develop some competencies through Training Coaching Learning from others Few competencies cannot be developed through training. For E.g.:- patience.