= (A
X
2
+ A
Y
2
+ A
Z
2
)
Using trigonometry, direction cosines are found using
These angles are not independent. They must satisfy the following equation.
cos o + cos | + cos = 1
This result can be derived from the definition of a coordinate direction angles
and the unit vector. Recall, the formula for finding the unit vector of any
position vector:
or written another way, u
A
= cos o i + cos | j + cos k .
DIRECTION OF A CARTESIAN VECTOR
These angles are measured between the vector
and the positive X, Y and Z axes, respectively.
Their range of values are from 0 to 180
The direction or orientation of vector A is
defined by the angles , , and .
ADDITION OF CARTESIAN VECTORS
(Section 2.6)
For example, if
A = A
X
i + A
Y
j + A
Z
k and
B = B
X
i + B
Y
j + B
Z
k , then
A + B = (A
X
+ B
X
) i + (A
Y
+ B
Y
) j + (A
Z
+ B
Z
) k
or
A B = (A
X
- B
X
) i + (A
Y
- B
Y
) j + (A
Z
- B
Z
) k
Once individual vectors are written in Cartesian form, it is easy
to add or subtract them. The process is essentially the same as
when 2-D vectors are added.
IMPORTANT NOTES
Sometimes 3-D vector information is given as:
a) Magnitude and the coordinate direction angles, or,
b) Magnitude and projection angles.
You should be able to use both these types of
information to change the representation of the vector
into the Cartesian form, i.e.,
F = {10 i 20 j + 30 k} N .
EXAMPLE
1. Using geometry and trigonometry, write F
1
and F
2
in
Cartesian vector form.
2. Then add the two forces (by adding x, y and z
components).
G
Given: Two forces F
1
and F
2
are
applied to a hook.
Find: The resultant force in
Cartesian vector form.
Plan:
Solution :
First, resolve force F
1
.
F
z
= 500 (3/5) = 300 lb
F
x
= 0 = 0 lb
F
y
= 500 (4/5) = 400 lb
Now, write F
1
in Cartesian vector form
(dont forget the units!).
F
1
= {0 i + 400 j + 300 k} lb
Now resolve force F
2
.
We are not given the direction angles.
So we need to find the horizontal component in the xy plane.
F
2XY
= 800 * cos(45) = 565.69 lb
F
2x
= 565.69 * cos(45) = 489.90 lb
F
2y
= 565.69 * sin(30) = 282.84 lb
F
2z
= -800 * sin(45) = -565.69 lb
F
1
= {0 i + 400 j + 300 k} lb
F
2
= {489.9 i + 282.8 j 565.7 k } lb
Now, R = F
1
+ F
2
or
R = {489.9 i + 682.8 j 265.7 k} lb
R
Example
Find the magnitude and the coordinate direction angles of
the resultant force.
POSITION VECTORS & FORCE VECTORS
DOT PRODUCT
Objectives:
Students will be able to :
a)
Represent a position vector in Cartesian coordinate form,
from given geometry.
b)
Represent a force vector directed along a line.
c)
determine an angle between
two vectors, and,
d)
determine the projection of a vector
along a specified line.
APPLICATIONS
This awning is held up by three chains. What are the forces in the chains and
how do we find their directions? Why would we want to know these things?
POSITION VECTOR
Consider two points, A and B, in 3-D space. Let their coordinates be
(XA, YA, ZA) and (XB, YB, ZB ), respectively.
A position vector is defined as a
fixed vector that locates a point in
space relative to another point.
POSITION VECTOR
The position vector directed from A to B, r AB , is defined as
r AB = {( XB XA ) i + ( YB YA ) j + ( ZB ZA ) k }m
Please note that B is the ending point and A is the starting point. ALWAYS subtract
the starting point from the ending point.
FORCE VECTOR DIRECTED ALONG A LINE
(Section 2.8)
a) Find the position vector, rAB , along two points on that line.
b) Find the unit vector describing the lines direction, uAB = (rAB/rAB).
c) Multiply the unit vector by the magnitude of the force, F = F uAB .
If a force is directed along a line, then
we can represent the force vector in
Cartesian coordinates by using a unit
vector and the forces magnitude. So
we need to:
EXAMPLE
Plan:
1. Find the position vector rAC and the unit vector uAC.
2. Obtain the force vector as FAC = 420 N uAC .
Given: The 420 N force
along the cable AC.
Find: The force FAC in the Cartesian
vector form.
EXAMPLE (continued)
(We can also find rAC by subtracting the
coordinates of A from the coordinates of C.)
rAC = (2
2
+ 3
2
+ 6
2
)
1/2
= 7 m
Now uAC = rAC/rAC and FAC = 420 uAC N = 420 (rAC/rAC )
So FAC = 420{ (2 i + 3 j 6 k) / 7 } N
= {120 i + 180 j - 360 k } N
As per the figure, when relating A to C, we will
have to go 2 m in the x-direction, 3 m in the y-
direction, and -6 m in the z-direction. Hence,
rAC = {2 i + 3 j 6 k} m.
Example
Find the magnitude and the coordinate direction angles of the
resultant force.
Plan:
1) Find the forces along CA and CB in the Cartesian vector form.
2) Add the two forces to get the resultant force, FR.
3) Determine the magnitude and the coordinate angles of FR.
DOT PRODUCT
Students will be able to use the vector dot
product to:
a) determine an angle between
two vectors, and,
b) determine the projection of a vector
along a specified line.
APPLICATIONS
If the design for the cable
placements required specific
angles between the cables, how
would you check this installation
to make sure the angles were
correct?
APPLICATIONS
For the force F being applied to the wrench at Point A,
what component of it actually helps turn the bolt (i.e., the
force component acting perpendicular to the pipe)?
DEFINITION
The dot product of vectors A and B is defined as AB = A B cos u.
The angle u is the smallest angle between the two vectors and is always in
a range of 0 to 180
.
Dot Product Characteristics:
1. The result of the dot product is a scalar (a positive or negative
number).
2. The units of the dot product will be the product of the units of the A
and B vectors.
DOT PRODUCT DEFINITON
(continued)
Finding a dot product using Cartesian coordinates:
By definition,
i j = j i = i k = k i = j k = k j = 0
i i = j j = k k = 1
so
A B = (Ax i + Ay j + Az k) (Bx i + By j + Bz k)
= Ax Bx + AyBy + AzBz
USING THE DOT PRODUCT TO DETERMINE THE ANGLE BETWEEN TWO VECTORS
For the given two vectors in the Cartesian form, one can find the angle by
a) Finding the dot product, A B = (AxBx + AyBy + AzBz ),
b) Finding the magnitudes (A & B) of the vectors A & B, and
c) Using the definition of dot product and solving for u, i.e.,
u = cos
-1
[(A B)/(A B)], where 0
s u s 180
.
Example: Finding angles using dot products
Example: Consider the
volleyball net shown below.
Determine the angle formed by
guy wires AB and AC.
Using the Dot Product to determine the projection of a vector along a line
Steps:
1. Find the unit vector, uaa along line aa
2. Find the scalar projection of A along line aa by
A|| = A uaa = AxUx + AyUy + Az Uz
You can determine the components of a vector parallel and perpendicular to a line
using the dot product.
3. If needed, the projection can be written as a vector, A|| , by using the unit
vector uaa and the magnitude found in step 2.
A|| = A|| uaa
4. The scalar and vector forms of the perpendicular component can easily be
obtained by
A = (A
2
- A||
2
)
and
A = A A||
(rearranging the vector sum of A = A + A|| )
Using the dot product to determine the projection of a vector
(continued)
EXAMPLE
Plan:
1. Find rAO
2. Find the angle u = cos
-1
{(F rAO)/(F rAO)}
3. Find the projection via FAO = F uAO (or F cos u )
Given: The force acting on the hook at
point A.
Find: The angle between the force
vector and the line AO, and the
magnitude of the projection of
the force along the line AO.
EXAMPLE
(continued)
rAO = {1 i + 2 j 2 k} m
rAO = (1
2
+ 2
2
+ 2
2
)
1/2
= 3 m
F = { 6 i + 9 j + 3 k} kN
F = (6
2
+ 9
2
+ 3
2
)
1/2
= 11.22 kN
u = cos
-1
{(F rAO)/(F rAO)}
u = cos
-1
{18 / (11.22 * 3)} = 57.67
F rAO = ( 6)(1) + (9)(2) + (3)(2) = 18 kN m
Example:
Plan:
1. Find rAO
2. Find the angle u = cos
-1
{(F rAO)/(F rAO)}
3. The find the projection via FAO = F uAO or F cos u
Find: 1) The angle between the force vector and the pole
2) The magnitude of the projection of the force along the pole AO