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Clustering Data Streams

Chun Wei Dept Computer & Information Technology Advisor: Dr. Sprague

Data Stream
Massive data sets accumulated at an astonishing rate. Examples:

Tracking network data to study change in traffic patterns and possible intrusions Tracking meteorological data, such as temperatures

NASA MISR satellite

Collects several TB of satellite imagery data daily

Challenges
Compactness of data representation Fast, incremental processing of new data points (one-pass and linear access of data) Clear and fast identification of changes in evolving clustering models

Compactness
Utilize a data structure that summarizes a group of data points, minimizing the storage space The space required does not grow appreciably with the number of points processed

Incremental Processing of data


When clustering new data points, the algorithm should not require comparison with all the points processed in the past The data must be processed as they are produced. Linear scan is required, random access is prohibitively expensive.

Identification of Changes
The algorithm must be able to: diagnose changes in evolving data streams distinguish outliers from data points that represent a new cluster

Current Algorithms
BIRCH STREAM CLU-STREAM

i 1

Xi

BIRCH

Use CF vectors to store data CF = (N, Xi2 , Xi ) Xi is a vector Store the number of points, the linear sum and the square sum of all data points in a micro-cluster Sufficient to calculate centroids, radius, diameter and distances

B-Tree

Root
7 16 22 29

2*

3*

5*

7*

14* 16*

19* 20* 22*

24* 27* 29*

33* 34* 38* 39*

Building of CF Tree

B-Tree, with a branch factor B, threshold T and L maximum number of entries in a leave node
CF3
Non-Leaf node

CF6

CF1
Leaf node

CF2

CF3

CF4

CF5

CF6

Adjusting CF Tree
Increases the threshold T so that each leaf entry to absorb more points. T can be set as radius or diameter. Leaf entries with far fewer points are regarded as outliers and written back to disk.

STREAM
Process data streams in batches of points Use weighted centroids Ci to represent ith batch of points. Recursively cluster the weighted centroids until k-clusters

Problems with BIRCH & STREAM


Old data points are equally important as new data points May not be able to detect new trends in evolving data stream

CLU-STREAM
Also use CF vectors to store data summary Use time stamps to record the elapsed time from the beginning Take snapshots at different time stamp, favoring the most recent data (Snapshot: micro-clusters stored at particular moments in the stream)

CLU-STREAM (continue)
A snapshot contains q micro-clusters, q depends on the memory available New data points will be assigned to one of the micro-clusters in previous snapshot if it falls within the maximum boundary of that micro-cluster.

CLU-STREAM (continue)
If a new data points fails to fit into any current cluster, a new cluster is created, and an existing one is deleted or two merged. A cluster is removed if the average timestamp when it absorbs m new data points is least recent.

Detect New Trends

Comparing clustering results from snapshots to snapshots reveals trends in evolving data stream.

References

Aggarwal, C. C., Han J., Wang, J. & Yu, P. S. (2003). A Framework for Clustering Evolving Data Stream. In Proc. of the 29th VLDB Conference. Barbara, D. (2003). Requirements for Clustering Data Streams. SIGKDD Explorations, 3 (2), 23-27. Ester M., Kriegel H.-P., Sander J. & Xu X (1998). Clustering for Mining in Large Spatial Databases. Special Issue on Data Mining, KI-Journal, ScienTec Publishing, No. 1. Guha, S., Meyerson, A., Mishra, N. & Motwani, R., Callaghan, L. (2003). Clustering Data Streams: Theory and Practice. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 15 (3), 515-528. Zhang, T., Ramakrishnan R. & Livny, M. (1996). BIRCH: An Efficient Data Clustering Method for Very Large Databases. In Proc. of ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data.