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I enjoy to run in the mornings. I dislike to walk in the rain. I hope passing my exams.

She cant afford taking the plane to Australia. We stopped to smoke because the doctor recommended that. I know the door is open, I forgot closing it.

I enjoy running in the mornings. I dislike walking in the rain. I hope to pass my exams. She cant afford to take the plane to Australia. We stopped smoking because the doctor recommended that. I know the door is open, I forgot to close it.



Gerunds used as subject of the sentence.

Dancing is fun.

To form gerunds, use the base form + ing

(dont forget the rules for spelling of ing form of verbs)

I enjoy learning English

To form negative gerunds, use not + gerund Not speaking English well is my biggest problem in this country.

Gerunds after certain verbs

He enjoys working with children.

Verbs that take only Gerunds

Appreciate Avoid Delay Deny Discuss Dislike Enjoy Excuse Finish understand Keep Mention Mind Miss Postpone Quit Recall Recommend Resent suggest

Gerunds used as object of the preposition

I am thinking about taking the children to Australia.

Common preposition combinations followed by gerunds

Be excited about, complain about, talk about, think about, worry about Apologize for, blame for Believe in, interested in, succeed in Take care of, instead of, be accused of Insist on Keep from, prevent from In addition to, look forward to, be used to

go + gerund
Recreational activities: camping, dancing, sightseeing, swimming, skiing, fishing, jogging,

I will go fishing with you tomorrow.


To form infinitives use to + base form of the verb I want to dance

To form negative infinitives use Not + infinitive He decided not to go the party.

Infinitives in the subject position

To live in Canada is my dream It is my dream to live in Canada.

Verbs that take infinitives

Verb + infinitives agree, appear, decide hope, intend, learn, offer, plan, seem, tend, wait, can afford, want, need Verb + Noun phrase + infinitive convince, force, invite, order, persuade, remind, tell, trust, warn, advise, encourage Verbs that come directly after the infinitive or have a noun phrase ask, beg, choose, expect, need, want, would like, promise


Gerunds often follow verbs that indicate that an action is happening or has happened.
The action expressed by the verb comes at the same time or after the action expressed by the gerund.

We enjoy going to concerts.

(you can only enjoy things you are doing or have done not things you havent done yet.)

Infinitives often follow verbs that indicate that an action will or could happen.
The action expressed by the verb comes before the action expressed by the infinitive. We hope to go to the concert.
(You can hope for things that could happen not things that have already happened)

Some verbs can be followed by both gerund or infinitive with no change in meaning. Begin, hate, like, start, love, prefer, continue

I like cooking. I like to cook. She started losing weight She started to lose weight.

Some verbs although they can be used after both gerunds and infinitives have a difference in meaning.
remember forget regret stop try get

She stopped smoking. She stopped to smoke. They remembered buying bread. They remembered to buy bread. nds/index.htm

4 Types of Verbs
Only infinitives Only gerunds Both Both with change in meaning


Verbs only with to-infinitives

Ex) hope, want I hope you to see a doctor. I want to know about you.


Verbs only with gerunds.

Ex) enjoy, finish I enjoyed talking over a cup of coffee. I finished writing a letter.


Only infinitives
agree appear arrange ask begin care choose continue decide detest dislike expect fail happen have hesitate hope intend mean offer plan promise propose refuse threaten teach use wait want wish


Only gerunds
admit avoid can't help consider delay deny detest dislike enjoy escape excuse finish imagine mind miss permit postpone practice quit recall recommend resist suggest tolerate


Like Love hate prefer start begin continue

are often used when actions are real, concrete or completed:: I stopped smoking.
Gerunds (The smoking was real and happened until I stopped.)

are often used when actions are unreal, abstract, or future:: I stopped to smoke.
Infinitives (I was doing something else, and I stopped; the smoking had not happened yet.)


Both with change

remember forget stop try regret


Thank you
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