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Introduction Achievement motivation training has become a key concept in entrepreneurship. It has become a key issue because achievement motivation drives entrepreneurship. Motivation can be extrinsic or intrinsic Extrinsic motivation is the NEED/DESIRE to achieve a particular objective.

Intrinsic motivation refers primarily to passion, and interest or the individuals internal drive or desire to do something. An achievement motivated person as driven by the task, the challenge, the opportunity to accomplish what others said could not, would not, and should not be done. The person is driven by the challenges and joy of accomplishment and the sense of self-fulfillment. This is achievement motivation. The implication is that without achievement motivation the need to achieve an entrepreneurship vision will be zero.

MODEL OF ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION The willingness of a person to pursue entrepreneurial concepts and to devote oneself to a concept overtime is directly related to an entrepreneurials personal makeup. In an interesting attempt to explain the motivational process that drives entrepreneurial behavior, Kurato (1994) propose the dynamic model that in the figure 1 below:


Expectation/ Outcome Comparison

Intrinsic/Extrinsic Reward




Decision to Behave Entrepreneurially

Entrepreneurial Strategy

Entrepreneurial Management

Firm outcome


IDEA Implementation/out come perception

Source: Naffziger, Dw, Hornsby JS and Kurato D.F. (1994) Entrepreneurship theory and practice page 33.

KEY PC = Personal Characteristics of the Entrepreneur. PE = Personal Environment of the Entrepreneur. PG = Personal Goals of the Entrepreneur. BE = Business Environment of the Entrepreneurial Idea. IDEA = The Entrepreneurial Idea

According to the model, the entrepreneurs expectations are finally compared with these outcomes. Future entrepreneurial behaviour is based on the result of all of these comparisons. For instance when outcomes meets or exceed expectations, the entrepreneurial behaviour is positively reinforced and the individual is motivated to continue to behave as such either within the current venture or possibly through the initiation of additional ventures depending on the existing entrepreneurial goal. When outcomes fail to meet expectation of the entrepreneur motivation will be lower and will have a corresponding impact on the decision to continue to act entrepreneurially.

DIFFERENTIATING ENTREPRENEUR FROM NON ENTREPRENEUR Study the characteristics of the following people: The traditional manager The entrepreneur Corporate entrepreneur Discuss Individual Characteristic in terms of Primary motive Attitude towards failure Attitude toward status Time orientation Tendency to action Skills Attitude towards courage and destiny Forms of attention Attitude toward risks Use of market research Problem solving style.

Therefore, achievement motivation training must address the following components: Behavioural and skill training Problem analysis and decision making skills Counseling and communication

BEHAVIOURAL TRAINING Behavioural training focuses on those factors that either stimulates or kills our inner drives for taken a business risks.

EXAMINING SOME MOTIVATION KILLER BEHAVIOURS There are certain fallacy that normally kills our inner drives toward entrepreneurship. These are demonstrated below:

THE ONLY RIGHT ANSWER The fallacy that there is only one solution to a problem. Other alternatives are foreclosed. What is the Right Attitude? Do not be narrow-minded. Breakthrough ideas come only if multiple solutions is applied to a problem. Recognize that failure is a sign of progress.

TO ERR IS WRONG This is failure to see an indepth connection between error and innovation. When you fail you learn what doesnt work and can adjust.

IM NOT CREATIVE The fallacy of self-condemnation that trumps talent, opportunity and intelligence. The objective evidence suggests that everyone is rich in creative potential regardless of what we believe about ourselves.

IT IS TOO RISKY TO DO Everything about our lives is a risk Risks associate with everything we do in life. This is because all decisions are taken under the condition of risk. An achievement motivated person must therefore seek for information concerning a business undertaken.

LET ME JUST TRY IT This is not assertive enough for an achievement motivated person. It is a statement from a fickle-minded. You need to be driven by passion,. to face the challenges of business and the willingness to succeed.

THE ENTREPRENEURAL COMPETENCES 1. Risk taking In the area of risks certain question must be answered. Are you a calculated risk taker? Risk averter or a bold gambler? Do you have the skill to identify key risk factor in business environment? Do you have the skill to mitigate the key risk factor through good planning and management decision making?

2. Creativity and Innovativeness Do you have the capacity to think? Can you do common things in an uncommon way? Do you have pride in taken ownership of the creative idea and assume responsibility for its implementation?

3. Demand for Efficiency and Quality Find ways to do things better, faster or cheaper Act to do things that meet or exceed standards of excellence.

4. Persistence Take action in the face of a significant obstacle Take repeated actions or switch to an alternative strategy to meet a challenge or overcome an obstacle.

5. Information Seeking Personally seeking information from clients, suppliers, or competitors. Consults experts for business or technical advice.

6. Tolerance of Ambiguity Do you believe that things do not have to fit a pre-cast mould or follow an exact pattern? Note that most successful entrepreneurs discover that if their concept is implemented and achieve success, it ends up looking quite different than the concept they first started with. This is not a planning failure; it is the fundamental nature of the game.

7. Self-Determination To what extent do you cherish self-reliance Autonomy and self-made? Do you have enough self-confidence in yourself? Are you a pessimist or optimist?

8. Opportunity Orientation Remember that every successful business opportunity is covered with a veil of difficulties Do you have the skill to study every difficult situation and come up with a business opportunity?

SKILLS TRAINING Skill acquisition is a key factor in achievement motivation Skills give competence and confidence which drives a person into taken a business risks Skills can be categorized into three viz:

TECHNICAL SKILL WHAT ROLE IN ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION Technical skill is required at pre-operational and operational stages of entrepreneurial activities

Pre-operational Identification of technology to be used Identification of tools and machineries Fabrication possibility Sources of equipments Adaptation Costs of procurement Other inputs markets.

OPERATIONAL STAGE At operational stage, technical analysis is required for: Efficiency and effectiveness in operation uninterrupted workflows Maintenance input cost control Adaptability Achieving output target Competitive efficiency.

2. MANAGERIAL SKILLS Managerial skill is required to coordinate both human and non-human resources together in a way that will help to achieve a business objective. Managerial skills is also required at pre-operational and operational stages The skill is required to provide:
planning function organizing function coordinating function staffing function team building leadership function


HUMAN RELATIONS SKILL Every enterprise no matter its size, has its own stakeholders STAKEHOLDERS RELATIONSHIP Owner to staff


Motivation Team building Leadership Flow of information Affection Concern for staff welfare

Job satisfaction Conducive work-environment Improved performance Enterprise ownership

Staff to staff

Mutual cooperation Understanding Team building

Synergy Innovation Improved staff performance

Staff to customer

Quality service Quality product Good delivery time After sales-service Providing customer complaint centre

IMPLICATIONS Market gain Increase sales Increase revenue Competitive edge.

PROBLEM ANALYSIS AND DECISION MAKING In all of these, an achievement motivated person must be knowledgeable enough in problem analysis and how to take quality decisions
It is inevitable that problems will arise as he/she is dealing with an enterprise environment that is not easily predictable.

WHAT MANNER OF PROBLEM FACING ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATED PERSON Although an achievement motivation person is visionary, yet, he/she must be ready to provide answers to problems that will emerge in entrepreneurship.

MARKET AND MARKETING PROBLEMS First is the market and marketing problem Where is the market for my product/service How large is it? Is there any demand supply gaps What quality must I present to the market What market segment do I service? Who will serve? When How do I serve advert? Positive answers to the above questions will determine answers to the production questions

II. PRODUCTION PROBLEMS Analysis of production problems will go a long way to answer the following questions What is the nature of product/service? Is it complement or substitute? What is the process of production Why choose the process and at what cost What is the critical stage? Is the process amenable to changes? What about personnel cost? What is the optimal levels of input to output

III. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS Every business must operate in an open system and this has made every enterprise to have two environments
the internal environment the external environment

THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT AND ITS PROBLEMS The internal environment consists of all factors affecting an enterprise from within. These include:
The capital The staff The management The suppliers The shareholders; etc.

STAFFING QUESTIONS How many staff do I need. What can I offer as remuneration? What role do I play as the owner? How competitive is my remuneration? Do I hire somebody I cannot fire? What skill requirement do I need?

THE BUSINESS MANAGEMENT QUESTISONS Who are going to manage the enterprise on daily basis? Who constitute the management? What role must the management play?

THE SUPPLIERS QUESTIONS Who are my suppliers? Why do I choose them? Must I concentrate on one or diversify supply sources.

THE SHAREHOLDERS QUESTIONS Who are the shareholders in the business Why do I need them? What contribution must they make? Can capital contribution be everything?

THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT The external environment to a business is every factor that will affect the enterprise from without. Unlike the internal environment, external environment is not controllable. But a good analysis of the environment will go a long way to help an entrepreneur answer basic questions and take quality decision.

The Economic Environment What is the general price level? What is the rate or lending? What about exchange rate? What is the level of unemployment How motivating is the infrastructural facilities toward entrepreneurship
the power roads communication water

The Social Environment what is the norms and value system of people? Where the business will be located?

The Political Environment How stable is the polity? Can the environment be predictable?

THE TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT What is the level of technology currently employ in the industry you will belong Can you compete successfully with the level or technology you are currently employed. A good analysis of the above problems will result in taking quality decisions.

COUNSELING AND COMMINUCATION The role of counseling and communication in achievement motivation training is very vital. It is very vital because an intending entrepreneur is like a small baby that must require nurturing for a successful life. Counseling is an act of providing vital information and guides for a young entrepreneurs so that he will be able to escape the pitfalls associated with business failure.

WHO QUALIFY TO COUNSEL? Successful entrepreneurs Consultants Enterprise owners in the same industry Banker/Financial analysts.

WHY COUNSELING IN ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION? To guide the entrepreneur toward various stages involved in enterprise ownership To provide relevant information required in successful operation of a business enterprise To act as a stimuli under distress situation To act as a mentor To reduce the rate of business failure. To enrich the quality of decision of a business owner To promote quality of entrepreneurship

THE ROLE OF COMMUNICATION Communication is a process of transmitting a message from a particular end (sender) to another end called receiver through a particular medium.


CONCLUSION Achievement motivation training is very important in entrepreneurship steps. Without achievement motivation no entrepreneurship success can be achieved particularly in an environment that is unstable, discouraging and uncertain.