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System Analysis and Design Chapter 1 Introduction to SSADM

Prepared by: Sharifah Rabeah Syed Taha Kolej Teknologi Alpha

Key Ideas
y Many failed systems were abandoned because analysts

tried to build wonderful systems without understanding the organization. y The primarily goal is to create value for the organization. y The systems analyst is a key person analyzing the business, identifying opportunities for improvement, and designing information systems to implement these ideas. y It is important to understand and develop through practice the skills needed to successfully design and implement new information systems.

y Why do companies use information? y Companies use information as a weapon in the battle

y increase productivity, y deliver quality products and services, y maintain customer loyalty, and y make sound decisions.

y Information Technology can mean the difference

between success and failure.

Definition of Information Technology

y What is IT? y Information Technology y Combination of hardware and software products and services that companies use. y What do companies do with the information? y manage, y access, y communicate, and y share information. y A vital asset that must be used
y y y

effectively, updated constantly, and safeguarded carefully.

The Impact of Information Technology

y Information Technology
y Combination of hardware and software products and services

that companies use to manage, access, communicate, and share information y A vital asset that must be used effectively, updated constantly, and safeguarded carefully
y The Role of Systems Analysis and Design
y Systems Analysis and Design y Step-by-step process for developing high-quality information

systems y Systems Analyst y Plan, develop, and maintain information systems

Information System Components

y A System is a set of related components that produces

specific results y A Mission-critical system is one that is vital to a companys operations y Information systems have five key components: hardware, software, data, processes, and people

y Hardware
y Everything in the physical layer of the information system y Moores Law accurately predicted that computer processing power

would double every 18 to 24 months

y Software
y y y y y y y

System software Network operating system Application software Enterprise applications Horizontal system Vertical system Legacy systems

y Data y The raw material that an information system

transforms into useful information y Processes y Describe the tasks and business functions that users, managers, and IT staff members perform to achieve specific results y People y Users, or end users, are the people who interact with an information system, both inside and outside the company

y Information Systems Analysis and Design y Complex organizational process whereby computer-based information systems are developed and maintained y Application Software y Computer software designed to support organizational functions or processes y Systems Analyst y Organizational role most responsible for analysis and design of information systems

Introduction (cont.)

A Modern Approach to Systems Analysis and Design

y 1950s: focus on efficient automation of existing processes y 1960s: advent of 3GL, faster and more reliable computers y 1970s: system development becomes more like an engineering

discipline y 1980s: major breakthrough with 4GL, CASE tools, object oriented methods y 1990s: focus on system integration, GUI applications, client/server platforms, Internet y The new century: Web application development, wireless PDAs, component-based applications

Types of Information Systems and Systems Development

y Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) y Automate handling of data about business activities (transactions) y Process orientation y Management Information Systems (MIS) y Converts raw data from transaction processing system into meaningful form y Data orientation y Decision Support Systems (DSS) y Designed to help decision makers y Provides interactive environment for decision making y Involves data warehouses, executive information systems (EIS) y Database, model base, user dialogue

Types of Information Systems and Systems Development (cont.)

Introduction to System
y What is a system?

A system is a collection of interrelated components (subsystems) that function together to achieve some outcome (e.g. biological system, computer system, social system) A set of objects and relationships among the objects viewed as a whole and designed to achieve a purpose An information system is a collection of interrelated components that collect, process, store and provide as output the information needed to complete business tasks (e.g. payroll system)

y System Analysis: the process of understanding and

specifying in detail what the information system should do y System Design: the process of specifying in detail how the many component parts of the information system should be implemented y System Analyst:A professional who used analysis and design techniques to solve business problems (involving information technology)

System Elements





System Analysis and Design (SAD)

y Analysis: defining the problem
y From requirements to specification

y Design: solving the problem

y From specification to implementation

Need for Systems Analysis and Design

y Installing a system without proper planning leads to great user

dissatisfaction and frequently causes the system to fall into disuse. y Lends structure to the analysis and design of information systems y A series of processes systematically undertaken to improve a business through the use of computerized information systems

Views of Systems Analysis

y How to build information systems y How to analysis information system needs y How to design computer based information systems y How to solve systems problems in organizations

Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM)

y Set of standards (techniques and products) for systems analysis and

application design y SSADM is sometimes thought of as a cookbook approach to the analysis and design stages of the systems development lifecycle

y Initiated in 1980 by the Central Computer and

Telecommunications Agency (CCTA) y In 1983 SSADM was made mandatory for all new information system developments. y In 1990 the fourth version was launched. y Latest version is SSADM V4.x
y Adopted by private sector y Development standard in UK and Worldwide

Characteristics of Structured Methods:

y used for requirements specification, systems design y structures a project into small, well-defined activities y specifies the sequence and interaction of these activities y uses diagrammatic and other modelling techniques: y gives a precise (structured) definition y is understandable by both users (clients) and developers

SSADM techniques
y Logical Data Modelling The data requirements of the

system being designed are identified, modelled and documented. This data is separated into entities and relationships between these entities identified.
y Data Flow Modelling(DFD) Concerned with how

the data moves around the information system.Examines processes, data stores, external entities and data flows.
y Entity Behaviour Modelling The identifying,

modelling and document events with respect to the entities in the system and the order in which these events take place.

Why is it important?
y Success of information systems depends on good SAD y Widely used in industry - proven techniques y Part of career growth in IT - lots of interesting and well-

paying jobs! y Increasing demand for systems analysis skills

System Development Life Cycle

y The systems development life cycle is a phased approach

to solving business problems. y Developed through the use of a specific cycle of analyst and user activities y Each phase has unique user activities.

Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

y Traditional methodology for developing, maintaining,

and replacing information systems y Phases in SDLC:

y Planning y Analysis y Design y Implementation y Maintenance

Standard and Evolutionary Views of SDLC

SDLC Planning Phase

Identify, analyze, prioritize, and arrange IS needs

SDLC Analysis Phase

Study and structure system requirements

SDLC Design Phase

Convert recommended solution to system specifications
Logical design: functional features described independently of computer platform

Physical design: logical specifications transformed to technologyspecific details

SDLC Implementation Phase

Code, test, install, and support the information system

SDLC Maintenance Phase

Systematically repair and improve the information system

The Heart of the Systems Development Process

Current practice combines analysis, design, and implementation into a single iterative and parallel process of activities

Traditional Waterfall SDLC

One phase begins when another completes, little backtracking and looping

Problems with Waterfall Approach

y System requirements locked in after being determined

(can't change) y Limited user involvement (only in requirements phase) y Too much focus on milestone deadlines of SDLC phases to the detriment of sound development practices

Systems Analyst
y Professional computer employee who performs analysis and design y The analyst must be able to work with people of all descriptions and be

experienced in working with computers. y Typical career path

y Programmer y Programmer / Analyst y Systems Analyst

y Three primary roles: y Consultant y Supporting expert y Agent of change y Overcome reluctance of users to change

System Analyst (Functions)

y Coordination
y Schedules and system-related tasks y Personnel y Manager y Programmers y Users y Vendors of computer equipment y Mail room employees y Contractors

y Communication
y Oral presentations y Written documentation

y Planning and design

y Plans and designs new system y Involved from beginning of project through final

implementation of the system

The analyst is responsible:y The efficient capture of data from its business source, y The flow of that data to the computer, y The processing and storage of that data by the computer, and y The flow of useful and timely information back to the business

and its people.

Variations on the Systems Analysts Title

y A business analyst is a systems analyst that specializes in

business problem analysis and technology-independent requirements analysis. y A programmer/analyst includes the responsibilities of both the computer programmer and the systems analyst.
y Others
y Systems consultant y Systems engineer y Information engineer

The Systems Analyst as a Facilitator

Skills Required by Systems Analysts

y Working knowledge of information technology y Computer programming experience and expertise y General business knowledge y Problem-solving skills y Interpersonal communication skills y Interpersonal relations skills y Flexibility and adaptability y Character and ethics y Analytical mind y Organizational skills y Creativity y Ability to work without tangible results y Systems analysis and design skills

Programmers in systems development

y Programmers convert the specifications given to them by the y y y

analysts into instructions the computer can understand. Coding: writing a computer program Code generators have been developed to generate code from specifications, saving an organization time and money. The aim of CASE tools (Computer-Aided Software Engineering) is to provide a variety of code generators that can automatically produce 90% or more from the system specifications normally given a programmer Another group to system development efforts is business managers such as functional department heads and corporate executives. These managers are important because they have the power to fund development projects and to allocate resources necessary for projects success.

Characteristics of successful teams

y The characteristics are diversity in backgrounds, y skills, and goals; y tolerance of diversity, uncertainty, and ambiguity; y clear and complete communication; y trust; y mutual respect and putting one's own views second to the team; y A reward structure that promotes shared responsibility and accountability.

Tutorial Chapter 1
y Briefly explain types of information system. y List the advantages of using systems analysis and design techniques y y y y

in approaching computerized information systems for business. What skills required by systems analyst? List them. List and briefly define the phases of the systems development life cycle (SDLC). Define terms system, system analysis and design, information systems and structured system analysis and design method. Notes: Please submit this week.