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# SEMINAR REPORT

## ON BASICS OF FLIGHT AND AERODYNAMICS

To : Er. NISHANT PAHWA MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT (NC COLL. OF ENGEENIRING) -------------------------------Dr. HAWA SINGH KHATTAK HOD MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT (NC COLL OF ENGEENIRING) By : MOHIT THAKUR 1508368 - M3 IV YEAR , VII SEM MECHANICAL ENGINEERING N.C. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING (PANIPAT)

What does aerodynamic mean and where it is used? What gets a plane off the ground? What basic forces are working on the airplane during the flight?

## What are the parts of an airplane and what do they do?

INTRO TO THE BERNOULLIS PRINCIPLE RELATION WITH THE AERODYNAMICS the faster a fluid is moving the lower the pressure

Daniel Bernoulli

## BASIC FORCES IN FLIGHT

Four Fundamentals of Flight

Lift
Thrust Weight/Gravity Drag

LIFT
Opposes the downward force of weight Produced by the dynamic effect of the air acting on the wing Shape of airfoil changes the way lift acts on the airplane Bernoullis Principle

WEIGHT/GRAVITY
The downward force due to the weight of the airplane. The combined load of the airplane itself (crew, fuel, cargo/baggage) Force exists because of the presence of gravity

THRUST
Forward force produced by the propeller Pulls the airplane through the air Opposes drag

DRAG
Backward force acting on airplane opposite to the thrust and the direction of the airplane. Caused by the disruption of airflow by the plane itself. Two types: parasite and induced drag.

ANGLE OF ATTACK

THE WING

## Produces the lift

Holds the plane up and makes it stable while in flight

In order to make Bernoulli's Principle more effective, more surface area is introduced in form of wings.

## CONTROL SURFACES OF AN AIRPLANE :

AILERON
CONTROLS BANK
Left bank Turn the yoke to the left and the left aileron goes down (right goes up)

Airplane banks to the left Right bank Turn the yoke to the right and the right aileron goes down (left goes up)

ELEVATOR
CONTROLS PITCH

## Push the yoke in and the elevator goes down

Airplane pitches down

Pull the yoke out and the elevator goes up Airplane pitches up

RUDDER
CONTROLS YAW

Push left rudder pedal and the plane yaws to the left

Push right rudder pedal and the plane yaws to the right

PROPELLER
CONTROLS THRUST

FLAPS
CREATE EXTRA LIFT

Flaps down

3 wing strut

5/13 ailerons
15 wings

## 8 horiz. stab. 6/12 flaps

4 wing strut

11 elevator
10 rudder 1 propeller

## REFERENCE TAKEN FROM :

nasa.gov
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerodynamics

Thank You