Whenever nature is invoked to support our human divisions, [we have] every right to be suspicious, nature having betrayed only the most perplexing and untrustworthy interest in man and none whatsoever in his institutions.
-- James Baldwin, "Preservation of Innocence"

If we. we are instrumental in maintaining heterosexuality. "The Straight Mind" . -. . continue to speak of ourselves and to conceive of ourselves as women and as men. . as lesbians and gay men.It is the class struggle between men and women which will abolish men and women .Monique Wittig.

though modern use often pertains to LGBT (gay. transgender. lesbian. intersex and non-normative heterosexual) people. (Wikipedia) . Queer has traditionally meant odd or unusual. bisexual.

 The term "queer theory" was introduced in 1990. Judith Butler. Adrienne Rich and Diana Fuss (all largely following the work of Michel Foucault) being among its foundational proponents. Queer theory is not the same as queer activism. although there is overlap. with Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick. .

queer theory builds both upon feminist challenges to the idea that gender is part of the essential self and upon gay/lesbian studies' close examination of the socially constructed nature of sexual acts and identities. It is a kind of hermeneutics devoted to queer readings of texts. Queer theory is a field of critical theory that emerged in the early 1990s out of the fields of gay and lesbian studies and feminist studies.  . Heavily influenced by the work of Michel Foucault.

queer theory expands its focus to encompass any kind of sexual activity or identity that falls into perverted. . Whereas gay/lesbian studies focused its inquiries into "natural" and "unnatural" behavior with respect to homosexual behavior. normative and deviant categories.

. Teresa de Lauretis is the person credited with coining the phrase "Queer Theory". Santa Cruz in February 1990 that de Lauretis first made mention of the phrase. It was at a working conference on theorizing lesbian and gay sexualities that was held at the University of California.

 Barely three years later. she abandoned the phrase on the grounds that it had been taken over by mainstream forces and institutions it was originally coined to resist.  . and David Halperin's One Hundred Years of Homosexuality inspired countless others' work. Judith Butler's Gender Trouble. Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick's Epistemology of the Closet.

This complicates the use of genotype as a means to define exactly two distinct sexes. even on a strictly biological basis. Queer theorists focus on problems in classifying individuals as either male or female. For example. Intersexed individuals may for many different biological reasons have ambiguous sexual characteristics. the sex chromosomes (X and Y) may exist in atypical combinations (as in Klinefelter's syndrome [XXY]). .

Some key experts in the study of culture. Ruth Hubbard. Scientists who have written on the conceptual significance of intersexual individuals include Anne Fausto-Sterling. pointing to the ways in which biology and culture interact with one another. argue that the traditional distinction between biology and culture as independent entities is overly simplistic. Carol Tavris. and Joan Roughgarden. such as Barbara Rogoff.  .

. Queer theory is likened to language because it is never static. but is everevolving. Richard Norton suggests that the existence of queer language is believed to have evolved from the imposing of structures and labels from an external mainstream culture.

Heteronormativity was the main focus of discourse. Early discourse of queer theory involved leading theorists: Michel Foucault. Judith Butler. . This discourse centered on the way that knowledge of sexuality was structured through the use of language. such as homosexuality. as abnormal or "queer". Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick and others. where heterosexuality was viewed as normal and any deviations.

and with the growth of the internet and its popularity. discourse was controlled by institutional publishing. BDSM. Prior to this. In later years there was an explosion of discourse on sexuality and sexual orientations with the coming-of-age of the Internet. the community could have its own discussion on what sexuality and sexual orientation was. . transgender and bisexuality became topics of discourse. Homosexual and heterosexual were no longer the main topics of discourse.

 Brokeback Mountain is an exemplary queer film .

But four years later. they part ways and marry beautiful. telling their wives they are going fishing. Brokeback Mountain (2005) is a movie about a pair of teenage cowboys who perform a homosexual act during a time of prolonged seclusion from others (particularly from females). dedicated and loving women. their past comes to haunt them and destroys not only their lives but the innocent lives of their wives and children. Audiences witness the families torn asunder in waves of agonizing revelations. as the men continue to meet periodically. Afterwards. .

In that respect. Brokeback Mountain became the "buzz" that everyone was talking about in 2005 and people were admonished for not having seen it and not being "openminded" to a "different" love story. the advertising concealed the theme of homosexuality from the public. . merely referring to it as a modern day "love story" and concentrating on the appealing rugged cowboy element and picturesque landscapes.

. The goal is destroy traditional gender roles and encourage heterosexuals to explore homosexual experiences. Queer theory is a branch of modern literary criticism that attempts to analyze traditional interpretations of gender in literature with a new assumption that gender is not dichotomously defined.

that there is a continuum in gender or sexuality. that one can fluidly shift along the spectrum and that gender confusion occurs as a natural phenomenon. and encourages the acceptance of homosexuality as a "normal" variant. or perhaps simply wish others to believe. . Such a perspective entails a degradation of the traditional nature of these concepts. Queer theorists believe.

 It is a misnomer to call this literary criticism a theory since no scientific data supports it -.it is simply interpretation of fiction. . Therefore it cannot be disproved. violating one of the maxims for being a theory.

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