Está en la página 1de 42

Modeling AC/DC/AC converter In

IGBT based electric locomotive

Under the Guidance of Mr. Govardhan Ganireddy

Modeling AC/DC/AC converter In IGBT based electric locomotive Under the Guidance of Mr. Govardhan Ganireddy Submitted

Submitted by :

Nidhi Haryani

Agenda

  • Introduction

  • Topologies

  • Rectifier Design

  • Inverter V/f Control

  • Rectifier Control

  • Drive Simulation Results

Agenda  Introduction  Topologies  Rectifier Design  Inverter V/f Control  Rectifier Control 

2

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Introduction

Electric Locomotives were earlier driven by DC motors and DC

transmission lines, as DC commutators have problems both in starting and at low velocities, the use of 3-phase induction motor became popular.

As high voltage DC transmission is not possible so AC transmission

came into picture.

For variable AC voltage inverters are used which require a constant DC supply which is obtained by employing a front end rectifier.

Introduction Electric Locomotives were earlier driven by DC motors and DC transmission lines, as DC commutators

3

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Specifications

Traction Power Supply

:

Nominal 25KV,50Hz

Permissible Limits

:

19.9 - 27.5KV, 48.5-51.5Hz

Traction Motors

:

6 IM (1500hp,3167V, 50Hz, 1725 rpm Rr = 0.816,Lr = 2mH Rs = 0.435,Ls = 4mH )

Transformer

:

Primary- 25KV, 6531KVA

Specifications Traction Power Supply : Nominal 25KV,50Hz Permissible Limits : 19.9 - 27.5KV, 48.5-51.5Hz Traction Motors

Secondary-

4x1269V,4x1449KVA

4

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Line Converter

:

4 IGBT PWM Rectifier, 1269V,

 

50Hz

Dc volt- 2800V

Line Inverter

:

4 IGBT SPWM Inverter,

Line Converter : 4 IGBT PWM Rectifier, 1269V, 50Hz Dc volt- 2800V Line Inverter : 4

2800V Dc fs = 500Hz

5

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Circuit Diagram

Circuit Diagram 6 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010

6

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Topologies

Topologies 7 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010

7

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Switch Mode Inverter

Switch Mode Inverter One Leg Switch Mode Inverter 8 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010

One Leg Switch Mode Inverter

Switch Mode Inverter One Leg Switch Mode Inverter 8 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010

8

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Voltage Source Inverter

Output Voltage - Sinusoidal/Square wave with

variable magnitude and frequency. Input Voltage - DC Voltage

Reversible Power Flow possible

Switching Devices - IGBT

Used in AC motor drive with a switch mode rectifier

Voltage Source Inverter • Output Voltage - Sinusoidal/Square wave with • variable magnitude and frequency. Input

9

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Pulse Width Modulated Switching

Scheme

A sinusoidal waveform known as modulating waveform of

frequency equal to that of the desired output voltage

frequency is compared with a triangular waveform of frequency fs and amplitude Vtri.

Vd

Vm

fm

fs

Vtri

:

Input Voltage

: Amplitude of modulating waveform

:

Frequency of modulating waveform

:

Switching frequency

: Amplitude of triangular/carrier waveform

ma :
ma
:

Amplitude modulation ratio

10

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

ma = Vm/Vtri

mf = fs/fm

mf

: Frequency modulation ratio

VAof : Amplitude of fundamental component of output voltage

mf should be an odd number to eliminate all the even harmonics in output voltage

m a = V m /V tri m f = f s /f m m f

11

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

12 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010

12

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

V m > V tri V m < V tri V Aof = m a *V

Vm > Vtri Vm < Vtri

VAof = ma*Vd/2

TA+ is on, Vao = 0.5Vd TA- is on, Vao = -0.5Vd

V m > V tri V m < V tri V Aof = m a *V

13

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Single Phase Full Bridge Inverter

Single Phase Full Bridge Inverter 14 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010
Single Phase Full Bridge Inverter 14 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010

14

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

PWM with Bipolar Voltage Switching

PWM with Bipolar Voltage Switching V abf = m a *V d 15 Satya K Jain
PWM with Bipolar Voltage Switching V abf = m a *V d 15 Satya K Jain

Vabf = ma*Vd

15

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

PWM

Three Phase Inverters

16 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010
16
Satya K Jain
7/24/2010
PWM 17 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010
PWM
17
Satya K Jain
7/24/2010

The gate signals are obtained by comparing 3 sinusoidal waveforms (in case of sinusoidal PWM) displaced by 120 degree with the triangular wave.

Vanf = ma*Vd Vab (L-L,rms) = 1.224*ma*Vd

18 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010
18
Satya K Jain
7/24/2010

PWM Rectifier

PWM Rectifier V dc = V s (rms)*sqrt(2)/m a 19 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010

Vdc = Vs(rms)*sqrt(2)/ma

PWM Rectifier V dc = V s (rms)*sqrt(2)/m a 19 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010

19

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Rectifier Inductance Design

Rectifier Inductance Design 20 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010

20

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

R = 0.01Vac= 1795V p-p,50 Hz P = 1500 Hp

For unity power factor Ig = P/Vac(rms) Ig = 1246.79A (p-p)

R = 0.01 Ω V ac = 1795V p-p,50 Hz P = 1500 Hp For unity

Vcos(delta) = E

Tan(delta)

= Ig*w*L/E

Vsin(delta) = Ig*w*L

ma = V/Vdc

Ihn = Vhn/(n*w*L)

21

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Calculation for m a =0.6822

  • L for Power Flow

L for Harmonic Current Limit
L for Harmonic Current Limit
22 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010
22
Satya K Jain
7/24/2010

L for Power Flow

L for Power Flow L for Harmonic Limit It can be interpreted from the above calculations

L for Harmonic Limit

L for Power Flow L for Harmonic Limit It can be interpreted from the above calculations

It can be interpreted from the above calculations and simulation results that no inductance value satisfies the power flow equation as well as the harmonic flow equation.

L for Power Flow L for Harmonic Limit It can be interpreted from the above calculations

23

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Induction Motor Torque Speed

Characteristics

3-phase IM, 3167V, 50 Hz,1725 rpm

Rr = 0.816Lr = 2mH Rs = 0.435Ls = 4mH ) Load : Fan Load, Kf = 1e-2 Tm = Kf*wm*wm

24 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010
24
Satya K Jain
7/24/2010

When mechanical torque applied to the motor is changed skips from one graph to another which implies changing of supply frequency, so the supply frequency has to be modified accordingly.

When mechanical torque applied to the motor is changed skips from one graph to another which

25

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Steady State Speed = 157 rad/s

Steady State Speed = 157 rad/s 26 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010

26

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Inverter V/f Control

ma/f is constant 27 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010
ma/f is constant
27
Satya K Jain
7/24/2010

The reference speed is increased from 40% to 100% at 1s.

The reference speed is increased from 40% to 100% at 1s. 28 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010

28

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Rectifier Control

Rectifier Control 29 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010

29

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Current Control

Hysteresis Control

The ac current is compared to a reference current and it is restricted to +/- 10% of the reference current at any point of time.

Current Control Hysteresis Control • The ac current is compared to a reference current and it

30

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Here I-Iref│ ≤ 2A as Iref = 20sin(wt)

Iac > Iref + 10%* Iref Iac < Iref - 10%* Iref

Here │ I-I ref │ ≤ 2A as I ref = 20sin(wt) I ac > I

TA- and TB+ are switched on to decrease the current TA+ and TB- are switched on to increase the current

31

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Voltage Control

Tracking Control System.

Voltage Control Tracking Control System. 32 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010

32

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Simulation Results

Simulation Results Steady State Voltage = 2701V 100Hz Component = 2.47% 33 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010

Steady State Voltage = 2701V

100Hz Component = 2.47%

Simulation Results Steady State Voltage = 2701V 100Hz Component = 2.47% 33 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010

33

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Steady State Current = 1149A p-p

THD = 2.58% Power = 1397hp, upf

Steady State Current = 1149A p-p THD = 2.58% Power = 1397hp, upf 34 Satya K

34

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Steady State Error = 3.5%

Steady State Error = 3.5% 35 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010

35

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Calculation of Kp and Ki

Calculation of K p and K i 36 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010
Calculation of K p and K i 36 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010

36

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Ignoring Kp and the filter transfer function

Ignoring K p and the filter transfer function  L = 1.67mH • Settling time =

L = 1.67mH

Settling time = 0.1s

Maximum Overshoot = 5%

  • R = 2.59 e-4

  • Ki = 0.12

  • Kp = 1

Ignoring K p and the filter transfer function  L = 1.67mH • Settling time =

37

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Drive Simulation Results

Drive Simulation Results The reference speed is changed from 80%-100% at 3.5s. 38 Satya K Jain

The reference speed is changed from 80%-100% at 3.5s.

Drive Simulation Results The reference speed is changed from 80%-100% at 3.5s. 38 Satya K Jain

38

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Steady State Voltage = 2794 V

100 Hz component = 0.17%

Steady State Voltage = 2794 V 100 Hz component = 0.17% 39 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010

39

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Steady State error = 0.21% Steady State Current = 1196.46A , THD = 4.53% Power = 1404 hp, upf

Steady State error = 0.21% Steady State Current = 1196.46A , THD = 4.53% Power =

40

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

Conclusion

Through our study and the simulation results obtained, it can be concluded that drive needs two separate controlling

systems-

  • - controlling the speed of the motor and the other

for maintaining constant DC link voltage.

  • - controlling the AC current.

The rectifier controller consists of two parts:

hysteresis current controller

tracking voltage controller

The inverter controller is based on maintaining a constant V/f

ratio.

Conclusion Through our study and the simulation results obtained, it can be concluded that drive needs

41

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010

THANK YOU

THANK YOU 42 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010

42

Satya K Jain

7/24/2010