Perfect Squares
List all the perfect squares from 0 to 100
0, 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, 100
DIVISIBILITY CRITERIA
210, 31560 N ends in 0 10
1008, 333333 The sum of the digits of N is divisble by 9 9
7128, 2008 The last three digits of N name a multiple of 8 8
No quick rule! 7
906, 3150 N is divisible by both 2 and 3 6
32405, 3120 N ends in 0, 5 5
116, 37368 The last two digits of N form a multiple of 4 4
1284, 20001 The sum of the digits of N is divisble by3 3
3150, 754 N ends in 0,2,4,6,8 2
Example Criteria A number N is
divisible by
C
3 , 9 S S e e
If n is a multiple of 12 , then n is multiple of 6
Prime Factorization
What is the prime factorization of 372 ?
What is the prime factorization of 585 ?
2
3 2 1 2 37 3 =
2
1 5 3 3 58 5 =
Prime Numbers
List all the prime numbers less than 50
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47
2
12 2 3 6 There are factors =
2
18 2.3 6 There are factors =
2
2 3 5 5 There are factors =
70 2.5 8 .7 There are factors =
2 2
100 2 5 9 There are factors =
E
1 2
2
1
2
2
1
1
, ,...
( 1)( 1) (
,
)
,
. 1
,
k
m m m
k
k
k
If
where are the disti
m m
n p p p
p p nct primes
th m en n has factors
p
+ + +
=
The number of the different
positive integers p such
that 105/p is also an integer
8
C
105 = 3x5x7 There are 8 factors of 105
DIVISION WITH A REMAINDER
(for INTEGER NUMBERS)
, , , : integer numbers
0
m n q r
n >
, where 0 r r n n q m= + s <
quotient remainder
26
26 5
5
1
6
5
4 = +
= +
Not remainder
Remainder
When the integer n is divided by 2, the quotient is
u and the remainder is 1. When the integer n is
divided by 5, the quotient is v and the remainder
is 3. Which one of the following must be true?
(A) 2u + 5v = 4
(B) 2u  5v = 2
(C) 4u + 5v = 2
(D) 4u  5v = 2
(E) 3u  5v = 2
2 1
2 1 5 3
5 3
n u
u v
n v
= +
+ = +
= +
2 5 2 u v =
B
2 1 xy is ODD xy k = +
B
2 0 x is EVEN x k = +
Back Solving
A
1, , 1 k k j k n = = +
   Ones of Ones of Ones of Ones k j n of jn
BACK SOLVING
4 3 5 5
2 1 3 3
0 9 1 9
B
Algebra vs. Arithmetic
E
Which of the questions would you rather answer?
Picking Numbers
A way to turn algebra problems into arithmetic problems
Pick 1 for k Jean is 3 years old, Steven is 9
B
If a, b, and c are consecutive integers
and a < b < c, which of the following
must be true?
I. b  c = 1
II. abc/3 is an integer.
III. a + b + c is even.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and II only
(E) II and III only
Picking Number
For three consecutive integers pick a=1,
b=2, c=3.
bc= 23=1 I False
II, III True ????
Pick again a=2, b=3, c=4
II TRUE
III FALSE
D
Pick c=30
Z.Cola = 12
D.Cola = 18
CaffeFDCola = 3
Not prefer CaffeFDCola = 27
= 9c/10
D
3
2 1. 5 5 1. n n
n
= = = >
3
1 3 3 n n
n
= = = <
10
0
30% 3 50% 0
a
a b
b
= > =
10
8
30% 3 50% 4
a
a b
b
= < =
D
Sum of theQuantities
AVERAGE
Number of theQuantitie
M
s
SU
N
= =
AVERAGE (ARITHMETIC MEAN)
EX.
The average of 3, 12, 6 and  4 is
3 12 6 4 17
4.25
4 4
+ +
 
= =

\ .
4.25
1. If the average of three numbers is V. If one of the numbers is Z and
another is Y, what is the remaining number?
A. ZY  V
B. Z/V 3  Y
C. Z/3 V  Y
D. 3V Z  Y
E. V Z Y
D
C
B
13h4010h=3h40=3x2/3 h=11/3h
R=198/(11/3)=3X18=54<55
D
2 x 6 =12 mean=4
3 x 4 =12 mean=3.5
1 x 12 =12 mean=6.5
WORD PROBLEMS
English
x + 3x + 5x =72
$72 is to be divided among Michael, Paul, and
Susan in such a way that Michael receives 5
times as much as Susan and Paul receives 3
times as much as Susan.
x 6 = (x+6) Six year ago I was half the age I will be in six
year.
x 3 = 2x +6 If 3 is subtracted from a certain number, then
the result is 6 more than twice the number.
A budget of $10 is decrease by 5%
7 4 Take 4 from 7
 3 +? = 7 How much more is 7 than 3?
By what must I increase 5 to equal 7?
of one number is the same as 1/5 of another
1 1
4 5
x y =
Mathish
5 7 x + =
5
100
10 10
Pratice problems
Chris and Andrea have $100.00 together. If Chris gives Andrea $10.00,
she will have 20 more dollars than he will. How many dollars did Chris
start with?
( 10) ( 10 20) 100 x x + + = 50 x =
One quarter of the students at a high school take algebra. One fifth
of the students take geometry. The remaining 110 students do not
take any math. How many students are there at the school?
1 1
110
4 5
x x x + + = 200 x =
Pratice problems
Tom has a brother one third his age and a sister three times his age. If
the combined ages of all three children is five less than twice the
oldest, how old is Tom?
1
3 5 6
3
x x x x + + + =
3 x =
A woman buys a pound of steak for $3.00. If the meat loses one
fourth of its weight when cooked, what is the cost in dollars per
pound when it is served at the table?
3
1 $3.00
4
pound of cooked meat =
1 $4.00 pound of cooked meat =
What numbers get bigger when you square them?
What numbers stay the same when you square them?
What numbers get smaller when you square them?
What numbers get bigger when you cube them?
What numbers stay the same when you cube them?
What numbers get smaller when you cube them?
0 1 a or a < >
0, 1
0 1 a < <
1 0 1 a or a < < >
1, 0, 1
1 0 1 a or a < < <
A printer numbered consecutively the pages
of a book, beginning with 1 on the first page.
In numbering the pages, it had to print a
total of 187 digits. Find the number of pages
in the book.
A) 99 B) 98 C) 96 D) 97 E) 95
B
One digit: 9 pages
Two digits: (187 9)/2 pages
89
A
C
A
C
D
D
B
D
E
E
Fractions and Decimals
C
36
60
B
11h 15h
4h
Wed :
Wed Thu Fri
11h 11h 11h
15h
52h
C
D
D
8,453. 2 0 3 4 4 7
thousandths
hundredths
tenths
decimal point
DECIMALS
ten thousandths
hundred thousandths
A
0.3175231752..31752 3 1 7
965th 968th
E
MIXED NUMBERS
2
15
3
10 =
2
15
3
means +
2 2 45 2 47
15 15
3 3 3 3
+
= + = =
3 31
7
4 4
=
26 21 5 21 5 5
3
7 7 7 7 7 7
5
3
+
= = + = + =
Pratice Exercises P. 349  350
A
E
E
C
Pick 40 for the number of goldfish
After the first week: 32
After the 2 weeks: (5/8)x32= 20
> 1
1
1 1
x
= + >
< 0
B
44
704
60
x =
B
A
C
PERCENTAGE
1 0
%
0
c percent
c
c = =
c hundredths
PERCENTAGE
To convert a percent to a fraction,
reduce the percent.
25 1
25%
100 4
= =
75%=
75 3
100 4
=
36%=
36 9
100 25
=
45%=
45 9
100 20
=
120%=
120 6
100 5
=
20.25%=
20.25 0.81 81
100 4 100
= =
0.96%=
0.96 0.24 24
100 25 2500
= =
PERCENTAGE
To convert a fraction to a percent,
divide the numerator by the denominator,
then move the decimal point
two places to right and add the symbol %
2
0.4 40%
5
= =
3
4
=
75%
3
5
= 0.6 60% =
3
20
=
0.15 15% =
2
3
=
0.666... 66.66% =
PERCENTAGE
To convert a decimal to a percent,
move the decimal point
two places to right and add the symbol %
0.36 36% =
0.458 45.8% =
0.63= 63%
1.17 =
117%
0.5432 = 54.32%
PERCENTAGE
To convert a percent to a decimal,
eliminate the symbol % and
move the decimal point
two places to left
76% 0.76 =
33.5% 0.335 =
128%=
1.28
67.66%=
0.6766
PERCENTAGE
What percent ?
?
100
100
c
P W = P is c percent of W :
B
10 20 30
100 100 100
50
100
x
b =
E
C
5
(1 25%) 110 110
4
x x + = =
PERCENT CHANGE
The percent increase of a quantity:
100%
actual increase
original amount
The percent decrease of a quantity:
100%
actual decrease
original amount
D
80(1 20%) (1 20%) p + = 
B
Pick 100 for deposit money each month
12 months = 1200
New plan: 1200 = 10 months deposit money: 120 / month
B
Choose the price of a loaf to be 100
300 loaves = 30,000
30,000 / 120 = 250
D
USE 100
Pick 100 for the number of boys
Girls : 200
Report: 60 + 45 = 105
Percent: 195 / 300 = 65%
E
(1 15%) 45 (1 15%) p p  + = +
D
80% 8 6 0 4 =
75% 6 4 0 5 =
64 45 19
20 20

=
B
A
5% 4%
4%

B
Pick 100 for amount of solution
Sugar: 20 (water: 80)
Double the sugar: 40
New solution: 120
40
33.33%
120
=
C
Choose Alis money to be 100
After giving:
Ali: 50
Lior: L+50
50 = 20%(L+50)
L = 200
RATIO
A ratio is a fraction
Ratio of the number of A TO the number of B =
Number of A
Number of B
EX: If a class has 16 boys and 20 girls,
what is the ratio of girls to boys in this class?
A: R= 20/16 = 5:4
RATIO
If the ratio of A to B is m : n ,
then A= mk and B= nk
Ex: In a math class the ratio of the number of boys to
the number of girls is 3:2.
What percent of the class consists of girls?
A:
Number of boys: 3k
Number of girls: 2k
Total number of students: 3k+2k=5k
The percent = 2k/5k=0.4=40%
p.287
Oats: 9k
Raisins: 2k
Nuts : 1k =9.2
D
12k = 12x9.2 = 110.4
D
1 1 1 1
3 4 3 x x y y
 = 
1 2
12 3 x y
=
D
# in January: J
# in February: F
7% 8%
7.8%
J F
J F
+
=
+
C
7 8 7.8 7.8 J F J F + = +
0.8 0.2 J F =
AVERAGE (ARITHMETIC MEAN)
Sum
Average N
AVERAGE
N
SUM
=
B
3 160
?
3 x 160=480
480200=280
2 ? 140
D
8 7
?
8 x 7=56
6 6
?
6 x 6 = 39
2 ?
56 39 = 17
17/2
BACKSOLVING
6 21
13
4
x y + + +
=
50 2: x y False = =
20 5: x y True = =
B
Keyword: Which of the following.
C
1 1 5 2 16 12 17 x + =
15 12(17 16) 12 3 x x = = =
12 16
?
12 x 16
12 17
?
12 x 17
DATA INTERPRETATION
To understand statistics and data (facts and figures) you
have to understand how to read a chart, table, bar graph,
line graph or pie graph.
With this information you can make informed choices.
DATA INTERPRETATION
First check the title so you know what the whole chart or
graph is about.
Then see what is being compared. The labels on the
rows or columns of a table and the labels of the up and
down (vertical) or flat (horizontal) axis of a graph show the
variables.
CHARTS or TABLES
Each block on this table is called a cell.
The horizontal rows of cells represent departure times.
The vertical columns represent the various stations the bus stops at.
These are the variables.
You are at MayGreen.
If you wish to arrive at Center Square by noon,
you must take the bus which departs at 11:17.
CIRCLE or PIE GRAPHS
This doesn't tell you how much money was spent on food but
you do know that 33% or about 1/3 of the Milton's family income
was spent on food.
Circle or Pie Graphs are circle charts used to show
percentage or fractions of the whole.
BAR GRAPHS
The percentage of attendance at school is related to the grade
the six students got in science. Chuck had the best attendance
and the best grades.
Bar Graphs are used to compare the value of related things.
Relationships between variables are determined by comparing the
lengths of the bars.
LINE GRAPHS
The boys and girls each played a 20 game season.
You can see that the girls basketball team won more games
than the boys team in 1989.
Line Graphs show the continuous change of the variables.
They present information visually with data connected by a rising or falling line.
The line shows changes or trends usually over time.
Which vacation
destination is most
common for the
students?
A. Beach
B. Historical Sites
C. Cruises
D. Mountains
E. Other
If 500 students
attend
Washington
Middle School,
how many are
going to the
mountains for
vacation?
A. 25
B. 60
C. 75
D. 100
E. 125
(Column A)
The average (arithmetic
mean) of v,w,y,x, and
z
(Column B)
70
A
B
$0.05 x
C
6
3
36.10
200
180.10
=
650 440
0.32....
650
=
T
T
F
D
Word Problems
D
40 75(150 ) 7400 110 x x x +  = =
40x
75(150 x)

7400
B
25% 12 3
10% 13 1.3
% 25 4.3 x
=
=
=
D
x/2 years ago Now In x/2 years
Adam 12 12 + x/2 12 + x
12 2 x x + =
A
10 years ago Now In 10 years
Lindsay x 10 x
Kimberly
y y + 10
2( 10) 20 x x x =  =
1
2
( 10) 10 y y y = + =
His average speed during
the 20minutes drive
50 kilometers per hour
A
1 1
6 6
10 15
75 50
+
= >
+
C
Distance from runner A to runner B
after 9 hours of running at a constant rate
45 kilometers
A
B
3x9 = 27
4x9 = 36
2 2 2 2 2
27 36 9 (3 4 ) 45 + = + =
Geometry
Lines & Angles
20
B
a = 73 , b = 75
C
Triangle
A
E
B
D
A
Pythagorean Theorem
Right triangle
hypotenuse
leg
leg
2 2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) Hypotenuse leg leg = +
A
B
C
2 2 2
BC AB AC = +
306090 triangle
(Halfequilateral triangle)
3 x
x
2x
, 3, 2 x x x
60
o
QUADRILATERAL
C
5 5 360 2 ( 2)180 720 =
C
x
x
y
x + y + b = 180 = 2x + y
b = x
Circle
A
C
E
Solid Geometry
Coordinate geometry
A(a,b) B(c,d)
A
B
a
b
A
B
( , ), ( , )
A A B B
A x y B x y
I
Midpoint I of AB
( , )
2 2
A B A B
x x y y
I
+ +
Distance AB
2 2
( ) ( )
A B A B
AB x x y y = +
( , ), ( , )
A A B B
A x y B x y
A
B
( , ), ( , )
A A B B
A x y B x y
Slope of the line AB
B A
B A
y y
slope
x x
=
A
B
o
K = 1
k < 1
k > 1
K = 1
k <  1
B
2 4 1
5 1 2
slope
= =
B
B
K (6, 2)
E
2 2 2
( 2 1) (1 5) 25 S AB = = + =
A
2 2
(3 9) (10 2) 10 RS = + =
A
2 2
(1 ) 4 20 DF a = + + =
D
C