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ANIMAL BIODIVERSITY

BIODIVERSITY
Biological Diversity
Can be observed at 3 levels:
– Genetic diversity
– Species diversity
– Ecosystem diversity
SPECIES DIVERSITY

Diversity of organisms on earth


ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY

• Diversity in habitat, biota community,


ecological processes in the terrestrial,
marine and other aquatic systems
IMPORTANCE OF
BIODIVERSITY
• Economic importance
• Food
• Environmental stability
• Our heritage
• Scientific, educational and recreational
value
• Biological safety
ANIMAL CHARACTERISTICS
∀• Eukariot
∀• Multicellular
∀• No cell wall
∀• Can be differentiated through feeding
methods
∀• Digest their food
∀• Respire
∀• React to stimulus
∀• Able to move
∀• Excrete
∀• Transport food in the body
Eucaryotic Cell
ANIMALS: How many species
exist?
• A few years back:
– estimate 2 – 8 million
– 1.4 million known to science
• Now:
– Estimate 30 – 50 million species
TRADITIONALLY CAN BE GROUPED BASED
ON ON CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED
WITH THEIR EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT

• Number of layers of primary tissue -


diploblastic, triploblastic
• Is there a coelom formed and how was it
formed;
• Cell alignment during cleavage;
• What is formed from the blastopore; and
• Body symmetry
Animal Development
Example : sea urchin

• Development of the
8-cell stage
blastula is the
earliest development
stage of the embryo

• Firstly the
unicellular zygote
divides into two in a
process called
cleavage
Animal Development (cont.)

• Both cells continue to


divide until a 1-cell
layer hollow ball called
blastula is formed
• The space in the blastula
is filled with fluid
• For sea urchin,
formation of the blastula
completes 10 hours after
fertilization.
Animal Development (cont.)
• External layer of
blastula folds inward
until a 2-layer
structure called
gastrula is formed
• External cell layer is
called ectoderm and
the inside called
endoderm.
• The mesoderm is
formed in between
Animal Development (cont.)

• Ectoderm develops to form skin and


nerve tissues;
• Endoderm forms the digestive system;
• Mesoderm forms the muscle,
reproductive organs and circulatory
system
• For deuterosomes, the mesoderm is
formed from a clump of cells detached
from the endoderm
Animal Body Cavity
Acoelomate – no cavity
Pseudocoelomate – not true cavity ie. false cavity

Coelomate – true body cavity

Blue – ectoderm,
Red – mesoderm,
Yellow - endoderm
Animal Body Cavity - Acoelom
• Example – flat worm;
• Body made up of 3 layers(tripoblastik);
• Possess digestive tract but no body cavity;
• First animal class where muscle and other organs
evolved from the mesoderm;
• Organs buried in mesodermal tissue; and
• Water and digested food move along body through
absorption.
Internal parts of a Planaria (flat worm)
Animal Body Cavity - Pseudocoelom
• Example – nematode;
• Size: 400µm to 5 mm;
• One of the most abundant animal on earth;
• Fluid-filled pseudocoelom forms between
endoderm and mesoderm
• Cavity not lined with mesothelium (as in
eucoelom)
• Enable animals to move more effectively, esp. in
terms of muscle function;
• Organs buried in mesodermal tissue; and
• Another eg.: Phylum Rotifera
A nematode
Coelom

• Body cavity covers the entire vertebral


column;
• Cavity lined with mesothelium
• Divides body into inner and outer tubes;
• During development, coelom divides into
various components.
EXAMPLES OF COELOM COMPONENTS

• Fish
– Pericardium (around the heart)
– Pleuroperitonium (around other viscera)

• Mammals
– Pericardium (around the heart)
– Pleuron (around the lungs)
– Peritonium (around other viscera)
ANIMAL BODY FORMS AND THEIR
ADAPTATION

What is meant by body symmetry?

Symmetry refers to the balance of an


animal body
Kinds of symmetry:

Asymmetry

• Eg. sponge
(Filum Porifera)

• Normally sessile
animals

• No distinct
symmetry
Kinds of symmetry (cont.)

Radial Symmetry

• Eg. Hydra (Phylum Coelentrata);


• Can be divided in any plane;
• Radial symmetry is an adaptation by Hydra
to enable it to detect and catch prey from
any angle.
Cross section of a Hydra
Kinds of symmetry:
Bilateral Symmetry
• Left and right sections mirror image of the
other;
• Anterior section different from posterior
• Dorsal area different from ventral
• All animals with bilateral symmetry possess a
body cavity where all the organs are located;
• Due to the presence of body cavity, animals
can grow to a bigger size and are able to
move and feed effectively;
• Without body cavity animals will have to
depend on absorption for food.
Flat Worm- external features

A dorsal
B dorsal and ventral
1 head
2 anterior
3 posterior
4 eye spot
5 Sensory lobe
6 dorsal
7 Mouth
8 Pharynx (extended during feeding)
9 Pharynx opening
10 Genitalopeningl
11 Ciliated ventral surface.
Internal sections of a Planaria
Example of a planaria Dugesia sp
THE ANIMAL KINGDOM
Porifera Others

Parazoa Metazoa

Colonial Protist

Early division of animal kingdom


Mollusca Echinodermata
Annelida Chordata
Arthropoda

Animal Groups
Slide 2 of 19
ANIMAL KINGDOM

Subkingdom Invertebrata Subkingdom Vertebrata


– Larger in numbers – Possess a notochord
– Many without skeleton – During adult stage
– Some only with exoskeleton notochord replaced with
– vertebra
A few with endoskeleton
– Brain contained in a
cranium
ANIMAL KINGDOM
Invertebrata Vertebrata
– Protozoa – Fish
– Porifera – Amphibia
– Coelentrata – Reptilia
– Annelida – Aves
– Mollusca – Mammalia
– Platyhelminthes
– Nematoda
– Arthropoda
– Echinodermata
PHYLUM PROTOZOA
• Smallest animals
• Now placed in Kingdom Protista
• Body made up of one cell
• Free-living or parasitic
• Parasitic protozoa cause illness such as malaria,
dysentery and others;
• Found in freshwater or marine environment
• Some marine species excrete skin made of calcium
Free-living Protozoa:

Some forms of
Foraminifera –
Marine protozoa with
external shell

Paramaecium – freshwater
Protozoa - Euglena

Euglena can change form easily

Hundreds of Euglena in a single drop


of water
PARASITIC PROTOZOA

Species Illness
Trypanosoma brucei gambiensis chronic sleeping sickness
Plasmodium malariae Malaria
Entamoeba Amoebic dysentery
PHYLUM PORIFERA
Basic Morfology of Sponge
PHYLUM PORIFERA –
SOME CHARACTERISTICS
• Represents all sp of sponges (about 5000 sp)
• Only representative of Parazoa (animals without true
tissue)
• Almost all –radial symmetry
• Almost all made up of 3-layered cell
• Outer layer made up of flattened cells with numerous
pores;
PORIFERA CHARACTERISTICS (cont)
• Middle layer contains mobile cells (amoebocytes
or archaeocytes) and skeletel cells
– skeletal cells in form of spogin (flexible
protein) or mineral containing particles;
– amoebacytes: collect food vacoules from
coanocytes, digest food and send to cells that
require it.
• Inner layer made completely of cells called
choanocytes
•Do not have digestive tract, nerve cells or muscle
cells.
CLASSIFICATION OF PORIFERA
At one time, a diagnostic feature
of the Porifera was the presence
of spicules
As a result, certain fossil groups
whose organization was consistent
with that of living sponges were not
placed within the phylum Porifera.
These are groups with a solid
calcareous skeleton
4 Different Forms of Spicules
Megascleres –
large, can be seen with
naked eyes

Microscleres - small
SEM of Spicules
CLASSES IN PHYLUM PORIFERA

• Calcarea
• Demospongia
• Hexactinellida
CLASSIFICATION OF SPONGES
Archaeocyatha – no living representative
Stromatoporoids
Choanoflagellates
Class Calcispongiae (Calcarea)
• Spicules formed from
calcium carbonate;
• Spicules in the form of
needles or with 3 or 4
branches;
• Spicules not hollow
(stronger);
• All marine members;
Leucosolenia sp
• Most in shallow waters.
CLASS DEMOSPONGIAE
• Abour 90% sponges in
this class;
• Spicules formed from
spongin, silica or both;
• Can grow to large size;
• Found in all tropical and
sub-tropical waters; and
• One FW family
Bath sponge
CLASS HEXACTINELLIDA
• Spicules formed from silica
(sometimes called glass
sponge);
• Spicules joined at 90o angle
– make it seem like artificial
sponge;
• Spicules with 6 branches;
• Almost all extinct

Aphrocallistes sp
Three groupings of sponges based on
water circulation system

• Asconoid (eg Leucosolenia sp)


• Syconoid (eg. Scypha)
• Leuconoid
Groupings based on water circulation system
TYPICAL SPONGE FEEDING

- Water flowing through sponges provides food and oxygen,


as well as a means for waste removal

-Can filter up to 20,000 times its volume in a single 24 hour


period

- Feed on bacteria – can trap up to 90% of bacteria in water

- Some sponges harbour symbionts such as green algae,


dinoflagellates, or cyanobacteria, from which they also derive
nutrients.
CARNIVOROUS SPONGE

• Family Cladorhizidae
• Feed by capturing and digesting whole
animals.
• Use spicules to capture
• Prey – small crustaceans