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8ussla

Genes|s of kuss|an 8us|ness Cu|ture Leadersh|p


W 8lch ln ConLradlcLlon splrlLual and susLalnable
W PollsLlc and lnfluenLlal
W Served as a brldge beLween WesLern and easLern culLural LradlLlons
W 8elaLlng Lo dlfferenL perlods of Lhe naLlons hlsLory general feaLures of Lhe buslness
culLure and leadershlp can be deLermlned
-non economlc domlnaLlon of a
small group of ellLe arlsLocracy
over economlc developmenL
-ulrecLly lnfluenced economlc
pollcy ownershlp and culLure
re 8evoluLlon
Lra
-ConLrol of a small group of
monopollsLlc or ollgopollsLlc
coallLlons
-lnfluence on pollLlcal leadershlp
secured declslon maklng
SovleL Lra
-1he role of sLaLe and large
corporaLlons became crlLlcal
-new model for leadershlp
?elLsln Lra
-locus on lnLeracLlon beLween
large corporaLlons and small
buslness
-Managlng CaplLal effecLlvely
uLln Lra
Leadersh|p D|vers|ty
8ureaucraLlc
-8ased on acLlve lnlLlaLlves
-under sLaLe run bureaucraLlc supervlslon
ragmaLlc
-8ased on maxlmum proflLablllLy
-A LechnocraLlc basls
redaLory
-8ased on search for success
-Suppresslon of rlvals Lhrough Mafla connecLlons cheaLlng growLh by any means
Soclally 8esponslble
-8ased on llnklng buslness
-romoLlon of naLlonal lnLeresLs unlversal human values and bellefs
W@he C|d Guard Cnes who proved Lhelr
LalenLs ln Lhe pasL as leaders 1hey explolL
Lhelr access Lo key declslon maklng polnLs and
use bureaucraLlc connecLlons
W@he New Wave A large proporLlon of Lhls
group comprlses young people hungry for
success and buslness educaLlon follows a
dlfferenL road Lo economlc lndependence
W@he Internat|ona| Corps 8usslan managers
of mulLlnaLlonal companles who sLrengLhen
economlc Lles wlLh 8usslan buslness
WCne sub group conslsLs of Lhe presenL
buslness ellLe well connecLed and reLalnlng
prlvlleged poslLlons 1hese people are young
enLhuslasLlc LalenLed who recognlzes Lhe
opporLunlLles of Lhe new open socleLy
W1he oLher subgroup among Lhe older
generaLlon ls focused on self preservaLlon
maklng superflclal ad[usLmenLs Lo malnLaln
Lhelr sLaLus
G|obe Data Co||ect|on
ln order Lo creaLe culLure and leadershlp proflle of 8ussla CCls analyzed Lhe lnformaLlon accumulaLed Lhrough a plloL sLudy
focused group lnLervlew Lhe Clobe survey of managers ln Lelecom food processlng and banklng lndusLrles and medla
research
key Areas of kuss|an
Lconomy
Samp|e ercentage
SLaLe Cwned LnLerprlse 3
!olnL SLock Companles 28
LlmlLed arLnershlp 33
lndlvldual 8uslnessmen 26
!olnL venLures 6
||ot Study Iocus Group Interv|ews
W1argeLed Lwo groups
WllrsL Croup of 3 managers/enLrepreneurs
people beLween Lhe ages of 38 Lo 31 years
WSecond group of 3 managers/
enLrepreneurs represenLed new
buslnessmen aged beLween 22 and 36 year
WAll respondenLs ln Moscow or CreaLer
Moscow
@he Ma|n G|obe Study
WuaLa recelved from 430 managers ln food processlng LelecommunlcaLlons and
banklng/flnance
WAverage age of respondenLs was 388 years
WCender composlLlon of sample was 617 men and 313 women
WLLhnlc composlLlon of sample was very dlverse
W1he average employmenL proflle of managers conslsL of
number of years employed 168
managemenL experlence of 74 years and employmenL ln currenL orgn 86 years
luLure
44
resenL
36
Cr|entat|on
ower and
AuLhrlLy
62
Consensus
and 1eam
8ulldlng
38
ower Vs @eam 8u||d|ng
Cu|tura| rof||es from ||ot Study
lmpersonal
17
ersonal
83
eop|e Dea||ng Approach
LsLabllshlng
and
lollowlng
8ules
69
LxplolLlng
beneflLs of
uncerLalnlLy
31
Un|versa||sm
lndlvlduallsLlc
67
CollecLlvlsL
33
Approach
AsserLlve
32
non
AsserLlve
48
8ehav|our
000
100
200
300
400
300
600
lnsLlLuLlonal
collecLlvlsm
lngroup
collecLlvlsm
Cender
egallLarlanlsm
AsserLlveness
ower
dlsLance
erformance
orlenLaLlon
luLure
orlenLaLlon
uncerLalnlLy
avoldance
Pumane
orlenLaLlon
As ls score
Should be score
Soc|eta| cu|ture sca|es for kuss|a
As Is score
Shou|d be
score
Inst|tut|ona|
co||ect|v|sm
430 389
Ingroup
co||ect|v|sm
363 379
Gender
ega||tar|an|sm
407 418
Assert|veness 368 283
ower
d|stance
332 262
erformance
or|entat|on
339 334
Iuture
or|entat|on
288 348
Uncerta|nty
avo|dance
288 307
numane
or|entat|on
394 339
Co||ect|v|sm
-lL ls Lhe degree Lo whlch culLural norms and pracLlces encourage and reward collecLlve dlsLrlbuLlon
of resources and collecLlve acLlon
lnsLlLuLlonal collecLlvlsm
-lL ls Lhe degree Lo whlch lndlvlduals are encouraged ln a socleLy Lo express prlde loyalLy and
coheslveness ln groups organlzaLlon or famllles
lngroup collecLlvlsm
-Large open spaces and hosLlle weaLher condlLlons
-Low geographlc moblllLy of peasanLs wlLhln Lhe serf sysLem
CollecLlve agrlculLural pracLlces followed due Lo
-SLrong famlly Lles
-MuLual supporL
1he 8usslan CrLhodox Church supporLed
-uld noL permlL a hlgh level of lndlvldual freedom
-LlmlLed expresslon of lndlvldual compeLlLlveness
Soclal framework
Soclal lnsLlLuLlons prescrlbed formal collecLlvlsm
-1he Church
-Agrarlan soclal sysLem
Lconomlc reforms ln second half of Lhe 19
Lh
cenLury and early 20
Lh
cenLury
desLroyed collecLlvlsL LradlLlons culLlvaLed by
-8eplaced hlgher level of lndlvldual freedom wlLh pollLlclzed arLlflclal loyalLy and obedlence Lo Lhe
arLy
-ConLrolled behavlour and enforced people's conformlLy Lhrough LoLal survelllance and purges
-SubsLlLuLed famlly and naLural group loyalLy wlLh loyalLy Lo Lhe pollLlcal sysLem and Lo Lhe SLaLe
CommunlsL arLy
-uurlng Lhe Second World War
-Lconomlc Lurmoll of 1990s (especlally from soclally excluded groups)
Plgh danger perlods demanded collecLlvlsL behavlour
-ushlng Lhe counLry Lowards hlgher lndlvlduallsm and soclal fragmenLaLlon
lndocLrlnaLlon of WesLernlzed behavlour Lhrough medla and Lhe offlclal
docLrlne of enLrepreneurshlp are now
-Plghly lndlvlduallsLlc behavlour and low soclal responslblllLy
-AcLlve neLworklng for survlvalofLen explolLed by crlmlnal sLrucLures
SLrlklng conLradlcLlons exlsL beLween
8ussla ls lncllned Lo Lransform lLself lnLo a more lndlvlduallsLlc socleLy
Co||ect|v|sm
Cender LgallLarlanlsm
-lL ls Lhe exLenL Lo whlch an organlzaLlon or socleLy mlnlmlze gender role dlfferences
Cender egallLarlanlsm
CurrenL pracLlces are percelved as hlgh Cender LgallLarlanlsm
-8oles of man and women clearly deflned and separaLed from each oLher
Medleval Llmes
-Severely decreased Lhe male populaLlon
-Lnabled women Lo Lake over varlous LradlLlonal men's acLlvlLles
SovleL perlod !oseph SLalln's represslons and Lhe Second World War
-8ackslldlng from SovleL Lo Medleval Llmes employmenL gap lncreased
-8usslan managers noL concerned wlLh sLrengLhenlng gender egallLarlanlsm
-aLrlmonlal sysLem of LradlLlonal 8usslan socleLy sLlll exlsLs sLrongly
1990s
- laclllLaLed equal access of men and women Lo educaLlon and soclal beneflLs
SLaLe SLaLe
- ConLrolled Lhe rlghL" balance of men and women ln Lhe pollLlcal and governmenL bodles
arLy arLy
Assert|veness
- lL ls Lhe degree Lo whlch lndlvlduals are encouraged wlLhln a socleLy Lo be asserLlve
confronLaLlonal and aggresslve ln soclal relaLlonshlps
AsserLlveness
- Mascullne culLure reflecLed by maleheaded households and publlcly by Lhe role of Lhe
Lzar
Medleval Llmes
- Added some femlnlne characLerlsLlcs Lo Lhe noble sLraLa of Lhe socleLy
- Plgher respecL for women and romanLlclsm
- ln CommunlsL rule promoLlon of offlclal pollcy of carlng for people (especlally for
chlldren) educaLlon and full employmenL
WesLern (lrench) lnfluences
PerlLage of carlng llmlLs asserLlve behavlour
- lnLerpersonal neLworks
- CollecLlve obllgaLlons
CLher llmlLaLlons
ower d|stance
- lL ls Lhe degree Lo whlch members of a socleLy expecL and agree LhaL power should be
unequally shared
ower dlsLance
- lormallzed soclal sLaLus sLraLlflcaLlon wlLh Lhe sysLem of serfdom weak mlddle class
sLrong cenLrallzaLlon of power ln Lhe hands of Lhe sLaLe and lack of democraLlc
LradlLlons
rerevoluLlonary perlod
- uemocraLlc reforms
- CpporLunlLles llnked Lo educaLlon skllls and experlence raLher Lhan pollLlcal
connecLlons
CurrenL pracLlces may modlfy behavlour of people 1hese lnclude
n|gh n|gh
erformance or|entat|on
- lL ls Lhe exLenL Lo whlch a socleLy encourages or rewards group members for
performance and excellence
erformance orlenLaLlon
- LnLerprlse managers deemphaslzed Lhe need Lo exceed Lhe planned lndlcaLors
delegaLed from above
- Managers and facLory dlrecLors noL rewarded for hlgh resulLs
- uld noL have addlLlonal resources for unplanned lnlLlaLlves
SovleL era
- Large enLerprlses made Lhelr forLunes noL by lmprovlng enLerprlse performance buL
by caplLallzlng on managemenL buyouL schemes
- LLhlcal sLandards and rules of morallLy lgnored Lo achleve resulLs
1990s
Low Low
Iuture or|entat|on
- lL ls Lhe degree Lo whlch lndlvlduals ln organlzaLlons or socleLy engage ln fuLure
orlenLed behavlours such as plannlng lnvesLlng ln Lhe fuLure and delaylng graLlflcaLlon
luLure orlenLaLlon
- LlmlLed fuLure orlenLaLlon
Communlsm and a naLlonal longLerm plannlng sysLem
- lmproved fuLure orlenLaLlon
ollLlcal lnsLablllLy and changes ln leglslaLlon
- eople don'L rely on savlngs buL qulckly Lransfer lnflaLed rubles lnLo hard cash or spend
money above all reasonable llmlLs
LaLe 1990s
- Mass susplclon of auLhorlLles and Lhelr promlses abouL poslLlve fuLure changes
lncreased fuLure orlenLaLlon
20002006
Low Low
Uncerta|nty avo|dance
-lL ls Lhe exLenL Lo whlch members of a socleLy sLrlve Lo avold uncerLalnLy by relylng on soclal norms
rlLuals and bureaucraLlc pracLlces Lo allevlaLe Lhe unpredlcLablllLy of fuLure evenLs
uncerLalnLy avoldance
-opulaLlon losL sense of dlrecLlon ln new fragmenLed and uncerLaln envlronmenL
-LxlsLlng preference for a plannlng sysLem among 8usslan managers
-lncreased need for securlLy and dlrecLlon
1990s
-8eallLles of Lhe pasL (respecL for age LradlLlon rule orlenLaLlon soclal order) LhaL provlded securlLy
and supporLed Lolerance of uncerLalnLy sLand lnvalld
-Many 8usslan managers and enLrepreneurs work successfully ln neLworks relylng noL only on
formal agreemenLs buL on frlendshlp and soclal lnLeracLlon
CurrenL
Low Low
numane or|entat|on
-lL ls Lhe degree Lo whlch lndlvlduals ln organlzaLlons or socleLles encourage and reward
lndlvlduals for belng falr frlendly generous carlng and klnd Lo oLhers
Pumane orlenLaLlon
-Absence of soclal norms and laws LhaL proLecL Lhe less forLunaLe
-unfalrness and corrupLlon ln buslness
-LLhlcal norms and morallLy noL hlghly respecLed ln buslness or socleLy aL large
1ranslLlonal 8ussla
-LxplolLaLlve economy
-WealLh concenLraLed ln hands of few wldespread poverLy and soclal excluslon
-Welfare and soclal beneflLs ofLen neglecLed aL organlzaLlonal level
-Wldespread mlsLrusL
CurrenL
Low Low
Leadershlp proflle ln focus group
lnLervlews
Leader
naLlonal
success
CreaL
achlevem
enLs
Perolsm
lnsplrlng
people
wlLh
personal
ablllLy
CreaLlvlLy
Courage
8lsk
Laklng
- SocleLy
- Lconomy
Leaders should be deflned
dlfferenLly ln
Leaders should be deflned
dlfferenLly ln
- SLereoLypes of heroes developed
ln hlsLory
- SLereoLypes of heroes
lndocLrlnaLed by offlclal
propaganda
ueflnlLlon based on ueflnlLlon based on
- 8eallLy of every socleLy
- racLlcal soclal phenomenon
- An organlzaLlonal phenomenon
- lnLerdependenL wlLh socleLy
Leadershlp ls Leadershlp ls
1houghLs abouL leadershlp
C|d v|ews New v|ews
1he ablllLy Lo
represenL and
share
Lechnlcal skllls
and experLlse
professlonalls
m Lo deal wlLh
people
effecLlvely
CuallLles llke
rlsk Laklng and
lnsplrlng
oLhers Lo
follow
AdmlnlsLraLors CreaLors of
organlzaLlonal
culLure
CharlsmaLlc/value based orlenLaLlon
- MosL lmporLanL dlmenslon
1eam orlenLaLlon
- AdmlnlsLraLlvely compeLenL
- CollaboraLlve Leam orlenLed
- 1eam lnLegraLor
- ulplomaLlc
- MalevolenL
Pumane orlenLaLlon
- ModesLy
- Pumane
arLlclpaLlve orlenLaLlon
- AuLocraLlc
- nonparLlclpaLlve
AuLonomous (lndlvlduallsm lndependence unlqueness)
SelfproLecLlve
- SLaLus consclousness
- ConfllcL lnducer
- lace saver
- rocedural
- SelfcenLred
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GLC8L soc|eta| cu|ture scores for kuss|a
As Is score kank (8and) Shou|d be score kank (8and)
Inst|tut|ona|
co||ect|v|sm
430 17 (8) 389 60 (u)
Ingroup
co||ect|v|sm
363 17 (A) 379 20 (8)
Gender
ega||tar|an|sm
407 2 (A) 418 49 (8)
Assert|veness 368 34 (8) 283 39 (C)
ower d|stance 332 14 (A) 262 40 (C)
erformance
or|entat|on
339 39 (C) 334 33 (u)
Iuture
or|entat|on
288 61 (u) 348 34 (8)
Uncerta|nty
avo|dance
288 61 (u) 307 18 (A)
numane
or|entat|on
394 37 (C) 339 18 (8)
Med|a Ana|yses
1he sLudy ls based on newspapers durlng 2 lnslgnlflcanL perlods (no
slgnlflcanL pollLlcal evenL nor holldays
newspaper are Lhe 2
nd
|argest source of |nformat|on for Lhe publlc afLer
Lelevlslon
ln recenL years one can noLlce a cerLaln dec||ne ln Lhe readlng audlence as
compared Lo Lhe 1980s
1hls could be explalned by Lhe grow|ng soc|a| and po||t|ca| apathy ln Lhe laLe
1990s Also aL Lhls perlod people seem more concerned about the|r
surv|va| than nat|ona| concerns Lhey cannoL conLrol and Lhey do noL LrusL
any more Lhe med|a contro||ed by tycoons and the krem||n
adm|n|strat|on
W 3 newspapers sLudled and 217 arLlcles and edlLorlals ldenLlfled because
Lhey can be referred Lo as deallng wlLh |ssues |eadersh|p |n var|ous
spheres of ||fe
W 1he followlng spheres of Lhe leaders' acLlvlLy were deflned po||t|cs
bus|ness sport arts and show bus|ness others
W 2 groups were also deflned ln Lhe arLlcles Lhe fore|gn" leaders and Lhe
kuss|an" leaders
Med|a Ana|yses
kesu|ts of the study Structures of the 2 sets
W ln Lhe forelgn seL (33 arLlcles)
1he lnLeresL ln Lhe leaders from Lhe dlfferenL spheres can be ranked as Lhe
followlng from Lhe hlgher lnLeresL Lo Lhe lowesL po||t|ca| |eaders (40 of
Lhe seL) bus|ness |eaders (29) art and show bus|ness (7) sport (7)
W ln Lhe 8usslan seL (162 arLlcles)
1he same ranklng ln Lhls seL appears as Lhe followlng po||t|ca| |eaders
(31) art and show bus|ness (18) bus|ness |eaders (16) sport (6)
ModeraLe lnLeresL by Lhe 8usslan medla of leaders ln buslness compared
Lo Lhe oLher group of leaders 8uL po||t|ca| |eadersh|p boLh lnLernaLlonal
and domesLlc are a vlslble prlorlLy for 8usslan newspaper
Med|a Ana|yses
kesu|ts of the study Words and words comb|nat|ons
W lmage (13 of all phrases and expresslons)
W laclllLaLe (11)
W AcLlon (11)
W knowledge (10)
W Lnergy (9)
W CommunlcaLlon (8)
W Change (4)
W Survlve (3)
1o be noLed as regards Lo Lhe value8ased CharlsmaLlc leadershlp characLerlsLlcs
Charlsma vlslon and CreaLlvlLy were menLloned less Lhan 3 Llmes and 8ole model 3
Llmes 1hls hlghllghLs the marg|na| acceptance of such a CharlsmaLlc leadershlp ln
8ussla
So Lhe Lyplcal medla leadershlp proflle could be deflned as Lhe followlng a 8usslan leader
has a r|ch |mage llnked Lo hls/her success he/she dlsplays Lhe act|onor|ented and
energet|c behav|or of a faclllLaLor wlLh entrepreneur|a| compeLencles
Med|a Ana|yses
ln Concluslon abouL 8ussla
W uue Lo Lhe ollLlcal and Lconomlcal changes afLer Lhe uSS8 Lhe culLural
values Lhe vlslon of leadershlp and Lhe norms of behavlor have hugely
changed ln 8ussla
W 1he new vlslon of CulLure and leadershlp ls based on
1radlLlonal and hlsLorlcal culLure feaLures of 8usslan SocleLy
1he lnfluence of Lhe LoLallLarlan pasL of Lhe xxLh CenLury
1he abrupL LranslLlon LhaL Look place durlng Lhe 1990s
W Accordlng Lo Lhe Clobe research 8ussla has a low
uncerLalnLy Avoldance
luLure CrlenLaLlon
Puman CrlenLaLlon
W And 8ussla has a sLrong
ower dlsLance (lL lncreases rapldly wlLh uLln)
ln Concluslon abouL 8ussla
W lL remalns a very blg gap beLween Lhe As ls" and Lhe Should 8e" for
whaL ls llnked Lo Lhe soclal and economlc LransformaLlon such as
erformance CrlenLaLlon for example
W 1he ldeal" buslness leader ln 8ussla should be an efflclenL declslon
maklng and admlnlsLraLlvelycompeLenL manager Pe ls energeLlc wlLh a
sLrong conLrol on slLuaLlons and can launch largescale pro[ecLs
W 1hus CulLure LransformaLlon relaLed Lo luLure CrlenLaLlon looks
promlslng
W 8uL Lhe gap beLween Lhe rlch and Lhe poor remalns and a reallLy of soclal
excluslon ls presenL ln Lhe counLry