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Chapter 9: Recognizing Comparison/Contrast and Cause/Effect Patterns

Essential Reading Skills, 2/e Kathleen McWhorter

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

Comparison/Contrast Patterns
Comparison: Explains how items, people, or events are alike. Contrast: Explains how items, people, or events are different.

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

Compare & Contrast Two Professors


Items A and B: Professor Miller and Professor Wright

Similarities: Both require attendance. Both give essay exams. Both are fair. Both have a sense of humor.

Differences: Wright grades on term papers. Miller grades on class participation. Wright is younger. Miller is older.

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

Comparison Pattern
Item A Similarity 1 Similarity 2 Similarity 3
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Item B

Common Words Used in Comparison Pattern


alike same similar similarity like

likewise both just as each in common

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

Contrast Pattern
Item A Item B

Difference 1 Difference 2

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

Common Words Used in Contrast Pattern


unlike different difference on the other hand instead

in contrast despite nevertheless however but

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

Cause-Effect Pattern
Writers use the cause/effect pattern to explain why an event or action causes another event or action.
2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

Single Cause/Multiple Effects


Effect A Cause

Effect B

Effect C

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

Single Cause/Multiple Effects


Traffic problems Snowstorm

School Closings

Accidents

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

Multiple Causes/Single Effect


Cause A Cause B Cause C Effect

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

Multiple Causes/Single Effect


Attend class Take notes Study the text Good Exam Grade

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

Common Words in Cause/Effect Pattern


cause
because because of since due to reasons

effect
consequently as a result one result is therefore thus

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

Answering Questions about ComparisonContrast and Cause and Effect Use transitional words to help you identify the patterns. The topic sentence of a paragraph often reveals or suggests the pattern. If you are having difficulty sorting out causes and effects, try numbering the actions in the order in which they occurred.

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

Test-Taking Tip #9:

Visit the Companion Website

http://www.ablongman.com/mcwhorter

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.