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Holography means History Conventional vs Holographic photography Hologram Construction Types of holograms Hologram Working Holography Properties Holographic Display Holography Applications Future of Holography

Holography(from the Greek whole+writing) is the science of producing holograms. It is advanced form of photography to be recorded in 3 dimensions. The technique of holography can also used to optically retrieve and process information.

Invented in 1948 by Dennis Gabor for use in electron microscope before the invention of laser. Leith and Upatnieks applied laser light to holography in 1963. Stephen Benton produced in 1968 a transmission hologram which could be replayed using white light.

Conventional Vs Holographic photography


2 D version of a 3 D version
Photography lacks depth perception

Film is sensitive only to radiant energy

Phase relation (i.e. interference) are lost.

Holographic :
3 dimensional. Hologram is an interference pattern. Provide depth perception Converts phase information into amplitude information Interfere wave front of light from a scene with a reference wave.

Hologram construction
A laser: Red lasers, usually helium-neon (He-Ne) lasers. A beam splitter: Device that uses mirrors and prisms to split one beam of light into two beams. Mirrors :Directs the beam of light to the correct locations. Holographic film: layer of light sensitive compound on a transparent surface like photographic film.

Hologram construction

Transmission holograms:
Formed when the light from the object and reference beam enter the recording media from the same side. Reflection hologram Formed when the object beam and the reference beam enter the film plate on opposite side

Transmission hologram

Reflection Hologram

Differences between transmission and reflection hologram

Reflection hologram is viewed by illuminating from front and transmission holograms are viewed by illuminating from back.

illumination from front

illumination from back

Source of light
Resolving power Depth of the scene Exposure time

Hologram working

Interference imaging

Hologram working

Transmission hologram recording

Holography properties
Three-Dimensional image
Scaling Holographic ImagesHolographic Memory Division property

Properties cont. :
SCALING: Holographic image scales with the wavelength. MEMORY: It is able to store large amount of information in very small space. 3-D IMAGE: You can move your head to view the image in different perspectives.

Division property
If you cut one in half, each half contains whole views of the entire holographic image

Holographic display

No glasses needed. Viewers can walk around the screen in a wide field of view seeing the objects and shadows. Unlimited number of viewers can see simultaneously the same 3D scene on the screen. No positioning or head tracking applied. Spatial points are addressed individually.

Holographic display


Projects 3 dimensional images that can be seen from any angle. Consists of video projector, spinning mirror, specialized processor. Uses a standard programmable graphics' card to render over 5,000 images of interactive 3D graphics per second, projecting images to 360-degrees with 1.25 degree separation and up to 20 updates per second.

Holography applications :
1) Entertainment:
Various Hollywood movies specially the science fiction films have used holographic special effects.

2) Security:
Presence of hologram indicate authenticity of items. They are used on identicards,credit cards ,driving licence etc.

Applications :
3) Holographic Interferometry :
A very precise technique for measuring changes in the dimensions of an object. Useful in industrial stress analysis (non-destructive testing), etc. The technique involves interference between two waves. 4) Decoration -Holograms are sure to attract the customer and increase the visual value of products inside. 5) Medical Applications : CAT scans, X-ray, MRI, Ultrasound, ophthalmology, endoscopy, otology, orthopedics and many more. 6) B2B E-Commerce- You can enhance design visualization by using a New Generation Hologram in computer-generated 3-D images, CAD designs.

Future of holography

few years there will be commercial availability of night vision goggles. versatile disc.


or holographic computers in future capable of delivering trillions of bits of information faster than the latest computers.

Future of holography


will be museums using holograms with animated multimedia. researchers believe that holographic televisions will become available within 10 years at a cost of approximately $5000.


Holograms provide highly realistic 3D images with a large viewing angle capability without the need for special eyewear. The ultimate goal is to create hologram as a powerful tool for science, industry, advertisement, security, education etc