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Utilization of Nutrients

Utilization of Nutrients


The body uses three processes to utilize nutrients


1. 2. 3.

Digestion Absorption Metabolism

Digestion
 Process

by which the body breaks food down into smaller parts, changes the food chemically and moves the food through the digestive system  Two types of digestive action
Mechanical digestion  Chemical digestion


Digestion


Mechanical digestion
 

Food is broken up by the teeth Moved through digestive tract by peristalsis, a rhythmic, wavelike motion of the muscles Food is mixed with digestive juices secreted by the mouth, stomach, small intestine and pancreas Juices contain enzymes that break down the food chemically so nutrients can be absorbed into the blood

Chemical digestion


Absorption
 Process

where blood capillaries pick up the digested nutrients  Nutrients carried by circulatory system to every body cell  Most absorption occurs in the small intestine  Water, salts and some vitamins are absorbed in large intestine

Processes of Digestion and Absorption



1.

2.

3.

See page 233 Mouth: Teeth and tongue begin mechanical digestion by breaking apart food Salivary glands: Begin chemical digestion as salivary amylase begins to change starch to maltose Esophagus: Peristalsis and gravity move food along

Processes of Digestion and Absorption


4.

5. 6.

Stomach: Hydrochloric acid prepares the gastric area for enzyme action. Pepsin breaks down proteins and Lipase acts on emulsified fats Liver: Produces bile Gallbladder: Stores bile and releases it into small intestine to emulsify fats

Processes of Digestion and Absorption


7.

8.

Pancreas: Enzymes are released into the small intestine. Pancreatic amylase breaks down starch. Lipase breaks down fats. Pancreatic proteases break down proteins Small intestine: Produces enzymes, prepare foods for absorption, food is further broken down for absorption by the body. Most absorption of nutrients takes place here.

Processes of Digestion and Absorption


9.

Large intestine: Absorbs water and some other nutrients, collects food residue for excretion

Metabolism
 Process

in which nutrients are used by cells for building tissue, providing energy or regulating various functions  Nutrients are combined with oxygen and energy and heat are released  Energy is required for voluntary work as well as involuntary work

Metabolism
 Basal

metabolic rate (BMR) rate at which body uses energy just for maintaining its own tissue, without doing any voluntary work  Body needs energy continually
Stores nutrients for future use  Uses stored nutrients to provide energy when food intake is not adequate for energy needs


Measuring Food Energy


 Foods

vary in the amount of energy they contain  When body metabolizes nutrients to provide energy, heat is also released
Measurement of the amount of heat produced during metabolism is way energy content of food is measured  Heat measured by a unit called a kilocalorie (kcal) or just calorie


Measuring Food Energy




Number of kilocalories or calories in a certain food is known as that foods caloric value
Carbs and proteins provide four calories per gram  Fat provides nine calories per gram  Vitamins, minerals and water do not provide any calories


Individuals Caloric Requirement


 

Number of kilocalories or calories needed by the body during a 24-hour period Varies from person to person depending on activity, age, size, sex, physical condition and climate Usually amount of physical activity or exercise is main factor determining caloric requirements, because energy used must be replaced

Individuals Caloric Requirement


 To


gain weight

Decrease activity AND  Increase caloric intake


 To


lose weight

Increase activity AND  Decrease caloric intake

One Pound
 One

pound of body fat equals about 3,500 calories

One Pound
 To


lose one pound you must have a decrease of 3,500 calories


Consume 3,500 fewer calories  Increase exercise to use 3,500 calories

 To


gain one pound you must have an increase of 3,500 calories


Consume 3,500 more calories  Decrease exercise to conserve 3,500 calories

To Maintain Weight
 General

guideline is that a person should consume 15 calories per pound of body weight per day  Ex. Person weighing 120 pounds needs 1,800 calories per day to stay at same weight (120 X 15 = 1,800)

To Lose Weight
 Person

can decrease required calories by 500 per day  Person needing 1,800 could consume 1,300 per day  500 calories X 7 days = 3,500 calories = 1 pound  Person would lose 1 pound per week

To Gain Weight
 Person

can increase calories by 500 per

day  Person needing 1,800 could consume 2,300 per day  500 calories X 7 days = 3,500 calories = 1 pound  Person would gain 1 pound per week

Weight Loss and Gain


 Increasing

or decreasing exercise along with controlling caloric intake is essential  Slow steady gain or loss of 1 to 2 pounds per week is an efficient and safe form of weight control

Maintenance of Good Nutrition


 Good

nutrition is the best way of achieving and maintaining good health  Accomplished by eating a balanced diet in which all of the required nutrients are included in the correct amounts  5 major food groups


Grains, vegetables, fruits, milk, meat and beans

Maintenance of Good Nutrition


 Grains

Eat 6 oz every day  At least half should be whole grains




 Vegetables

Eat 2 cups every day  Eat a variety of dark-green, orange and other brightly colored veggies


Maintenance of Good Nutrition


 Fruits

Eat 2 cups every day  Eat a variety of fresh, frozen, canned or dried fruit (with no sugar added)  Go easy of fruit juices


 Milk

Eat 3 cups every day  Choose low-fat or fat-free milk, yogurt and cheese


Maintenance of Good Nutrition


 Meat


& Beans

Eat 5 oz every day  Choose low-fat or lean meats and poultry  Bake, broil or grill  Eat a variety of fish, beans, nuts and seeds

7 Guidelines for Good Eating Habits


1.

Eat a variety of foods


Choose different foods from each of the food groups Adjust number and size of portions based on body weight and nutritional needs Provides wide variety of nutrients required for good health

7 Guidelines for Good Eating Habits


2.

Maintain healthy weight


Determine proper body weight Maintain this weight by proper eating habits and exercise

3.

Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat and cholesterol


Eat lean meat, poultry without skin, fish and lowfat dairy products Use fats and oils sparingly and limit fried foods

7 Guidelines for Good Eating Habits


4. 5.

Choose a diet with plenty of vegetables, fruits and grain products Use sugars in moderation
Limit cookies, candy, cakes and soft drinks Brush and floss teeth after eating sweet foods

6.

Use salt and sodium in moderation


Flavor foods with herbs and spices Reduce the amount of salty foods

7 Guidelines for Good Eating Habits


7.

If alcohol is consumed, it should be in moderation Should be avoided by pregnant women, individuals using medications, children and adolescents Should not be used by individuals driving or engaging in an activity requiring attention or skill

Food Habits
 Food

habits also affect nutrition  Food habits can be based on cultural or religious beliefs
Different cultures and races have certain food preferences  Some religions require certain dietary restrictions  See page 237


Food Habits


Unusual habits are not necessarily bad and should be evaluated using the major five food groups as a guide When habits do require changing in order to improve nutrition, person making suggestions must use tack, patience and imagination Many food habits are formed during youth and changing them is a difficult and slow process