Está en la página 1de 26

AGC DSP

Digital Signal Processing & Digital Filters


An Introductory Course By Professor A G Constantinides MSc, EE4, ISE4, PhD

Professor A G Constantinides

AGC DSP

Digital Signal Processing & Digital Filters


Contents 1-Introduction
1) Introduction to Digital Signal Processing
  

Review of background DSP Review of mathematical methods Review of discrete-time random processes and linear systems

Professor A G Constantinides

AGC DSP

Digital Signal Processing & Digital Filters


2) Multirate techniques and wavelets  Introduction to short-time Fourier analysis  Filter-banks and overlap-add methods of analysis and synthesis  Introduction to generalised time-frequency representation  Wavelet analysis  Multirate signal processing  Interpolation and decimation  Efficient filter structures for interpolation and decimation
Professor A G Constantinides 3

AGC DSP

Digital Signal Processing & Digital Filters


3) Classical spectrum estimation methods  Power spectrum, power spectral density functions, random processes and linear systems  Introduction to statistical estimation and estimators  Biased and unbiased estimators  Einstein/Wiener Khintchine Theorem  Estimation of autocorrelations  Means and variances of periodograms  Smoothed spectral estimates, leakage
Professor A G Constantinides 4

AGC DSP

Digital Signal Processing & Digital Filters


4) Modern spectrum estimation methods  Introduction to modern spectral estimation: Principles and approaches  Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) and Efficient estimators  The Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) or Autoregressive Power Spectrum Estimation: Principles.  The MEM equations and Levinson/Durbin algorithm
Professor A G Constantinides 5

AGC DSP

Digital Signal Processing & Digital Filters


4) Modern spectrum estimation methods (continued)  Introduction to Linear Prediction  Linear Predictive Coding using covariances and correlations  Cholesky decomposition  Lattice Filters  Linear Prediction of Speech Signals
Professor A G Constantinides 6

AGC DSP

Digital Signal Processing & Digital Filters


5) Adaptive signal processing  Introduction to adaptive signal processing  Objective measures of goodness  Least squares and consequences  Steepest descent  The LMS and RLS algorithms  Kalman Filters

Professor A G Constantinides

AGC DSP

Digital Signal Processing & Digital Filters


6) Applications  Communications  Biomedical  Seismic  Audio/Music

Professor A G Constantinides

AGC DSP

DIGITAL FILTERS

Digital Filters  In this course you will learn:  How to choose an appropriate filter response.  Why Butterworth responses are maximally flat.  Why Chebyshev and Elliptic responses are equiripple.  When to choose an IIR and when an FIR filter
Professor A G Constantinides 9

AGC DSP

DIGITAL FILTERS
How do you design FIR and IIR filters from specifications on amplitude performance? What are multirate systems and their properties? What is interpolation / Upsampling and Decimation / Downsampling? How do you design efficient Decimation and Interpolation systems? What are frequency transformations and how do you design these? How accurate is the DFT as a spectrum estimator?
Professor A G Constantinides 10

AGC DSP

DIGITAL FILTERS
What are short FFT algorithms? How do you choose the required wordlength? What are Fast Convolutions and how are they realised? How do you deal with a DSP problem in practice?
Professor A G Constantinides 11

 

AGC DSP

Course content

Assumed DSP background


DSP Background folder
    

1-Introduction 2-z transform 3-transfer functions 4-Signal Flow Graphs 5-digital filters intro

Professor A G Constantinides

12

AGC DSP

Course content

2-Digital Filter Design  1-Digital Filters (FIR)  2-Digital Filters (IIR) 3-Multirate 1-Interpolation_Decimation

Professor A G Constantinides

13

AGC DSP

Course content

4-Tranforms  1-DFT  2-DFT_one2two  3-general transforms  4-Wavelets 5-Finite Wordlength  1-Finite Wordlength
Professor A G Constantinides 14

AGC DSP

Course content
background in Mathematical Background folder) 1-Fourier transform & DFT 2-FFT-based Power Spectrum Estimation 3-Modern Spectrum Estimation 4-Intro-Estimation 5-Eigen-based methods 6-A Prediction Problem
Professor A G Constantinides 15

6-Spectrum Estimation (Assumed

     

AGC DSP

Course content

7-Adaptive Signal Processing  1-Adaptive Signal Processing 8-Applications  1-Applications  2-Applications

Professor A G Constantinides

16

AGC DSP

Digital Signal Processing & Digital Filters

BOOKS  Main Course text books: Digital Signal Processing: A computer Based Approach, S K Mitra, McGraw Hill  Mathematical Methods and Algorithms for Signal Processing, Todd Moon, Addison Wesley  Other books:  Digital Signal Processing, Roberts & Mullis, Addison Wesley  Digital Filters, Antoniou, McGraw Hill
Professor A G Constantinides 17

AGC DSP

DIGITAL FILTERS

Analogue Vs Digital Signal Processing Reliability: Analogue system performance degrades due to: y Long term drift (ageing) y Short term drift (temperature?) y Sensitivity to voltage instability. y Batch-to-Batch component variation. y High discrete component count Interconnection failures
Professor A G Constantinides 18

AGC DSP

DIGITAL FILTERS

Digital Systems: y No short or long term drifts. y Relative immunity to minor power supply variations. y Virtually identical components. y IC s have > 15 year lifetime y Development costs y System changes at design/development stage only software changes. y Digital system simulation is realistic.
Professor A G Constantinides 19

AGC DSP

DIGITAL FILTERS

Power aspects  Size  Dissipation




DSP chips available as well as ASIC/FPGA realisations

Professor A G Constantinides

20

AGC DSP

Applications

Radar systems & Sonar systems y y y y




Doppler filters. Clutter Suppression. Matched filters. Target tracking. Identification


Professor A G Constantinides 21

AGC DSP

DIGITAL FILTERS

Image Processing  Image data compression.  Image filtering.  Image enhancement.  Spectral Analysis.  Scene Analysis / Pattern recognition.
Professor A G Constantinides 22

AGC DSP

DIGITAL FILTERS

Biomedical Signal Analysis  Spatial image enhancement. (X-rays)  Spectral Analysis.  3-D reconstruction from projections.  Digital filtering and Data compression.

Professor A G Constantinides

23

AGC DSP

DIGITAL FILTERS

Music  Music recording.  Multi-track mixing .  CD and DAT.  Filtering / Synthesis / Special effects.

Professor A G Constantinides

24

AGC DSP

DIGITAL FILTERS

Seismic Signal Analysis




Bandpass Filtering for S/N improvement. Predictive deconvolution to extract reverberation characteristics. Optimal filtering. (Wiener and Kalman.)
Professor A G Constantinides 25

AGC DSP

DIGITAL FILTERS

Telecommunications and Consumer Products These are the largest and most pervasive applications of DSP and Digital Filtering  Mobile Communications  Digital Recording  Digital Cameras  Blue Tooth or similar
Professor A G Constantinides 26