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m An undesirable and unfavorable change in

physical, chemical and biological characteristics of

land air and water that harmfully affect both plant
and animal life including that of man.
m Caused mainly by population growth, urbanization
and technological advances.
m Things that cause pollution are called pollutants
Main pollutants
1. Solid wastes (sewage, soot dust etc. )
2. Gases (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide etc.)
3. Industrial wastes (acids, alkalies)
4. Agricultures pollutants (pesticides, herbicides)
5. Metals (Iron, Zinc, Mercury)
6. Radioactive substances
7. Oil
m ðiodegradable pollutantsÔ `hose which are
rapidly decomposed by natural processes. Eg.
Domestic sewage

m on-degradable pollutants: `hat degrade very

slowly into natural environment. Eg. Plastic,
aluminum cans, glass, DD`, mercuric salts etc.
m Olassification based on environment: .
Atmospheric pollution
2. Water pollution
3. Soil pollution
m Olassification based on nature of pollutants
. Chemical pollution
2. Noise pollution
3. Pollution by radio activity.
m Contamination of atmospheric air due to
accumulation of harmful or toxic materials
1. atural sources.
. Volcanic eruption
2. Forest fire
3. Decaying organic matter
4. Sand storms
2. Man made pollutants
Only 0.05% of total atmospheric pollutants.
Caused by the outputs of industries and
 Gaseous pollutants:
. Carbon monoxide.
2. nitrogen oxide,
3. sulphur dioxide etc.
 Particulate substances
 Solid and liquid particles
.Large particles that easily settle down in air. (sand and
water drops)
2.Fine paricles that float in air for long time (dust and mist).
3.Finer particles that never settle (smoke, aerosol and
Primary Pollutants
OO OO2 Secondary Pollutants
SO2 O O2
Most hydrocarbons
Most suspended particles
H2O2 O3 PAs
Most O3± and SO42± salts
Sources atural Stationary

m Primary pollutants
m Those emanating from a source
m Eg. Carbon monoxide, nitrous
oxides etc.

m Secondary pollutants
m Produced by combustions of
primary pollutants in atmosphere
m Eg. Atmospheric reactions of
hydro-carbons and nitrous oxide,
peroxy acetyl nitrate
m Stationary
combustion sourcesÔ
- Combustion of coal and petroleum
produces CO,SO2,various
Nitrogen compounds and fly ash
containing trace metals like
arsenic, lead and Mercury.
- Incomplete burning of petroleum
produces soot and other toxic
- Oxides of sulphur react with
atmosphere producing sulphuric
acid which forms acid rain or acid
m Mobile combustion
m Automobile is a major source
of pollution
m Their exhaust contain carbon
monoxide(77.2%), Oxides of
nitrogen(7.7%) and
m Photochemical reactions on
Oxides of nitrogen and
hydrocarbons produce
photochemical smog which
contains Peroxy acetyl nitrate
and Ozone.
m Tetra ethyl lead in petroleum
produces various lead
Acid Deposition
OzoneÔ Good Up High - Bad Nearby
Ground level ozone is formed via a chemical reaction

VOCs come primarily from vegetation and industrial sources.

NOx comes from automobiles, trucks, buses, and power plants.

Ozone pollution is a concern primarily during the summer months when the
weather conditions to form it (lots of sun and hot temperatures) normally occur.
m Industrial processing and other sources
m Smoke from factories
m Oompounds contain Ohorine and Fluorine used in
propellants, refrigerants and in aerosol can
produce toxic outputs
m Solvents in spray painting. Dyeing, printing etc.
m ðlasting, drilling, crushing, mixing etc.
m Human health
r Allergic reaction and
bronchial asthma
r Co is respiratory poison
r NO impairs functioning of
r SO2 penetrates tissues
and causes mouth drying
r Hydrocarbons and soot
are carcinogenic
Other effects
m Damage to vegetation
m Injury to animals
m Deterioration of materials
m Aesthetic insults
m Ohange in climate
r =emoval of
r Conversion of
pollutants into
harmful materials
r =educe sulphur
content before
r Use of energy
sources other than
fossil fuels
r Legal measures
from authorities
r Increased planting
of vegetation
r Contamination of water by addition of
undesirable organic, inorganic or biological
substances to water sources
r Natural sourcesÔ soil erosion, leaching of
minerals from of rocks and decay matter.
r Industrial effluents
r Destroys ecosystem and effects human
m Community waste waters
m Industrial wastes
m Agricultural sources
m Thermal pollution
m Under ground water pollution
m Marine pollution
m Mercury poisoning causes Mina Mata disease in
m Inorganic nitrates promote excessive plant
growth in lakes and reservoirs
m Pesticides are harmful to aquatic life
m Organocholrines pass through food chain to
animals and is harmful
m Dyes and inorganic compounds induce colour
change in animals
m .
m Increased turbidity due to suspended particles.
m Unpleasant odours and bad taste
m Soaps and alkalies cause foam formation
m Eutrophication provides rich growth of micro
organisms that consume dissolved oxygen
m Thermal pollution cause damage to aquatic life
m Treatment of garbage and sewage.
m Extraction of useful substances.
m Chemical treatment.
m =eduction of temperature of waste water.
m Minimize the use of non - degradable pesticides.
m Proper enactment of laws by government.
Develop crops that
need less water

Waste less
Oonnect wildlife
reserves with Move people
corridors away
from low-lying
coastal areas

Move hazardous material Stockpile 1- to 5-

storage year
tanks away from coast supply of key foods Prohibit new construction
on low-lying coastal areas
or build houses on stilts

Expand existing
wildlife reserves
toward poles
m Undesirable change in the physical, chemical or
biological property which adversely affects its
m Caused by dumping of wastes, agrochemicals and
as indirect result of air pollution
m Domestic wastes
m Agricultural wastes
m Industrial wastes
m Excretory products
m Salination
m Proper disposal of industrial and
agricultural wastes
m Recycling and recovery of
m Minimize the manufacture and use
of chemical fertilizers
m Reduce the use of pesticides
m The productivity of soil is going down. The main
reasons are
m Soil erosion
m Shifting cultivation
m Desertification
m Developmental activities
m Control soil erosion and floods by restoring forest
and grass cover to the soil
m Crop rotation and mixed crops
m Improved drainage facilities to prevent salinity
m Mulching to prevent sand shifting.
m Belt of trees as wind breakers
m Physical pollution that affects air, water and soil.
Caused by ionizing radiations of harmful nature
emitted from disintegrating atomic nuclei.
m The natural sources include cosmic rays that
reaches the earth surface and radiations from
radium 224, uranium 235 thorium 232 etc
m uclear weapons
m Reactors and uclear fuel
m Radioactive isotopes used
for scientific research(
carbon 14 iodine 125 etc.)
m Waste waters containing
these wastes
m X-rays used in medical
m Ultra violet rays present in
solar radiations
m Depolymerization of DNA
m Denaturation of proteins
m Induce mutations and cancer
m =adioactive substances in food chain cause
retarded growth, leukemia and bone cancer.
m Causes sterility
m Increases infant mortality rate
m Prevention of leakage of radioactive elements
from nuclear reactors.
m Proper storage and disposal of nuclear wastes
m =egular monitoring and high risk analysis
m Increasing the use of non harmful energy sources
m Global understanding about nuclear explotions
m Unwanted high pitch sound that pollutes the
m Maximum tolerable intensity of sound is 85
m The main sources are automobiles, aero planes,
loudspeakers, industries and other electro-
mechanical devices.
m Damage to ear drum and
impairment to hearing.
m Damages heart, liver and
m Emotional disturbances and
behavioral changes
m Leads to anxiety and stress
m Design machines with minimum sound
m Proper lubrication maintenance of machines and
installation of silencers.
m Use of sound absorbing materials
m Use of noise protective devices
m Acoustic Zoning.
m Keep plenty of vegetation proper enforcement of
legal measures.