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CONFLICT

RESOLUTION,
MEDIATION AND
NEGOTIATION
(PSS 314)

Conflict is a part of life. Conflicts
arise at many levels such as at the
family, community, intra-society,
workplace, civil-military, diplomatic and
political.
Most of the world’s conflicts are
intra-state rather than inter-state. In the
1980’s alone, about 115 internal armed
conflicts were recorded, which are
mostly ethnic by nature. Other conflicts
may be categorized as territorial,
economic or political.
These situations require sufficient

In the Philippines, the Government
is consistently faced with challenges on
issues of internal conflict from hostage
situation to insurgency movements.
In the year 2003 alone, the country
witnessed failed and successful
negotiations when a child was killed in
a hostage situation in a bus terminal in
Pasay City and when a group of junior
military officers staged a coup in
Makati City.
These situations require a lot of

With the Philippine government consistently facing various challenges on issues of internal conflict from hostage situation to insurgency movements. one must be able to effectively control and manage circumstances to avoid . there is a need for trainings like this which sustains the necessary skills of crisis managers. In crisis situations.

tools and strategies in managing and resolving conflicts. . Course Description The course aims to provide Ph D PASA students a comprehensive understanding of the fundamental concepts. It also aims to equip them with a deep understanding of the factors affecting crisis or conflict situations and provide them the necessary knowledge and skills related to conflict resolution.

reporting. The Course is intended to be highly interactive and dynamic through a combination of lectures. case analysis. experiential learning. online and face-to- face group discussions. .

the students are expected to:   Have a better understanding of the factors affecting crisis or conflict situations. Have acquired necessary knowledge and skills pertaining to conflict resolution. . mediation and principled negotiation. Be able to apply concepts. General Objectives At the end of the course.

What is Conflict? Webster’s Definition: “ Competitive or opposing action of incompatibles. interests. or persons).” . antagonistic state or action (such as divergent ideas.

Workplace Definition: Conflict is a situation in which each party seeks a position (end result) perceived to be incompatible with the wishes of the other. .

– Conflict is inevitable given the wide range of goals for the different stakeholder in the organization. Organizational Conflict • Organizational Conflict – The discord that arises when goals. . interests or values of different individuals or groups are incompatible and those people block or thwart each other’s efforts to achieve their objectives. • Conflict is good for organizational performance although excessive conflict causes managers to spend too much time achieving their own ends. • Lack of conflict signals that management emphasizes conformity and stifles innovation.

The Effect of Conflict on Organization Performance Figure 16.1 .

3 .Sources of Conflict Figure 16.

• Intergroup Conflict • Conflict between two or more teams or groups. . Types of Conflict • Interpersonal Conflict • Conflict between individuals • Intragroup Conflict • Conflict within a group or team. • Interorganizational Conflict • Conflict that arises across organizations.

adversarial. time will heal all wounds • BARGAINING – a game where demands are traded and success relates to how much each party concedes. win/lose. only dealing with surface issues • ACQUIESCE – go along to keep the peace. Approaches to Resolving Conflict • CONQUEST – power play. autocratic. demand/threaten • AVOIDANCE – conflict will go away if I ignore it. haggling • BAND AID – a quick fix. may lead to passive aggression .

The Win/Win Approach • Cooperative approach • Go back to underlying needs • Recognize individual differences • Openness to adapting position • Empowers participants • Gains commitment and increases motivation • Helps people learn to work together .

Interpersonal Conflict • Common source of workplace conflict • Relating well to people is a critical factor success in most jobs • Understanding your INSIGHTS colour energy – assess other’s energy • Flexibility to other’s style (not manipulation or conformity) • Example .

Emotions During • Anger Conflict • Fear • Hopelessness • Frustration • Disappointment • Paranoia / suspicion • Jealousy • Shame .

Human Needs Affecting Conflict • Power • Approval • Inclusion • Justice • Identity .

Dealing with Interpersonal Conflicts • Be aware of “fight or flight” response • Openly address conflict • Be sensitive to potential damage • Use a problem-solving approach – look for SHARED GOALS • Listen • Be Flexible .

” .Conflict as War Conflict as Opportunity “We shot down that idea.” “What would you like to see happen instead?” “Your position is “This issue presents us with a indefensible.” “He dropped a bomb on “Your feedback helped me see me.” some ways I could improve.” real challenge.

Avoid Assumptions Assume nothing—assumptions are often wrong. Ask questions—it’s harder to be wrong if you asked first. Consider alternative explanations for the other person’s behavior besides what you initially believe. Try to understand the other’s perspective before you try to get him/her to understand yours. .

Do NOT get defensive. Validation Allow the other person to have their experience and perception of the situation. Validate what they are experiencing (do not necessarily agree or disagree) Sometimes the thing that we think is the solution is actually the problem. .

Do not spend time preparing for what you are going to say back. Restate—both to make sure you did understand and to help the other person feel that you were listening. Listen The goal is to understand. . not to be right.

and evaluate results. . implement the solution. Problem Solving Skills Keep the focus on the problem rather than the emotion that results. Focus on one problem at a time— do not allow old issues to be resurrected as a diversion. Brainstorm. select a potential solution.

 Be assertive—get your information out while working to find solutions. Tell Your Story  Do not be passive and avoid telling your side of things.  Do not be overly aggressive and ramrod your story as the only way it could be. .

. Compromise. Be willing to give a little. sick. Ask questions to understand the other person(s). you should follow through with them. Be prepared to compromise or make a deal. Postpone. Enforce. Explore. If tired. Be willing to find other solutions that have not yet been discussed. hungry wait until you feel better. If there are consequences to the behavior. Strategies to Resolve Conflicts Assume you do not have all the answers.

Eight Strategies for Resolving Conflicts at Work (Cloke & Goldsmith) #1 Change the culture and the context of conflict What is organization’s culture in terms of conflict? What would we like for the culture to be? How do we accomplish this? .

Strategy #2 Listen actively. empathetically. and responsively Encourages others to follow suit Helps you get to the heart of the conflict .

don’t prepare your rebuttal until you have HEARD the other person – Use of “I” statements . The Art of Active Listening • Many interpersonal conflicts would not arise if we treated our co- workers with the same basic courtesies we extend to customers – No interrupting – Reflect back understanding of views – Ask clarifying questions – Really listen.

Clearing the A-I-R Appreciate Explicitly tell others you want to hear their point of view “I appreciate the opportunity to discuss this problem with you” Inquire The other person has the floor – be an active listener “Let me make sure I understand your position:…” Respond Now you have the floor “Now that I have a sense of your point of view. let me explain where I’m coming from” From Workplace Wars .

then…” • “You’ll never change” • “You’re being hysterical” . Words that Promote Conflict • “You must…” • “You lied to me” • “This is so typical of you…” • “You always / you never” • “The problem is…” • “If you don’t do this.

Strategy #3 Acknowledge and integrate emotions to solve problems More controversial approach Unexpressed emotions can create conflict Communicate constructively while containing the destructive potential of emotions .

Strategy #4 Search beneath the surface for hidden meaning Conflicts are rarely about the most superficial issue Practice empathy and honesty .

and Desires Self-Perceptions and Self-Esteem Hidden Expectations Unresolved Issues from the Past . Issue Personality Emotions Interests. Needs.

Questions to Take You Below the Surface • Can you tell me what bothered you about what I did? • What is the most important thing to you in solving this problem? • Would you be willing to start again right now and do it differently? • What would it take for you to let go of this conflict and feel that the issue has been completely resolved? .

Strategy #5 Separate what matters from what gets in the way Let go of blaming Let go of who is “right” Focus on the future .

” identify the problem as a DIFFICULT BEHAVIOR What is rewarding the difficult behavior? . Strategy #6 Stop rewarding and learn from difficult behaviors Instead of identifying the problem as a “difficult person” or a “difficult personality.

Strategy #7 Solve problems creatively. and negotiate collaboratively Adopt a positive attitude toward problem-solving Approach problem-solving as a collaborative process . plan strategically.

Strategy #8 Explore resistance. mediate. and design systems for prevention and resolution What to do when your best efforts are met with resistance Alternative Dispute Resolution .

Introduction to Mediation • Usually a process involving a neutral third party who helps disputing parties find solutions to contested issues • Mediation is an emerging field of professional practice • Steps in mediation .

Mediation Process • Dialogue is directly between the disputants. about the specific issue to be resolved • Cardinal rules: – Stay in the process (no walk- aways) – No one-sided solutions (no power plays) .

Mediation Steps • Hold preliminary meetings with disputants – Hear each person’s side of the story – Define the problem – Explain the rules – Assess each party’s willingness to resolve the conflict • Hold three way meeting – Encourage concilliation • Be quiet – Don’t give advice or opinions – Don’t propose solutions • “Let’s Make a Deal” • Follow Up .

Good Mediation Agreement • Balanced • Behaviorally specific • Written .

Self-Mediation Steps • Find a time to talk – The Issue Statement (why we need to talk) – The Request (asking the other to meet) • If there is resistance. – Acknowledge the objection – Show the benefits of talking – Ask again • Plan the context – Time and place for meeting – State the issue as a work-related problem we need to solve together .

let’s not push a one-sided solution) – State the Issue – The invitation: “Help me understand your perspective” – Don’t run the show . Self-Mediation Meeting • Talk it Out – Express appreciation – Express optimism – Review guidelines (let’s persist until we agree.

individual generation of ideas – Round robin – Voting and ranking options . Team Conflict Mediation • Prevent problems in mediation meeting – Personalization – don’t allow people to use person insults and derogatory language – Withdrawal – don’t allow any one person to remain passive – Scapegoating – don’t allow subgroups to “gang up” on others • Brainstorming Options – Silent.

Conflict Management .

• Public versus private • Formal versus informal • Rational versus non-rational . Conflict Management • Perceptions play a major role in conflicts. People can perceive conflict along several dimensions: • Relationship/Task • Emotional/Intellectual • Cooperate/Win or is it….

Conflict Management
Stage of Conflict:

• Latent Conflict - Conditions are “ripe”
• Perceived Conflict - First differences voiced
• Felt Conflict – Parties feel it –
anxious/stress
• Manifest Conflict – Open conflict!
• Conflict aftermath – Conflict over

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

  High
Assertiveness
• •
Concern for Self

Low
Assertiveness
• •
Concern for Others
Low Cooperation High Cooperation

Source: Thomas, K.W. “Conflict and Conflict Management,” In Handbook of Industrial
and Organizational Psychology, ed. M.D. Dunnette. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1976.

COMPETING

  High
Assertiveness
• Competition
Concern for Self

Low
Assertiveness
Concern for Others
Low Cooperation High Cooperation

Source: Thomas, K.W. “Conflict and Conflict Management,” In Handbook of Industrial
and Organizational Psychology, ed. M.D. Dunnette. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1976.

Conflict Styles and Strategies • Control • Competing – • Outwit “My way or the highway.” • Coerce • Fight .

get cooperation from • The issue is trivial and others.” When Appropriate: When Inappropriate: • An emergency is • When it is important to looming. others is diminished. • When individual legal • Policy ruling is needed rights are not protected . • You’re certain you’re • When used to an excess. Competing “My Way or the highway. others don’t care what • When the self respect of happens. right.

“Conflict and Conflict Management. . K. 1976. Chicago: Rand McNally.D. Dunnette.” In Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. M. ed.W. ACCOMODATING   High Assertiveness • Competition Concern for Self Low • Accommodation Assertiveness Concern for Others Low Cooperation High Cooperation Source: Thomas.

” • Flattering . Accommodating Accommodating. • Agreeing “Whatever you say is okay • Appeasing with me.

” When Appropriate: • When the issue is not When Inappropriate: important to you. • When you are likely to • You realize you are wrong. resent the outcome later. acceptance. . • You want to respond to the • When used to gain desires of another. Accommodating “Whatever You Say is Okay With Me.

Dunnette.” In Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. . K. “Conflict and Conflict Management. ed. M. AVOIDING   High Assertiveness • Competition Concern for Self Low • Avoiding • Accommodation Assertiveness Concern for Others Low Cooperation High Cooperation Source: Thomas. 1976.W.D. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Avoiding • Denial • Avoiding- • Ignoring “Conflict. What Conflict?” • Withdrawing .

Inappropriate: emotions are high • When issue is trivial • You care about the issue. • You are powerless or have • Negative feelings may little power. what conflict?” When Appropriate: When • Passage of time might help • Hostile environment. but want to block the other person linger (you care about • Short time and a decision is the relationship). not necessary • When a decision needs to • Relationship is be made insignificant . Avoiding “Conflict.

“Conflict and Conflict Management. Dunnette.W.D. 1976. K. . COMPROMISING   High Assertiveness • Competition Concern for Self • Compromise Low Assertiveness • Avoiding • Accommodation Concern for Others Low Cooperation High Cooperation Source: Thomas. ed. M. Chicago: Rand McNally.” In Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

Compromising • Compromising – • Bargaining “Let’s split the • Reducing difference.” expectations • Provide a little for everyone .

solution is better than a stalemate. Compromising “Let’s Split the Difference. important but time and/or resources are limited. • Finding the most • When cooperation is creative solution is essential. .” When Appropriate: When Inappropriate: • When finding some • When you cannot live with the consequences.

1976.” In Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology.D. “Conflict and Conflict Management. Dunnette. COLLABORATING   High Assertiveness • Competition • Collaboration Concern for Self • Compromise Low Assertiveness • Avoiding • Accommodation Concern for Others Low Cooperation High Cooperation Source: Thomas. M. Chicago: Rand McNally.W. ed. . K.

• “How can we solve the problem?” . Collaborating • Gather information Collaborating – Look for alternatives • Discussion and disagreement is okay.

• Power imbalances exist .” concerns and reaching a • When individual legal mutually acceptable rights are not protected agreement. • When there is a • If either person is not reasonable expectation negotiating in “good of addressing all faith. Collaborating “How Can We Solve the Problem?” When Appropriate: When Inappropriate: • When both the issue and • Time is short. important. the relationship are • The issues are not significant.

 All relevant facts and available and technical information are considered and used by the persons in reaching the resolution.  Feelings of self-worth of each party are maintained during the negotiation process and in the resolution reached. Resolution of a Conflict Occurs When:  The physical well-being of each party is maintained during negotiations and in the resolution reached.  Each person respects or tolerates the other party as a person person while understanding that this does not imply approval of that party’s morals or values. .  The resolution reached was chosen by each party even though other options were available.

• Compromise: each party is concerned about their goal accomplishment and is willing to engage in give-and-take exchange to reach a reasonable solution. . • Collaboration: parties try to handle the conflict without making concessions by coming up with a new way to resolve their differences that leaves them both better off. Conflict Management Strategies • Functional Conflict Resolution – Handling conflict by compromise or collaboration between parties. – Managers also must address individual sources of conflict.

Using permanent transfers and Avoids problem interactions. or experience cultural differences. Conflict Management Strategies (cont’d) Strategies Focused on Individuals Increasing awareness of the Can conflict source can be found source of conflict and corrected? Increasing diversity awareness Older workers may resent younger and skills workers. Practicing job rotation or Provides a good view of what temporary assignments others face. dismissals when necessary .

managers can fix the problem at the source. Increasing the levels of Using cross-functional teams to integration in the organization resolve conflicts between departments. Changing the organization’s Taking steps to change culture dysfunctional norms and values to reduce conflict and refocus the organization on effective goals. Conflict Management Strategies (cont’d) Strategies Focused on The Whole Organization Changing the structure of the Shifting from a functional organization structure to a product structure as the organization increases in size. . Altering the source of the If conflict is due to overlapping conflict authority.

Focusing on the problems and issues at hand. Focusing on interests not demands by understanding why the other party wants a specific need satisfied in the negotiations. Creating new options for joint gain by focusing on new interests to allow new ideas to come forth Focusing on what is fair opens up room in the negotiations for both parties to come to a mutual agreement about the best solution to a problem. . and not personalizing the negotiations. Negotiation Strategies for Integrative Bargaining Strategies Emphasizing superordinate goals that both parties agree on .

Helpful References • Conflict Resolution (2001) by Daniel Dana • Conflict Management for LEAD…emerge by Kirsten W. Schwehm • Conflict Management by Craig W Fontaine • People Styles at Work (1996) by Robert Bolton & Dorothy Grover Bolton • Resolving Conflicts at Work (2005) by Kenneth Cloke & Joan Goldsmith • Workplace Wars and How to End Them (1994) by Kenneth Kaye .