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# Objectives

## ● To illustrate certain one-way processes occurring in

nature (Irreversible)
● To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
● To explain the Carnot cycle
Keywords

## ● Entropy, Isentropic, Carnot, Reversible, Irrerversible

Obj 1 : To illustrate certain one-way processes occurring in nature
(Irreversible)

## Is the reverse of the following processes possible?

1 2
mgh =
2
mv h1 (before bounce) =
h2 (after bounce)?
Breaking of an egg !!!!
Reverse heat flow?
Obj 1 : To illustrate certain one-way processes occurring in nature
(Irreversible)

## All irreversible processes

Obj 1 : To illustrate certain one-way processes occurring in nature
(Irreversible)

Why irreversible?

1 2
mgh = mv
2

## Some energy generated as heat (due to molecules rubbing against each

other).

If same heat energy is given back, will the ball rise to the same level?

## Complete conversion of heat to work, not possible -> Kelvin Statement

Obj 1 : To illustrate certain one-way processes occurring in nature
(Irreversible)

## QH (from hot hand) -> QL (to cold cup)

QL to QH possible?

## Only with extra work input (Clausius Statement)

Obj 1 : To illustrate certain one-way processes occurring in
nature (Irreversible)
Friction generated as heat.
Same heat given back, will the ball start
rolling by itself?
Conversion of complete Q to W not
possible (Kelvin Statement)

## Hence all processes irreversible.

Some energy is always dissipated in several forms, which cannot be
retrieved. A measure of this energy is -> Entropy, denoted by “S”
1st law when applied to process (change of state) led to a new
property “Internal Energy”.
1st law deals with quantity of energy
2nd law when applied to process (change of state) leads to a new
property “Entropy”.
2nd law deals with quality of energy
Obj 2 : To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
Macroscopic
This Entropy is the property which decides the direction of all
processes.
All processes will occur only in such a way that Entropy increases.
It can never decrease.
Because of this Entropy has also been referred to as the “Arrow of
Time”

## Thus, Entropy of the universe

is increasing!!
Obj 2 : To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
Macroscopic
Q
Mathematically, “Change in Entropy” is expressed as ∆S = Joule / Kelvin
T
“ = “ Only for a Reversible process

## Ice temp = 0°C = 273 K,

Water Temp = 25°C = 298 K

## ∆Sice = + Q/273 & ∆Swater = - Q/298

∆Stotal = ∆Sice + ∆Swater which is always +ve
Obj 2 : To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
Macroscopic
Heat transfer -> Reversible or Irreversible?

Hot Cold
30˚ C 20˚ C

## If heat to flow from “cold” to “hot”, external work to be supplied

[Clausius statement]
Heat transfer through a finite temperature difference always
irreversible!
Obj 2 : To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
Macroscopic
Heat transfer can be assumed to approach reversibility, when
temperature difference is very very small

Hot Cold
30.00..........2˚C 30.00........1˚ C

Reversible
Obj 2 : To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
Microscopic
Generally, Entropy taken to be “measure of disorder”
Disorder of what ??
Obj 2 : To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
Microscopic
Natural processes tend toward “disorder”
Trees & plants are found both in forests as well as man-made
plantations, where would more disorder be expected (in the
arrangement) – Cultivated Plantations or Forests ?

Forests
Obj 2 : To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
Microscopic
Natural processes tend toward “disorder”

## Thus entropy may also be thought of some measure of

energy required, to put things back into order.
Obj 2 : To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
Microscopic
Thus any unless an external effort is applied, in an isolated
system, (e.g., the universe), entropy goes on increasing

## Thus, Entropy of the universe is increasing!!

Obj 2 : To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
Microscopic
{Entropy Wrongly Defined}

## “Disorder” usually refers to the arrangement of macro objects

(books, dresses, houses, etc).

## If an object is broken, there is no measurable change in

entropy until a sufficient number of chemical bonds are
broken.

## So what’s the correct one?

Entropy is simply a measure of the energy dispersed/spread
out/degraded in a process at a specific temperature.
Obj 2 : To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
Remember the formula for Entropy calculation : dQ
∆S = ∫
R
T
1 1

QRe v
Or, for a Reversible process ∆S =
T

## Now for any adiabatic process, Q = 0

P

P
∴ ∆ S = 0, or Entropy is a constant
2
To find the entropy change for any irreversible process from 2 an
initial state to a final state, replace it with a reversible process.

## For a closed system undergoing a cycle, Vinitial state = final state,

V
we know ∆ (any property) = 0
∆ S = 0, Entropy is a constant. [ ISENTROPIC ]
Obj 2 : To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
Thus, the key points are :

## 1. A reversible adiabatic process is isentropic

2. There are only 3 conditions for all processes
∆ S = 0, Reversible
∆ S > 0, Irreversible
∆ S < 0, Impossible

## Obtained from the 2nd law of Thermodynamics

Which state of matter do you expect to have more
entropy?

Gas

Increasing Entropy
Liquid

Solid
Obj 3 : To explain the Carnot cycle

The Carnot cycle was conceived & developed by the French Engineer
Sadi Carnot, wanting to find out what was the maximum possible
efficiency for a heat engine in ideal conditions (of course less than
100%)

hot
QH

HE
QL
cold
Obj 3 : To explain the Carnot cycle
Here all process are reversible !!!

Shockwave Flash
Object
Obj 3 : To explain the Carnot cycle

## Physics 101: Lecture 31, Pg 22

Analogy

Disorganised work
No Use, waste of Energy