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Objectives

● To illustrate certain one-way processes occurring in


nature (Irreversible)
● To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
● To explain the Carnot cycle
Keywords

● Entropy, Isentropic, Carnot, Reversible, Irrerversible


Obj 1 : To illustrate certain one-way processes occurring in nature
(Irreversible)

Is the reverse of the following processes possible?

1 2
mgh =
2
mv h1 (before bounce) =
h2 (after bounce)?
Breaking of an egg !!!!
Reverse heat flow?
Obj 1 : To illustrate certain one-way processes occurring in nature
(Irreversible)

Rolling ball stops by itself. But the reverse??

All irreversible processes


Obj 1 : To illustrate certain one-way processes occurring in nature
(Irreversible)

Why irreversible?

1 2
mgh = mv
2

Some energy generated as heat (due to molecules rubbing against each


other).

If same heat energy is given back, will the ball rise to the same level?

Complete conversion of heat to work, not possible -> Kelvin Statement


Obj 1 : To illustrate certain one-way processes occurring in nature
(Irreversible)

QH (from hot cup) -> QL (to cold hand)

QH (from hot hand) -> QL (to cold cup)

QL to QH possible?

Only with extra work input (Clausius Statement)


Obj 1 : To illustrate certain one-way processes occurring in
nature (Irreversible)
Friction generated as heat.
Same heat given back, will the ball start
rolling by itself?
Conversion of complete Q to W not
possible (Kelvin Statement)

Hence all processes irreversible.


Some energy is always dissipated in several forms, which cannot be
retrieved. A measure of this energy is -> Entropy, denoted by “S”
1st law when applied to process (change of state) led to a new
property “Internal Energy”.
1st law deals with quantity of energy
2nd law when applied to process (change of state) leads to a new
property “Entropy”.
2nd law deals with quality of energy
Obj 2 : To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
Macroscopic
This Entropy is the property which decides the direction of all
processes.
All processes will occur only in such a way that Entropy increases.
It can never decrease.
Because of this Entropy has also been referred to as the “Arrow of
Time”

Thus, Entropy of the universe


is increasing!!
Obj 2 : To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
Macroscopic
Q
Mathematically, “Change in Entropy” is expressed as ∆S = Joule / Kelvin
T
“ = “ Only for a Reversible process

Where T is the absolute temperature in Kelvin

Ice melting in a glass of water!!!!!

Ice temp = 0°C = 273 K,


Water Temp = 25°C = 298 K

∆Sice = + Q/273 & ∆Swater = - Q/298


∆Stotal = ∆Sice + ∆Swater which is always +ve
Obj 2 : To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
Macroscopic
Heat transfer -> Reversible or Irreversible?

Hot Cold
30˚ C 20˚ C

If heat to flow from “cold” to “hot”, external work to be supplied


[Clausius statement]
Heat transfer through a finite temperature difference always
irreversible!
Obj 2 : To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
Macroscopic
Heat transfer can be assumed to approach reversibility, when
temperature difference is very very small

Hot Cold
30.00..........2˚C 30.00........1˚ C

Reversible
Obj 2 : To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
Microscopic
Generally, Entropy taken to be “measure of disorder”
Disorder of what ??
Obj 2 : To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
Microscopic
Natural processes tend toward “disorder”
Trees & plants are found both in forests as well as man-made
plantations, where would more disorder be expected (in the
arrangement) – Cultivated Plantations or Forests ?

Forests
Obj 2 : To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
Microscopic
Natural processes tend toward “disorder”

Also applicable to daily life !!!!

Thus entropy may also be thought of some measure of


energy required, to put things back into order.
Obj 2 : To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
Microscopic
Thus any unless an external effort is applied, in an isolated
system, (e.g., the universe), entropy goes on increasing

Thus, Entropy of the universe is increasing!!


Obj 2 : To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
Microscopic
{Entropy Wrongly Defined}

“Disorder” usually refers to the arrangement of macro objects


(books, dresses, houses, etc).

If an object is broken, there is no measurable change in


entropy until a sufficient number of chemical bonds are
broken.

So what’s the correct one?


Entropy is simply a measure of the energy dispersed/spread
out/degraded in a process at a specific temperature.
Obj 2 : To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
Remember the formula for Entropy calculation : dQ
∆S = ∫
R
T
1 1

QRe v
Or, for a Reversible process ∆S =
T

Now for any adiabatic process, Q = 0


P

P
∴ ∆ S = 0, or Entropy is a constant
2
To find the entropy change for any irreversible process from 2 an
initial state to a final state, replace it with a reversible process.

For a closed system undergoing a cycle, Vinitial state = final state,


V
we know ∆ (any property) = 0
∆ S = 0, Entropy is a constant. [ ISENTROPIC ]
Obj 2 : To interpret Entropy (Macroscopic & Microscopic)
Thus, the key points are :

1. A reversible adiabatic process is isentropic


2. There are only 3 conditions for all processes
∆ S = 0, Reversible
∆ S > 0, Irreversible
∆ S < 0, Impossible

Obtained from the 2nd law of Thermodynamics


Which state of matter do you expect to have more
entropy?

Gas

Increasing Entropy
Liquid

Solid
Obj 3 : To explain the Carnot cycle

The Carnot cycle was conceived & developed by the French Engineer
Sadi Carnot, wanting to find out what was the maximum possible
efficiency for a heat engine in ideal conditions (of course less than
100%)

hot
QH

HE
QL
cold
Obj 3 : To explain the Carnot cycle
Here all process are reversible !!!

Shockwave Flash
Object
Obj 3 : To explain the Carnot cycle

Physics 101: Lecture 31, Pg 22


Analogy

Disorganised work
No Use, waste of Energy

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