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Be g i n n i n g o f 1 6 th

ceBn t u r
runei w y a s a n i m p o r t a n t
t h w e s t e r n p a r t o f
su l t a n a t e i n n o r
i c a l l y l oc a t e d o f f
it was strateg n a S e a .
a n e s o f S o u t h C h i
t h e s e a l

i ’ s a u t h o r i t y o v e r
Ho w e ve r , B r u n e
y h a d b e g u n t o
its vast territor o f t h e
t h e c o m i n g
weaken due to
W e s t e r n p o w e r s.
s .
Who are those Western


In 1577 and 1580,
Spanish tried to conquer
Brunei with naval attacks.
they even ransacked
Brunei Town in 1645.
However, they did not
succeed in establishing a
lasting hold over Brunei.

Thus it was left to Dutch

and British in their attempt
to dominate Borneo
In 1600, Dutch Admiral, Oliver
van Noort visited Brunei.
Dutch were not interested in
North Borneo but they focused
on southern and western parts
of Borneo.
When the Dutch merchants
arrived, they began to
develop trade relations with
sultanates along southern &
western coasts of Borneo.
Oliver Van Noort’s Ship
What is Northern Part of
The Northern Part of
Borneo is Sabah.

What are the Southern and

Western Parts of Borneo?

The Southern Part of Borneo is

Sarawak and the Western Part of
Borneo is Kalimantan
te rs s tr u c k w h e n
i ed t o e s t ab l i s h
Dutch tr
• 1603 - Dutch factory in
• 1610 - Factory in Sambas was
8 c e n t u r
En d o f 1
h s u c c e e d e d
partially in i r
i s h i n g th e
o n tr o l i n th e
western and
t h e r n p a r t of
e o b y u s i n g
c e a n d t ic a l d e v e lo p m e n ts in
foorwever, poli
o m a c y . n fo r c ed th e m t o
diplEurope soo
f r o m m o s t o f th e ir
r r it o r ie s in B o r n e o.
In 1780 Dutch entered American
War of independence.

In the end, bankruptcy occurred

which ruined the Dutch East Indies
Company and made it impossible
for them to manage their territories
Beginning of 19th
British concentrated on the
northern part of the island
due to strategic reasons.

Dutch extended their

influence in southern part
for political and commercial
d i a C o m p a n y
i s h E as t I n
B r itis h in te r es t in N o rt h
North Borneo
important to
British as
they needed a
place for their
ships to stop
over between
Straits of
Malacca and
British captured Manila in 1762
during the Seven tears war in
Europe but had no long-term
interest on it so it was returned
to Spain in 1764.
January 1761, Alexander
Dalrymple made a treaty of
Alliance and Commerce
with Sultan of Sulu.
In 1763, he obtained Sulu
territories in North Borneo.
Later in 1773, British small
factory was established in
Balambangan was the
best location for a
centre of trade in the

However, it was poorly

managed and was
abandoned two years
later when it was
attacked and destroyed
by the Sulus.
In 1774, Britain sought refuge
in Brunei. Sultan of Brunei then
offered the EIC a site which was
Labuan for settlement. Because
he needed protection from the
EIC was not interested in
acquiring Labuan,
instead directors of EIC decided
that no new site would be
chosen if Balambangan failed.
Britain did not
have important
stations in the
East until
Singapore was
founded by Sir
Raffles in 1819
19 C
the n t u r y
Anglo-Dutch Treaty
The treaty was signed on 23
March 1824 and through
this treaty, Dutch and
British agreed to settle
their territorial conflicts
in the East.
As a result:-

The Dutch control the south

of the Straits of Malacca
(southern part of Borneo,

The British control the north

of Straits of Malacca
(Malacca, Singapore)
 Malay Peninsula & East Indies were
separated into two areas of influence.
Malay Peninsula was to be British area of
influence. Sumatra and all islands to the
south of the Strait of Singapore were to be
 Both agreed not to have any
settlements in each other’s area.
 Bencoolen, a British port in western
Sumatra was to be exchanged for Dutch-
controlled Malacca.
 British were allowed to remain in
 Both agreed to co-operate with
each other in removing piracy.
 Dutch gained exclusive control
over the trade of the Spice
islands but not the trade of
Malay Archipelago.
James Brooke a well-
known British
adventurer, had been a
military officer in British
India. With the money
that his father left for
him, James Brooke
bought a yacht called the
“Royalist”. His plan was
to explore the Marudu
Bay, New Guinea and
Sulu Islands for Scientific
and Commercial
interests. At that time,
he had no political
James Brooke reached in Singapore
in 1838 where he heard that
Sarawak was rich in antimony ore.So
he set off to Lidah Tanah (Kuching)
in august 1839.

At the same time,Datu Patinggi Ali

lead a rebellion against the
oppressive Pengiran Indera Mahkota
(Brunei’s Governor of Sarawak) who
was hated by the local people for
using forced labour to extract ore
Pengiran Muda Hashim was sent by
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien II to
solve the political problem in
Sarawak. However Pengiran Muda
Hashim failed to settle due to the
dispute he have with Pengiran
Indera Mahkota.
When James brooke arrived,Pengiran
Muda Hashim asked for his help to
end the rebellion in return he will be
appointed as the Governor of
After James Brooke
successfully ended
the rebellion, he
asked Pengiran Muda
Hashim to keep his
promise to appoint
him as the Governor
of Sarawak and
forgive the rebels, but
Pengiran Muda
Hashim Refuse to do
so. James Brooke was
very angry that he
threatened to attack
the house of Pengiran
Later, on 24 September
1841,Pengiran Muda Hashim
had to appoint James Brooke
as the Governor of Sarawak
by signing the Treaty of
1841.Due to this treaty,
Pengiran Indera Mahkota had
to step down and left for

Realizing the treaty was not

binding without the Sultan’s
approval, James brooke then
set off for Brunei and signed
Treaty of 1842 with Sultan
Omar Ali Saifuddien II on 31
July 1842.Under the terms of
the treaty, Sultan Omar Ali
Saifuddien II confirmed James

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