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FOUNDATIONS

OF EDUCATION
IRENE C. JALBUNA
Discussant
• The age of chivalry
extended from the
beginning of the 9th to
16th century.
• A complicated system
of political and
personal relationships
called FEUDALISM
characterized by the
early period of the
middle ages and grew
among the nobility.
Feudalism focused on land
tenure, binding royalties and
serfs together by the
responsibilities of mutual
defense and service.
To get the young nobles ready to assume
their obligations, the institution of
chivalry developed and became the basis
for a set of ideals to guide their
education and conduct.
Feudalism is the general term used to
describe the political and military system
of the Western European during the
Middle Ages.
Feudalism was a system of land
tenure on allegiance and service
to the nobleman or lord.
T WO CAREERS WERE OPEN TO THE SONS OF
THE NOBLEMEN DURING FEUDALISM TIMES

If they decided in favor of the church,


they pursued an education that was
religious and academic in nature in order
to become members of the clergy.
If they decided in favor of chivalry, they
pursued an education that was physical,
social and military in nature.
The word chivalry comes from the Old
French word “chevalerie” meaning horse
soldiery.
But the term came to mean the code of
behavior and ethics that knights were
expected to follow.
TRAINING PREPARATION FOR
KNIGHTHOOD

In the middle ages, a young boy in


training to be a knight spent the first
years of his life chiefly in the care of the
women of his family. During this time, he
learned how to ride a pony and care for
horses.
 THE PAGE
At seven, he joins a household or
another knight or nobleman and
learns how to handle small weapons.
 THE SQUIRE
At fourteen, he acts as a valet.
He keeps the knight’s weapon in good
condition and cares for his horses.
He helps his knight in his armor,
attends to him if injured, rides with
him into battles and fights along with
his knight. He also guards prisoners.
THE KNIGHT
At twenty-one, any knight
could bestow knighthood on
another. Some men were knighted
on the battlefield if they had
shown great bravery.
He receives his sword and
other weapons from his master of
king.
The ceremony is solemn in
which a prospective knight takes
a bath of purification, dressed in
white and spends an entire night
in prayer and meditation.
AIMS

a. MORALITY- To inculcate the minds of young


nobles the virtues of honor, honesty,
courage, bravery, courtesy, etc.
b. RESPONSIBILITY-To get the young nobles to
assume their responsibilities
c. HORSEMANSHIP- To train the young nobles in
horseback warfare, hunting, and
tournaments
d. GALLANTRY- To train the young nobles how to
deal with the ladies of nobility and protection of
the weak
e. RELIGIOSITY- To train the young nobles to be
devoted to the service of God
f. SOCIAL GRACES- To train the young girls in
the social graces and manners fit for the ladies
of the nobility
T YPES

a. Reading, Writing and little literary


learning in the vernacular
b. Social training
c. Military training
d. Religious and moral training
e. Physical Training
CONTENT

The curriculum consisted of:


a. Religion, music, dancing,
especially for girls
b. Horse riding for warfare, hunting,
and tournaments
c. Physical exercises
d. Reading, writing, literature in
vernacular
e. Good manners, right conduct,
social graces and etiquette
f. Household duties
g. At the higher level: the curriculum consisted of the
SEVEN FREE ARTS:

JOUSTING

 HORSEMANSHIP
 SWIMMING
 WRITING AND SINGING VERSE
 CHESS

FALCONRY
AGENCIES

a. The home was responsible for the earliest


education; later, the lords and ladies of the
castles were the teachers.
b. The fields of battle were the schools of boys
while,
c. The courts were the school for girls
d. Troubadours, ministers and gazetteers
served as agents of education and providers
of entertainment.
METHODS

Imitation, example, and learning


by doing
Motivation
Discipline
OUTSTANDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO
EDUCATION

Use of vernacular as tool of teaching


The emphasis placed on learning the
social graces, rules of etiquette or
good manners and right conduct.
GUILD APPROACH TO
EDUCATION
Towards the end of the
Middle Ages,
considerable social and
cultural changes were
brought about by
economic changes. One
of these was Crusade.
The Crusaders increased
trade and commerce. The
necessity of transporting
the Crusaders resulted in
the development of
transportation, trading,
and banking.
The Crusaders themselves became
acquainted with a new lifestyle
which created a multitude of new
needs and luxuries. This brought
about the growth of new cities and
the rise of new social classes- the
burgher, bourgeoisie or the middle
class.
Closely related to the
development of commerce was
the strengthening of guilds, an
organization composed of
persons with common interest
and mutual needs for protection
and welfare.
 There are two types of guilds, the merchant guild and
the craftsman guild.
 The merchant guild members controlled the way
trade was handled in the town. They could become
very powerful and controlled much of the local
economy.
 The skills workers, manufacturers and artisans
organized themselves into craft according to their
craft, to protect themselves from inferior work and
undercut prices and to gain monopoly of production
among themselves. Examples include weavers,
painters, bakers, shoemakers, and candle makers.
AIMS

Vocational training to prepare


children for the requisites of
commerce and industry.
CONTENT

Elementary instruction in reading


and writing in the vernacular and
arithmetic
Masters were required to teach their
apprentice their crafts on commerce
and also provide adequate religious
instructions.
AGENCIES

The burgher schools


The chantry schools
The guild schools
ORGANIZATION

There were three stages of development


for the craftsmen:
a. Apprentice

b. Journeyman
c. Master craftsman
METHODS

Example, imitation, and practice


Dictation, memorization, and
catechetical method
Discipline
SARACENIC APPROACH
TO EDUCATION
Six hundred years
after the birth of
Christ, a new religion,
founded by
Mohammed (Islam),
took root in Arabia.
This religion rose
among the Arabs.
Who were also known
as Saracens, among
the Moors of Spain.
The religion Mohammed founded was
known as Islam and its followers, of
whatever nationality, were known as
Moslems or Muslims.
The western world is indebted to them for
the creation of scientific spirit of
investigation and experimentation and for
the invention and improvement of tools of
science.
AIMS

Search for knowledge


Application of scientific facts to the
affair of daily life
Development of individual initiative and
social welfare-liberal education
T YPES

Vocational education
Intellectual training
Elementary education was open to all
boys and girls
Financial aid was provided to the needy
students
CONTENT

Elementary level: reading, writing, arithmetic,


religion, grammar and science
Higher level: Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry,
Physics, Chemistry, Geography, Astronomy,
Pharmacy, Medicine, Surgery, Philology,
History, Literature, Logic, Metaphysics and law
Koran was taught in all levels.
AGENCIES AND ORGANIZATIONS

Each Mosque established as


elementary school
The rich Muslims donated large
sums of money for education.
Both universities and libraries were
well-endorsed and were made
available to all.
METHOD

Scientific method (use of repetition


drills), catechetical method,
memorization and lecture
Higher schools emphasized travel
and explanation
CONTRIBUTION

The application of Science and


Mathematics is one of the greatest
influences of the Arabs all over the
world.
THANK YOU!