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Properties of Matter

Science 9
Chemistry
5.2
Properties
• Everything in our world with mass and volume is matter
• All matter can be described by its properties
• Properties are the special characteristics of pure substances that make
each one unique
• The properties of the element or compound are true for any amount of
the material anywhere (ex. Canadian Gold = Australian Gold)
Properties
• Differences in properties allow for identification of pure substances
and make the substances useful for different applications

• All matter can be described by 2 types of properties:


1) PHYSICAL properties
2) CHEMICAL properties
Physical Properties
• Physical properties are the characteristics of matter that you can
observe with your senses, measure, or calculate
• Colour and hardness = direct observation
• Density and solubility = measured, calculated
• Many properties use = microscopes, x-rays, MRI
• For example, you may notice rocks are hard, the air is clear and
odourless, metals are shiny, strawberries are red, etc.
• We use physical properties to help identify the unknown pure
substance, when in question, or provide an application for it.
Types of Physical Properties
• There are many physical properties
(see Table 1, p.157)
We will look closer at 7 physical
properties:

1. STATES OF MATTER
• solid, liquid, gas
• State of a substance at a certain
temperature is considered a physical
property and can be used to identify it
Physical Properties continued
2. MELTING POINT & BOILING POINT 3. MALLEABILITY
-The temperature at which one - Metals are able to physically
substance changes from one state to change shape
another is a property unique to that - Can be beaten into sheets, bent
substance - Most metals are malleable and can be hammered into
-Table 3, p.159 = common substances melting and boiling points different shapes. Some aboriginal peoples of BC have been
using metals to hammer items for more than 200 years.
What has the highest melting point? _________________
What has the lowest melting point? __________________
What has the highest boiling point? __________________
What has the lowest boiling point? ___________________
Physical Properties continued
4. DUCTILITY 5. SOLUBILITY
• The softness of some metals • The ability to dissolve or not
provides them with special dissolve in other liquids is a
properties physical property
• A metal that is ductile has many uses • Ex. salt in water, kool-aid, ice-tea
• Ex. Wires (metal can be drawn into wires) • Ex. Gas is NOT soluble in water
Physical Properties continued
6. DENSITY 7. CONDUCTIVITY
• Often described as the • The ability of a material to
‘heaviness’ of a substance conduct heat/electricity
• Density is calculated • Ex. copper has high conductivity,
while rubber has low
conductivity
CHEMICAL properties
• CHEMICAL Properties describe • Chemical Properties include:
the behaviour of a substance as a. Whether the substance will
it changes/reacts into a new REACT with another
substance
b. The RATE OF REACTION of the
• Often used to group substances substances (fast? slow?)
based on several reactions
c. The AMOUNT OF HEAT
produced by the reaction
d. In what PROPORTIONS the
substances react
2. CORROSION
Chemical Properties • Slow reaction of certain metals
with oxygen
1. FLAMMABILITY
• Leads to oxidation (rusting)
• Reaction of substances with
oxygen, releasing a lot of energy
• The substance will burn
• Understanding non-flammability
is important as well (ex.water) 3. REACTIONS WITH ACIDS
• Some metals are highly reactive
with acid (ex. Zn, Mg)
• Some minerals (ex. limestone)
react with acid to form carbon
dioxide gas