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TEXT STRUCTURE

How it fits together…


Sequence
Brainstorm experiences that call for a series
of steps, events, or follow an order.
Following a recipe
Telling a story
Over-seeding a lawn
Narrative Structure-
SEQUENCE
Define it:
A sequence of events or steps in a
process are being explained
Order
Sequence
Questions
What happened?
In what order did the events or stages
happen?
Sequence
Signal Words
After, afterward, as soon as, before,
during, finally, first, following,
immediately, initially, later, meanwhile,
next, not longer after, now, on (date),
preceding, second, soon, then, third,
until, when.
Sequence
Golden Eagles soar high along
ridges near their nests. Here, they
search for prey. When they spot
“a meal,” they attack it in a long
swoop. Then, they return with it to
their nests.
Description
Think about how you would…
Create a verbal picture of a friend
Create a verbal picture of Arrowhead
Stadium during a Chief’s game
Summarize the main theme of a movie
and how that theme was maintained
Which do you like best? Football or
Basketball? Why?
Expository Structure

DESCRIPTION
Define it:
An overall impression is being created and
developed through sensory details or a
main idea is being supported through
supporting details.
Description
Questions
What is the main idea?
What are the supporting details?
Who or What is this about?
What is the least important information about
the who or what?
What is the dominant impression?
What are the sensory impressions?
Description
Signal Words
For example, for instance, most important,
above, as in, appears to be, looks like, such
as, across, along, between, in back of, in front
of, outside, inside, to the right, left, etc.
Description
Golden Eagles are powerful raptors with
large dark brown bodies and small heads
with golden crowns. Their wings are strong
and can span 78 inches. They have a
short, dark, hooked beak and when they
pierce their prey with their long, slender
talons, they not only break the skin, they
break the bones as well.
Cause and Effect Structure
CAUSE AND EFFECT

How many of you left the house a little


later than you planned today? Why? What
was the cause? What was the result or
effect.
Expository Structure-
CAUSE AND EFFECT

Define it:

 Evidence of cause(s) and the subsequent


effect(s) are presented.
Cause and Effect Structures
CAUSE AND EFFECT
Cause and Effect helps to understand
relationships between
 Historical Events

 Problem elements in math

 Events in plot in stories, novels, plays.

 Processes in science
Cause-Effect Statements
CAUSE AND EFFECT
How do these two statements differ?

 The ball hit and the bell rang.

 The ball hit the target and the bell rang to


signal a hit.
One Cause, One Effect Statements
CAUSE AND EFFECT
 When John does not get praise from his
coach, he is rude to his teammates.

 John Steinbeck became famous shortly


after he wroth The Grapes of Wrath.

 After the drivers’ education course was


cancelled, several angry parents wrote
letters to the school board.
Once Cause and One Effect
CAUSE AND EFFECT

 The rock group performed last night


despite the protest raised by two groups of
concerned citizens.

 The surgeon became more worried once


the second series of hemorrhages had
taken place.
Multiple Causes and Effects
CAUSE AND EFFECT
 I will loan Angela twenty dollars since she
is trustworthy, honest, and my best friend.

 Though he never rode the bus to school,


Tom was always on time because he lived
only two blocks away and set his alarm
early every day.
Multiple Cause and Effects
CAUSE AND EFFECT
Years ago, a United States senator began
to worry about how federal money was
being spent. He studied some research
projects and felt they were silly. He
checked on what the government was
paying for certain supplies and equipment.
From these, he invented the Golden
Fleece Award. Each year it is given to the
most foolish governmental expense item.
CAUSE AND EFFECT

 Questions

 What are the causes and effects of this


event?

 What might happen if this happens?


CAUSE AND EFFECT

 Signal Words

 Because, therefore, as a result, because of,


if…then, may be due to…, when…then,
typically, for this reason, consequently, effects
of, is caused by, thus, in order to…
CAUSE AND EFFECT

Many Bald eagles were killed by


pesticides and illegal hunting. As a result,
they were in danger of becoming extinct.
Comparison - contrast

Tell how 2 movies, characters, books, etc.


are alike and different.

How are the skills needed to do ________


and __________ alike? Different?
Brainstorm Idea
Categories shape color taste

Subject A
Orange

Subject B
Apple
Expository Structure-
COMPARE/CONTRAST

Define it:

Similarities and differences are presented


and discussed in text.
COMPARE/CONTRAST

 Questions

 What qualities of each thing correspond to


one another?

 What are similar and different qualities of


these things?
COMPARE/CONTRAST

 Signal Words

 Although, as well as, as opposed to, with,


different from, either…or, even though,
however, on the other hand, instead of, in
common, similar to, similarly, likewise, still,
etc.
COMPARE/CONTRAST

Golden Eagles are more apt to hunt for


prey, while Bald Eagles are more likely to
take an easy meal.
Problem-Solution

 Brainstorm problems and solutions

 Running out of gas on the way here today


 Calling AAA- not a member
 Walking to the nearest gas station – too far
 Called a friend to bring gas
Expository Structure-
PROBLEM AND SOLUTION

 Questions

 What is the problem?


 What are possible solutions?
 How will the solution be implemented?
PROBLEM/SOLUTION

 Signal Words

 Therefore, for this reason, consequently, in


response to, thus, in order to…
Cause – Effect? Problem – Solution?
PROBLEM AND SOLUTION

 When he could no longer get along with


his parents, he moved to his own
apartment.
 The hurricane knocked out power lines so
people resorted to using candles.
 Riots erupted in many cities after the news
of Martin Luther King’s death.
PROBLEM AND SOLUTION

When a raptor species declines and


becomes endangered, scientists take wild
bird eggs to raise in captivity and increase
the number of birds.