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Animal Production NCII

POULTRY CHICKEN
Animal Production Poultry
Chicken NCII
Qualification consists of
competencies that a person
must achieve to maintain poultry
housing, brood and grow chicks,
perform pre-lay and lay activities
and trim beak. These functions
are required for individual who
will work in a poultry (broiler and
layers)
CORE
COMPETENCIES
• CORE COMPETENCIES

Maintain poultry
house
Brood and grow
chicks
Perform pre-lay and
lay activities
Trim beak
Maintain Poultry Environment
(Conduct preparation Activities)

This unit covers the knowledge, skills and


attitudes required to maintain poultry house and
its facilities. It includes activities such as
conducting preparation activities, maintaining
poultry house and facilities, maintain farm area
and perform work to completion
Maintain Poultry Environment
(Conduct preparation Activities)
Maintain Poultry Environment
(Conduct preparation Activities)

 Storing eggs for at least three days helps prepare them for
incubation; however, fresh and stored eggs should not be
set together. It is best to incubate eggs within 7 to 10 days of
their being laid. Hatchability decreases rapidly
when eggs are stored for more than 10 days.

 Ideal storage conditions include a 55 degree F. temperature


and 75% relative humidity. Store the eggs with the small end
pointed downward. Alter egg position periodically if
not incubating within 4-6 days. Turn the eggs to a new
position once daily until placing in the incubator.
Maintain Poultry Environment
(Conduct preparation Activities)

 The brooding area is a rather large area with and chicks


need to have somewhere warm to retreat. This is where the
“house” comes in. You can use a cardboard box that is the
same width as our brooder to minimize heat loss to the
surrounding area and give the chicks a nice dark,
snug area closed in on three sides to hide
Semi-Intensive

Free Range Intensive


INTENSIVE

b. Cage rearing

a. Deep litter

Reverse (stair step) cage Battery (vertical) cages Flat deck


Tools, Materials and
Equipments
Tools
•Spade

•Wheel borrow

•Crow bar •Shovel

•Chick guard

•Carpentry tools
Materials •Pail and basin
•Pipes

Sponge

•Broomstick and broom •Trash can


•Dust fan •Disinfectants
Materials •Detergent •Water hose

Drum
Equipments •Lighting equipment
•Electric fans (ventilation)

•Power sprayer

•Feeders •Heater
Equipments
•Waterers •Feeders

•Knapsack sprayer •Electric generator


Maintain Poultry Environment
(Maintain poultry house and facilities)
 Poultry housing and facilities are cleaned and disinfected in regular basis
Minor repairs and maintenance

Minor repair Maintenance

• Roof repair • Foot bathing prior to entry to farm


• Pipe repair house
• Floor slat repair • Cloth changing prior to entry to farm
• Curtain fixing and or replacement house
• Cage repair • Shower before farm entry
• Net repair and maintenance
• Feeder repair
• Waterer repair
 Major malfunctions and irregular conditions

Lighting
Electrical Ventilation Generator Sludge
system
problem problem malfunction flushing
problem
 personal protective equipment (PPE)

•Masks
•Gloves
•Rubber boots
Hats

Downtime (rest period) is practiced prior to succeeding loading for at least one
week.
Safety measures are practiced according to Occupational Safety and
Health Standards (OSHS).
Maintain Poultry Environment
(Maintain farm areas)

 Maintenance of farm area and vicinities

Disposal of wastes and farm by-products


Disposal of necropsies and dead animals
Weeding
Minor repair of farm fences
Foot bathing in farm gate
Vehicle bathing in farm gate
Maintenance of drainage canal
Vermin and insects control is performed according to Fertilizer and Pesticides
Authority guidelines and DENR regulations.
Maintenance of farm vegetation are conducted to avoid common vermin and
insects proliferation

Vermin Insects
Mosquitoes
Monitor lizards Flies
Rats Cockroach
Snakes Ants
Tribolium beetle
Maintain Poultry Environment
(Perform completion activities)

Records are kept and updated for reporting and inventory purposes
following enterprise procedures.
Tools and equipment are cleaned and stored according to manuals
and enterprise procedures.
Housekeeping is practiced following 5S principles and enterprise
procedures.
Wastes are managed following 3Rs principles and DENR
regulations.
BROOD AND GROW CHICKS

This unit covers the knowledge, skills and


attitudes required to brood and grow chicks. It
includes conducting of preparatory activities,
placing of brooder in growing house, feeding of
birds, providing of optimum environment for the
birds, performing prophylactic and therapeutic
measures and performing flock selections for
broiler and layer.
BROOD AND GROW CHICKS

• To raise a flock of chickens that will suit your needs, whether


for eggs, meat or show, start with quality chicks.
• if you are interested only in egg production, order sexed
pullets of Leghorn or other egg-type strains. If you are
interested in meat, order one of the popular Cornish broiler
crosses or White Plymouth Rocks. Dual-purpose strains are
well suited for growers interested in both eggs and meat
production. Birds for show and fair competition will require
special strain evaluation and appraisal.
BROOD AND GROW CHICKS
(Conduct preparatory activities)
 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE) is
applied according to OHS procedures.

Rain coats Mask

Dust coats
Hand gloves

Rubber boots
BROOD AND GROW CHICKS
(Conduct preparatory activities)

• Poultry housing should provide


clean, dry, comfortable quarters
for birds throughout the year. To
brood chicks, you need
adequate heat and space. The
house and equipment should be
clean and in good repair. Set up
and warm the brooding area
before the chicks arrive. Chicks
will need a warm, draft-free
location with proper ventilation
and access to clean water,
appropriate feed and protection.
BROOD AND GROW CHICKS
(Conduct preparatory activities)
 The period from hatching until
the chickens no longer require
supplementary heat is called the
'brooding period' and usually
lasts for 3–6 weeks, depending
on seasonal temperatures and
the type of housing.
 Chicks need to be kept in a
warm place until they are fully
feathered. The temperature at
the bottom of the brooding area
should be 95-100 degrees for
the first two weeks and then
reduced 5 degrees each week
until chicks are a month old.
Tools, Materials and
Equipments
BROOD AND GROW CHICKS
(Conduct preparatory activities)
Tools
Measuring cups/spoons Feed scoop

Pail and Basin

Ring guard

Wheel barrow
BROOD AND GROW CHICKS Materials
(Conduct preparatory activities) Biologics
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 1071

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 1071 - AN ACT TO REGULATE THE SALE OF VETERINARY BIOLOGICS AND MEDICAL
PREPARATIONS

Section 1. For purposes of this Act, the terms "veterinary biologics,", "veterinary medicinal preparations", "livestock",
"poultry", and "house pets" are to be construed to mean;

(a) Veterinary biologics are preparations which include serum and bacterial and viral products from biological laboratories.

(b) Serum for veterinary use, be it normal or immune, are those for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases of
different species of livestock, poultry and house pets.

(c) Bacterial and viral products for veterinary use, including vaccines and antigens, are those for the diagnosis of, and
immunization against disease of livestock, poultry and house pets.

(d) Medicinal preparations for veterinary use, are those pharmaceutical products for the treatment and prevention of diseases
as well as for other purposes in the protection and improvement of livestock, poultry and house pets.
BROOD AND GROW CHICKS Materials
(Conduct preparatory activities)
(e) Livestock comprise the mammalian animals, and poultry, the avian animals which are domesticated and kept or raised in
backyards or on farms.

(f) House pets are those animals which are kept in homes like the dogs, cats, animals, birds, etc.

Sec. 2. It shall be unlawful for any agency or store to sell to the public veterinary biologics and medicinal preparations other than
registered pharmacies or drug-stores (boticas), biological laboratories, veterinary clinics and government veterinary agencies.

Sec. 3. The manager or proprietor of any agency, store, or entity which fails to comply with the provisions of this Act shall be
guilty of misdemeanor, and upon conviction shall be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred pesos nor more than two
hundred pesos or by imprisonment for not less than thirty days nor more than six months, or by both fine and imprisonment for
each offense, and it shall be the duty of the Provincial or City Fiscals where such offense is committed to prosecute all persons
violating the provisions of this Act, upon proper complaint being made. All fines collected under this Act shall be paid into the
treasury of the province or city where the prosecution is held.

Sec. 4. This Act shall take precedence above all existing rules and regulations regarding the sale of veterinary biologics and
medicinal preparations in the Philippines.

Sec. 5. This Act shall take effect upon its approval.


BROOD AND GROW CHICKS Materials
(Conduct preparatory activities)
Veterinary drugs Feeds (pre-starter,
starter and Cottons
 Antibiotics Parasites grower/finisher)
 Coccidiostats  Products for
 Medications for Controlling Darkling
Alcohol
Controlling Beetles
Intestinal Worms  Products for Fly
 Products for Control Ice chest
Controlling External Syringe

Vaccination set Gas and gas


tanks
BROOD AND GROW CHICKS Equipment
(Conduct preparatory activities)
Feed cart
Vaccinator

Brooder

Debeaker Fire extinguisher

Chicken Feed bin


crates/coops
BROOD AND GROW CHICKS Equipment
(Conduct preparatory activities)

Generator

Industrial fan
Knapsack sprayer

Electric lamps Weighing scale


BROOD AND GROW CHICKS Materials
(Conduct preparatory activities)
 Litter materials are cleaned and laid-out, regularly following farm plans and schedule.

 Old newspapers
 Saw dust
 Rice hulls
 Shredded rice straw
BROOD AND GROW CHICKS
(Place chicks and pullets in brooder house)
 Broiler and layer
BROOD AND GROW CHICKS
(Place chicks and pullets in brooder house)
 A day-old chicks (DOC) and day-old pullets (DOP) are placed to respective brooding houses observing Good
Animal Practices and Animal Welfare Act.
BROOD AND GROW CHICKS
(Place chicks and pullets in brooder house)
 Chicks with abnormalities are culled from the flock
Common Chick Malformations and Causes
Malformation Possible Causes
Beak abnormalities, such as crossed beak, parrot Genetic trait
beak, or short Poor hen nutrition
upper beak Exposure to pesticide
Hatching eggs exposed to near freezing
temperatures

Small or missing eye(s) High temperature during incubation

Exposed brain High temperature during early incubation

Intestines outside of abdomen High temperature during mid-incubation


Hatching eggs exposed to near freezing
temperatures

Crooked (wry) neck Genetic trait


Poor hen nutrition
Crooked toes Poor hen nutrition
Genetic trait
BROOD AND GROW CHICKS
(Perform feeding of birds)
 Feeders and waterers are prepared and cleaned regularly
 Poultry is fed according to company feeds and feeding guide.
 Nutrient supplementation is practiced as remedial measures according to instructions of immediate authority.
 Feed left-over is properly secured and spoiled feed is disposed properly

Chick Starter No. 1 lbs. Chick Starter No. 2


Coursely Ground Wheat 30.0
Suitable if chicks will have good pasture at 2 or 3 weeks of age
Coursely Ground Oat Grouts 18.0
Medium Ground Barley 15.0 Coursely Ground
40 lbs.
Finely Ground Oats 10.0 Wheat
Wheat Bran 5.0 Milk to drink
Meat Meal (60% Protein) 5.0 Oat Chop (sift out
25 lbs.
coarse hulls)
Fish Meal (67% Protein) 5.0
Milk Powder 3.0
Barley Chop (sift
Alfalfa Leaf Meal 5.0 25 lbs.
out coarse hulls)
Alfalfa or Clover chaff or other green feed, until
Linseed Oil Cake Meal 1.5
chicks are on pasture
Fine Oyster Shell or Limestone 1.5 Meat Meal (60%
10 lbs.
Fine Iodized Salt 0.5 Protein)
Fish Oil (200 D) 0.5
Fine Iodized Salt ½ lb. Fine Gravel and Oyster Shell in separate pans
Manganese Sulphate (see below)
Fish Oil (200 D) ½ lb. or hoppers
100.0
BROOD AND GROW CHICKS
(Perform feeding of birds)
 GROWING RATIONS:

After the chicks are five to six weeks old they may be changed gradually to a coarser and cheaper mixture, e.g. ½
starter mash and ½ growing mash during the sixth and seventh week.

Growing Mash (in self-feeders)

Ground Wheat 100 lbs.

Ground Barley 100 lbs.

Ground Oats 75 lbs. Oyster shell and gravel, or limetone grit, in separate pans or feeders

Meat Meal 25 lbs.

Fine Salt 3 lbs.


BROOD AND GROW CHICKS
(Provide optimum environment for the birds)
 Lighting program is provided based on industry standards.
 Ventilation is augmented during hot climatic conditions.
 Curtain management is done based on prevailing conditions.
 Bio-security measures are applied according to industry procedures.
 Vermin control is done following industry procedures.
 Disposal of wastes are performed following DENR regulations. .
BROOD AND GROW CHICKS
(Perform preventive and treatment measures)
 Distress conditions
The extent to which animals are affected by the distress of conspecifics is of high
relevance to the welfare of farm and laboratory animals. Individuals may be
exposed to situations in which they experience visual, olfactory and auditory cues
from conspecifics that are distressed or in pain, during routine procedures,
transport and slaughter. Their reaction to this exposure will depend on their
capacity for empathy.
Distress conditions include:
 Heat
 Cold
 Draft
 Lack of appetite
 Abnormal bird activities
BROOD AND GROW CHICKS
(Perform flock selection)
Egg-layers
Raising birds for fresh, wholesome eggs is one way to provide quality food to your family. With proper nutrition and
management, some breeds can produce up to 300 eggs per year.

And these eggs are not produced by just chickens. New nutrition programs have expanded egg production into other flock
species. Today, several breeds of ducks and even turkeys boast egg laying abilities, with eggs in growing demand. If you
choose chickens for eggs, decide which color egg shells you prefer.

The following breeds are known to produce high numbers of colored eggs:
White: Leghorn, Campine and Polish.
Brown: Rock, Astralorp, Black Star, Delaware and Rhode Island Reds
Blue: Ameracauna
Light green/olive: Olive Eggers
Dark brown: Marans
Many people wanting eggs for their own consumption enjoy a mix of breeds, because the day-to-day variety adds an element
of excitement.

If duck eggs are of interest, consider the Pekin or the Indian Runner breeds as the good egg layers. Most breeds of turkey are
comparable in egg production, though the Spanish Black turkey are known for starting to lay at a young age.

For all egg-layers, feed a complete layer feed to provide the necessary nutrients for egg production.
BROOD AND GROW CHICKS
(Perform flock selection)
Meat birds
Another reason for starting a backyard flock may be to produce nutritious meat. Raising your own
birds allows you to decide how the flock is raised, how each bird is handled and what they are fed.

Meat bird species selection is based on personal preference, with each species producing varying
flavors, nutrition and portions.Turkeys are well-known for providing large amounts of flavorful white
and dark meat.
Duck meat will vary significantly from one breed to the next, with Pekin being the most common meat
duck, but Muscovy being the leanest of the common duck breeds.
Geese are known to provide lush, flavorful meat. High amounts of body fat can add flavor.
Chickens are popular meat birds in backyard flocks. When considering chickens for meat, few
compare to the growth rate and carcass yield of the modern Cornish Rock.
Feed meat birds a complete feed that includes high levels of protein. The high protein supports rapid
growth and contributes to overall meat quality.
BROOD AND GROW CHICKS
(Perform flock selection)
Eggs and meat
If you’d like to produce both eggs and meat, look into dual-purpose breeds. These breeds are often able to produce high numbers of eggs and
high-quality meat.

Many flock raisers appreciate some of the larger, brown egg-laying breeds as dual-purpose options. For chickens, Rocks, Jersey Giants, Sussex
and Wyandottes are good examples of dual-purpose breeds.

Adjust the feed of dual-purpose breeds based on what they are producing. When laying eggs, provide a complete feed with calcium,. If raising for
meat, focus on protein through a meat bird diet. Chicks and pullets intended for egg production can grow well

Exhibition and show birds


Poultry of all types make an excellent 4-H or FFA project for children and young adults, and the reward can be lucrative depending on the level of
competition. Most poultry shows have classes for all types of poultry, with categories defined for specific breeds or types of breeds within the
options of chickens, ducks, geese, turkey and wild fowl.

If you are interested in poultry exhibition, first look into local show options. Choosing a popular breed can help build camaraderie with other
breeders and provide options for new genetics. On the other hand, selecting a unique breed can help you stand out in the competition.

Showing birds with other flock raisers can help you create a network of flock enthusiasts, perfect your birds’ genetics through selective breeding
and learn more about flock care.
BROOD AND GROW CHICKS
(Perform flock selection)

Relevant records are updated on regular basis following enterprise protocol

 Health program records


 Vaccination program
 Blood titer
 Medication program
 Production performance
 Livability records
PERFORM PRE-LAY AND LAY ACTIVITIES

This unit covers the knowledge, skills and


attitudes required to perform pre-lay and lay
activities. It comprises of performing preparatory
activities, transfer layers in laying house,
employing lighting program, apply feeding
program, perform harvesting and post-laying
activities,
PERFORM PRE-LAY AND LAY ACTIVITIES
(Perform preparatory activities)
 Laying houses are cleaned and disinfected according to industry procedures.

Laying house, in animal husbandry, a building or enclosure for maintaining laying


flocks of domestic fowl, usually chickens, containing nests, lighting, roosting space,
waterers, and feed troughs. Feeders and waterers may be automatic. In the largest
houses, feed storage, egg room, and utility space may be in a centre section, with
laying-house wings in both directions. Construction ranges from relatively open shelters
to fully enclosed and insulated buildings, depending on the climate.
In the cage system, birds are confined in individual wire mesh cages arranged in rows in
a stairstep alignment with service aisles between rows. Feed and water troughs are
attached to the front of the cages; eggs roll down the sloping cage floors into a collection
area.
PERFORM PRE-LAY AND LAY ACTIVITIES
(Perform preparatory activities)
 Tools, materials and equipment are prepared according to work requirements.

Equipment Tools Materials


• Generator
• Electric lamps • Scissors • Egg trays


Egg sorting machine
Lux meter
• Wheel barrow • Light bulbs
• Feeders (farm implements) • Plastic drinking jars • Syringes and needles


Feed bin
Feed cart • Biologics


Industrial fan
Knapsack sprayer
• Medicated sacks(for
• Feed cart foot bath)


Fabricated layer cages
Feed scoop
• Pail and Basins
• Ligth meter
• Curtains (ventilation and lighting
management)
PERFORM PRE-LAY AND LAY ACTIVITIES
(Transfer layers in laying house)

 Ready to lay-pullets are selected for transfer to laying house.

 Pullets with abnormalities are culled from the flock.

 Ready-to-lay-pullets are transferred to laying house


PERFORM PRE-LAY AND LAY ACTIVITIES
(Employ lighting program)
In understanding why lighting is important in poultry production, it’s necessary to look at the birds’ biological make-
up. In humans, light reaches the brain through the eyes. In chickens, light penetrates not only through the eyes, but
also through the top of the skull, via the pineal gland, and through the pituitary gland next to the hypothalamus.
Whereas in our eyes we have just three types of cones – specialised photoreceptor cells that are responsible for our
perception of red, blue and green light – chickens have four: red, blue and green cones, as well as a cone for
ultraviolet light.

Like humans, poultry’s lives revolve around a regular day-and-night cycle. When birds have a proper day and night
cycle, they develop the proper diurnal rhythms – that is, a routine of typical activities during the day. This is
important for functions like melatonin production. “It is a normal cycle that is so important for birds because it drives
things like immune function and growth rate and reproductive hormones. “By giving that day-and-night cycle, you
improve the health of the birds, you improve the immune status, you improve mobility and you improve alertness.”

“Birds tend to be more active when they have a day-night cycle,”


“They’ll actually grow better, which is really interesting and the total opposite of what was thought ten years ago.”
PERFORM PRE-LAY AND LAY ACTIVITIES
(Apply feeding activities)

AGE OF BIRD TYPE OF FEED FEEDING RATE FOR THAT AGE GROUP OTHER SUPPLEMENTS

Layer Chicks (hatch to 8 weeks of Provide access to chick grit and fresh
Chick Starter 2-5 lbs. per bird (over the 8 weeks)
age) water at all times

Broiler Chicks (hatch to 4 weeks Provide access to chick grit and fresh
Chick Starter 2-5 lbs. per bird
of age) water at all times

Layer Growers (8-20 weeks of Provide access to grower grit and fresh
Grower or All Purpose Poultry 10-15 lbs. per bird (over the 12 weeks)
age) water at all times

Broiler Growers (4 weeks to


Grower, Broiler, or All Purpose Poultry 10-15 lbs. per bird Provide access to grower grit and fresh
harvest)
water at all times

Layer (21+ weeks of age/when Roughly 1/4 lb. per bird each day (depends on Provide access to hen grit, oyster shells,
Grower (with calcium supplementation) or Layer
egg production begins) breed and access to free range) and fresh water at all times
PERFORM PRE-LAY AND LAY ACTIVITIES
(Perform health care)

Applications of vaccines

1. Intra nasal
2. Intra ocular
3. Per os via drinking water
4. Intra muscular
5. Intra subcutaneous
6. Prick or wing web method
7. Fine spray
8. Coarse spray
PERFORM PRE-LAY AND LAY ACTIVITIES
(Perform harvesting and post-laying activities)
 Eggs are collected on a regular basis using appropriate materials and standard
collecting procedures.

Egg trays
Plastic egg trays
Cartoon egg trays
Egg cart
Egg boxes
PERFORM PRE-LAY AND LAY ACTIVITIES
(Perform harvesting and post-laying activities)
 Eggs are classified according to industry classification standards
1. XL and jumbo
2. Large
3. Medium
4. Small
5. Very small/peewee
Eggs are packed and stored at appropriate room temperature.
Unproductive layers are culled out according to standard industry
procedures.  Production records  Physical records
Records are kept following enterprise standard  Livability records Laying flock
 Laying flock  Inventory
records (records of
Hen house
production)
 Egg production
record
TRIM BEAK

This unit covers the knowledge, skills and


attitudes required to debeak and redebeak birds.
It includes functions such as carry-out
preparatory activities, debeak birds, redebeak
birds and carry-out work to completion.
TRIM BEAK
(Carry-out preparatory activities)
 Materials, tools and equipment for the operation are prepared according to work requirements.

Net for restraining Pail

Medicines (analgesic, blood coagulants)

Old tire
TRIM BEAK
(Carry-out preparatory activities)

Debeaking machine Heater

Sprayer
TRIM BEAK
(Carry-out preparatory activities)

 Birds are conditioned for debeaking following Good Animal Practices and Animal Welfare Act.
Safety measures are practiced following Occupational Safety and Health Standards (OSHS).

 Giving blood coagulants


 Antipyretic
 Analgesic

 Records are collected and updated for reporting purposes. (daily/weekly)

 Data on numbers of properly trimmed birds


 Data on numbers of improperly retrimmed birds
Thank You
Pasamba, Ma. Shane P.
Casido, Christian Paul