Está en la página 1de 30

5.

Sweetener, Water, Salt, Milk and


Egg

Hui et al., 2006. Bakery Products Science and


Technology , Oxford : Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Sweetener

1. Flavor (sweetness) Sweetness


intensity
2. Colour (browning)
3. Tenderness/Moisture (delay staling) Size of
granules
4. Increases volume
• In cakes & cookies, by the incorporation
of air into fat during creaming (mixture of Flavor
fat & sugar crystal)
• Raises temperature of gelatinization &
coagulation, giving gluten more time to
stretch
5. Contribute to the spread and surface
cracking in cookies
6. Carbon source (nutritive value)
Sweetness intensity (1)
Sweetness intensity (2)
Size of granules
Selection of sweetener
The type of sweetener chosen depends on
(1) the degree of sweetness that is needed,
(2) the function of sugars in dough or batter
being mixed, and
(3) the desired appearance or texture of the
baked product.
NUTRITIVE
SUGAR

MONOSACCHARIDE DISACCHARIDE
(glucose, fructose) (sucrose, lactose, maltose)

Commonly used sugar : sucrose (sugar cane and sugar


beet), hydrolysates of corn starch, honey and lactose.
Sweetener originated from sugar cane and sugar beet :
• granulated sugar
• molasses
• brown sugar, yaitu granulated sugar crystals coated
with molasses
• liquid sugar
Sucrose (regular refined sugar)
• Nonreducing disaccharide  caramelization
• Provides clean sweetness without off-flavor
• Finer granulations are better for mixing into doughs
and batters (quickly dissolved) and creaming with
fats
• Coarser granulation: syrup, dusting
• Sanding sugar Coarse -> syrup
Granulated • Fine
sugar • Ultrafine

Powdered / • XXXX, XX dusting


Confectioner’s sugar • 6X
(cornstarch added) • 10X (finest) Fine -> icing
Molasses
bersifat dark brown, acidic, bitter

Grades of molasses :
• 1st strike molasses Less sucrose
• 2nd strike molasses Less mineral
Darker
• 3rd strike molasses Bitter

Best quality molasses : 72 – 74 % from total sugars


(sucrose & invert sugar)
Brown sugar
sugar crystals coated with molasses

• Total sugar content 90 – 95 %


• Moisture 2–4%
• Contribution : specific colors & flavors
(Graham crackers, ginger snaps)
• 15 grades brown sugar:

1 8 10 13 15
slight creamy / light medium dark very
paling terang brown brown brown dark brown
Liquid sugar

Classification:
–sucrose types : 66,5 – 68 % solid
–invert types : 73 – 76 % solid (30 – 60 % invert)
–liquid brown sugars : 70 -80 % solid (50 – 75 %
sucrose / invert sugar)

Contoh : corn starch hydrolysates


Corn starch hydrolysates
– tipe I : 20 -38 DE
– tipe II : 38 – 58 DE
– tipe III : 58 – 73 DE
– tipe IV :  73 DE
DE : gula reduksi yang dihitung sebagai glukosa
(dextrose) yang terdapat dalam larutan corn syrup
dalam % berat kering (makin rendah DE, makin
menyerupai pati; makin tinggi DE, makin manis dan
cair)
Aplikasinya pada biscuits dan crackers menggunakan
corn starch hydrolysates tipe III dan IV, akan menaikkan
tingkat kemanisan, meningkatkan daya fermentasi,
meningkatkan efek browning.
Invert sugar
: combination of fructose and glucose in equal amounts,
produced by converting sucrose molecules into
fructose and glucose.
• Characteristic : Low Aw, high hygroscopicity, difficult to
crystallize.
• Function
– Shelf life extender/antistalling (specially in low fat
products which gets dry quicker, to retain moisture)
– Fructose : uncrystallisable sugar  minimizes
crystallization (10% in fondant, icings)
– As reducing sugar  satisfying caramel color in crust
in lower temperature (hinder overbaking)
Lactose
Application : cookies, 3-4% lactose of flour weight
 easily separated from the mould, better shape
Honey
Composition : water 17,2 %, protein 0 -3 %, mineral
0,2 %, carbohydrate 82,3 %, fat 0 %.
carbohydrate contents : D-glucose, D-fructose,
sucrose.
Water
• solvent
• Hydrating insoluble protein (gliadin and glutenin) to form
gluten
• memucatkan warna kulit
• Controlling dough temperature
• Enzimatic reaction
• Controlling density of batter (e.g. in angel food cake, water
addition up tp 10% resulted in denser crumb and moist
product)

Water requirement for bakery = drinking water


Polutant-free
Disease-free
Klasifikasi air berdasarkan kandungan
mineralnya :
1. Air lunak / soft water (0-50 ppm), biasanya
menghasilkan adonan yang lunak dan lengket
sebab tidak ada mineral yang memperkuat
gluten akibatnya absorpsi air berkurang
sampai ± 2% untuk mendapatkan adonan
yang mudah dikerjakan
2. Air keras / hard water. Penggunaan air ini
menyebabkan pengadukan dan waktu
fermentasi bertambah lama, akibatnya kadar
alkohol yang dihasilkan semakin tinggi (asam)
3. Air garam / alkali water, air jenis ini tidak baik
untuk pembuatan roti. Kelebihan garam-garam
alkali akan menetralisir keasaman yang terbentuk
selama fermentasi ragi. Aktivitas enzim dalam
adonan roti tergantung dari pH medianya. pH
optimum enzim 4 – 5. Penggunaan air alkali akan
meningkatkan pH adonan diatas pH optimum dari
aktivitas enzim serta mempengaruhi proses
fermentasi.
4. Air asam / acid water, akan menghasilkan adonan
yang lengket dan lunak.
5. Air laut / salting water
6. Air keruh / turbid water
Mineral effect to water
Influencing the growth of yeast : Ion NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Zn2+, and
anions of sulfate and phosphate with different charges are also
added as yeast food in addition to other yeast nutrients.

Calcium-protein interaction strengthens the gluten for gas


retention, leading to even crumb in bread. On the other hand,
very hard water retards fermentation, because calcium ions
strengthen the gluten structure too much.

Best for bakery : moderate mineral content (50-100 ppm).


Parts of mineral strengthen the gluten and another parts serve as
yeast nutrition.
Garam
Function :
– Flavor enhancer
– Easier dough handling
– crumb stability
– increasing volume
– Controlling yeast fermentation rate
Dosis penggunaan garam pada produk bakery adalah 1
– 2,5%

Pemakaian garam kurang dari 0,5% akan memberikan


rasa hambar. Sedangkan pemakaian lebih dari 2% akan
menghambat fermentasi.
Susu Susu sapi mengandung
> 8,25 % milk solid non fat
Constituents of Milk : > 3,25 % milk fat
• Proteins
– Casein, lactalbumin, lactoglobulin :
flavor blenders, browning in crusts
– Casein : assists formation of porous
structure
• Lactose
– Reducing sugar  browning
– Tenderizer
• Lipids
– Flavor, shortening
– Phospholipid  small emulsifying
effect
• Mineral
• Water
Effect of milk to bakery product :
• Enhancing flavor
• Enhancing dough physical characteristic
• Improving nutrition value

Specially in bread :
• Improving crust color (lactose)
• Increasing water absorption -> more tender product
• Ease dough handling
Dairy product category :
1. Fluid Milk Product, constituents :
- whole milk : full cream
- skim milk : non fat
- butter milk
- whey : non fat dan non protein
2. Concentrated/condensed Milk Product,
- whole milk
- skim milk
- butter milk
- whey
In manufacturing of concentrated milk product, the
moisture is evaporated partially.
Sweetened or unsweetened.
3. Dried Milk Solid Product, meliputi
• dried milk solid non fat (MSNF)
• dried whole milk
• modified dried whole milk (increasing flavor intensity
of fat)
4. Dried Butter Milk
• Dried Butter Milk may substitute MSNF in cookies
(regular).
• Superiority of dried butter milk regular compared to
MSNF is richer flavor and more crunchiness.

5. Dried Whey Product, yaitu whey yang dikeringkan.


• High protein
Eggs
Eggs

1. Contribute color and flavor


2. Contribute nutritive value
3. Act as an emulsifier
4. Act as leavening agent (example: egg foams)
5. Providing structure by means of coagulation
(baking)
Egg whites show whipping-ability (note : no trace of
yolk or lipid)  structural qualities

Egg yolks contribute color, flavor, shortness due to the


fatty materials, and emulsifying action.
Role of egg in cake texture :
 emulsifying (kuning telur)
 Leavening (whippability of
white egg)
 tenderizing
 binding action

Role of egg in bread :


– Improve color
– Improve nutrition
– Improve flavorflavor