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MECH 182
STATICS /
MECH 106
BASIC MECHANICS
MOMENT OF A FORCE
What is moment of a force?
2 • The tendency for a body to rotate about a fixed point when a
force is applied and the force is not on the line of the action of
the force is called moment of a force or simply moment
(torque).
• Moment can also be defined as the product of an applied force
F and perpendicular distance d. i.e.
• 𝑀𝑎𝑔𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑴 = 𝑭 × 𝒅, where F is the applied force
and d is the perpendicular distance.
• The unit for moment is N.m (SI) or Ib-ft (US customary system)
Illustration of Moment
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Illustration of Moment
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Illustration of Moment
5 • (a) Considering a wrench used to unscrew a bolt. If a force is applied to
the handle of the wrench, it will tend to turn the bolt about point O (or
along the z axis).
• The magnitude of the moment M is directly proportional to the applied
force F and the perpendicular distance or moment arm 𝒅
• (b) If the force F is applied at an angle θ ≠ 90˚ it will be difficult to turn
the bolt since the moment arm 𝑑′ = 𝑑 sin 𝜃 will be smaller than d.
• (c) If the applied force F is along the wrench, its moment arm will be
zero since the line of action of F will intersect the point O (the z axis).
Therefore, the magnitude of the moment will be zero and there will be
no turning.
6 Sign Convention for Moment

• Note: Moment directions may be accounted by using a


stated sign convention. Eg. For clockwise, assign a plus
(+) and counterclockwise, assign a minus (-) and vise
versa.
Resultant Moment of a System of Forces
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• If a body is acted upon by a system of forces, the resultant moment
of the forces about point O is the vector sum of the moment of each
force.
• The resultant moment can be written mathematically
as
• (𝑴𝑹 )𝒐 = σ(𝒓 × 𝑭)
• i.e. (𝑴𝑹 )𝒐 = 𝒓𝟏 × 𝑭𝟏 + 𝒓𝟐 × 𝑭𝟐 + (𝒓𝟑 × 𝑭𝟑 )
Example 1: (a) Determine the moment of the force
8 about point O.
Example 1(a) solution.
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+ 𝑀𝑜 = 𝐹 × 𝑑
𝑀𝑜 = 100 𝑁 × 2 𝑚
𝑴𝒐 = 𝟐𝟎𝟎 𝑵. 𝒎 ……ans
Example 1 (b)
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Example 1(b) solution.
11 • ⟳ + 𝑀𝑜 = 𝐹 × 𝑑
• 𝑀𝑜 = 50 𝑁 × 0.75 m
• 𝑴𝒐 = 𝟑𝟕. 𝟓 𝑵. 𝒎
Example 1 (c)
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Example 1(c) solution.
13 • ⟳ +𝑀𝑜 = 𝐹 × 𝑑
• 𝑀𝑜 = 40 𝐼𝑏 × (4 𝑓𝑡 + 2 cos 30° 𝑓𝑡)
• 𝑴𝒐 = 𝟐𝟐𝟗 𝑰𝒃. 𝒇𝒕
What is the moment of the 40-kN force about point A?
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In order to pull out the nail at B, the force F exerted on the handle of
the hammer must produce a clockwise moment of 500 Ib.in about
15 point A. Determine the required magnitude of the force F.
Solution
16 • 𝑀𝐴 = 500 𝐼𝑏. 𝑖𝑛
• ⟳+ 𝑀𝐴 = 𝐹𝑐𝑜𝑠 30° × 18 + 𝐹𝑠𝑖𝑛 30° × 5 = 500
• 15.588𝐹 + 2.5𝐹 = 500
500
• 𝐹=
15.588+2.5
• 𝑭 = 𝟐𝟕. 𝟔𝟒𝟐 𝑰𝒃
Example 2: Determine the resultant moment of the four
17 forces acting on the rod.
Example 2 solution
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• Moving in the clockwise direction
• ⟳+ 𝑀𝑜 = 𝐹 × 𝑑
• ⟳ + σ 𝑀𝑜 = 𝐹1 × 𝑑1 + 𝐹2 × 𝑑2 + 𝐹3 × 𝐹3 + 𝐹4 × 𝑑4
• ⟳+
σ 𝑀𝑜 = 50 𝑁 × 2 𝑚 + 60 𝑁 × 0 − 20 𝑁 × (3 sin 30° 𝑚) + 40 𝑁 × (4 𝑚 + 3 cos 30°)
• ⟳ + σ 𝑴𝒐 = 𝟑𝟑𝟒 𝑵. 𝒎
Compute the moment of the 0.4-Ib force about the pivot
O of the wall-switch toggle.
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Calculate the moment of the 250-N force on the handle of
20 the monkey wrench about the center of the bolt.
Moment of a Force in Three Dimension
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Cross product of Cartesian Unit Vectors
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Cross product of two vectors expressed as a cartesian
23 vector
• 𝐴 = 𝐴𝑥 𝑖 + 𝐴 𝑦 𝑗 + 𝐴𝑧 𝑘
• 𝐵 = 𝐵𝑥 𝑖 + 𝐵𝑦 𝑗 + 𝐵𝑧 𝑘
Therefore the cross product

• 𝐴 × 𝐵 = 𝐴𝑥 𝑖 + 𝐴𝑦 𝑗 + 𝐴𝑧 𝑘 × 𝐵𝑥 𝑖 + 𝐵𝑦 𝑗 + 𝐵𝑧 𝑘
• Cartesian vector form

• 𝐴 × 𝐵 = 𝐴𝑦 𝐵𝑧 − 𝐴𝑧 𝐵𝑦 𝑖 − 𝐴𝑥 𝐵𝑧 − 𝐴𝑧 𝐵𝑥 𝑗 + 𝐴𝑥 𝐵𝑦 − 𝐴𝑦 𝐵𝑥 𝑘

𝑖 𝑗 𝑘
• 𝐴 × 𝐵 = 𝐴𝑥 𝐴𝑦 𝐴𝑧
𝐵𝑥 𝐵𝑦 𝐵𝑧
Cartesian Vector Formulation
24 • The force F and the distance r can be expressed in a cartesian vector as
• 𝑭𝒙𝒊 + 𝑭𝒚𝒋 + 𝑭𝒛𝒌 and 𝒓𝒙𝒊 + 𝒓𝒚𝒋 + 𝒓𝒛𝒌
• Therefore the moment about O

𝒊 𝒋 𝒌
• 𝑴𝒐 = 𝒓 × 𝑭 = 𝒓𝒙 𝒓𝒚 𝒓𝒛
𝑭𝒙 𝑭𝒚 𝑭𝒛
• Where
• 𝑟𝑥 , 𝑟𝑦 , 𝑟𝑧 are the 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧 components of the position vector

• 𝐹𝑥 , 𝐹𝑦 , 𝐹𝑧 are the 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧 components of the force vector

• 𝑴𝒐 = 𝒓𝒚 𝑭𝒛 − 𝒓𝒛 𝑭𝒚 𝒊 − 𝒓𝒙 𝑭𝒛 − 𝒓𝒛 𝑭𝒙 𝒋 + 𝒓𝒙 𝑭𝒚 − 𝒓𝒚 𝑭𝒙 𝒌
In the figure below the force P is of magnitude 150 N and
its direction is as shown. Express P as a vector in terms of
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the unit vectors 𝑖, 𝑗 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑘 and determine its moment with
respect to the point E.
D E

z y

G F
C
B
P

2m 3m

x
O 5m A
Solution
26 • Expressing P as a vector
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑧
•𝑃=𝑃 𝑖 + 𝑗+ 𝑘
𝑑 𝑑 𝑑

2 2 2
•𝑑= 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑑𝑦 + 𝑑𝑧

• 𝑑 = 52 + 32 + 22 = 6.164
5 3 2
• = 𝑖 − 𝑗 − 𝑘 = 0.811𝑖 − 0.487𝑗 − 0.324𝑘
6.164 6.164 6.164
Solution
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• Therefore
• 𝑃 = 150 0.811𝑖 − 0.487𝑗 − 0.324𝑘
• 𝑷 = 𝟏𝟐𝟏. 𝟔𝟓𝒊 − 𝟕𝟑. 𝟎𝟓𝒋 − 𝟒𝟖. 𝟔𝒌
• Moment about point E
• 𝑀𝐸 = 𝑟Ԧ × 𝑃
• 𝑀𝐸 = 5𝑖 × 121.65𝑖 − 73.05𝑗 − 48.6𝑘
• 𝑴𝑬 = 𝟐𝟒𝟑𝒋 − 𝟑𝟔𝟓𝒌
Example: Two forces act on the rod as shown. Determine
the resultant moment created about the flange at O.
28 express the result as a cartesian vector
Solution:
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• Position vectors;
• 𝑟𝐴 = 5𝑗 𝑓𝑡
• 𝑟𝐵 = (4𝑖 + 5𝑗 − 2𝑘) 𝑓𝑡
• Resultant Moment
• 𝑀𝑅 𝑜 = σ 𝑟 × 𝐹 = 𝑟𝐴 × 𝐹1 + 𝑟𝐵 × 𝐹2

𝑖 𝑗 𝑘 𝑖 𝑗 𝑘
•= 0 5 0 + 4 5 −2
−60 40 20 80 40 −30
• 𝑀𝑅 𝑜 = 30𝑖 − 40𝑗 + 60𝑘 𝐼𝑏. 𝑓𝑡
The force F = (600i +300j -600k) N acts at the end of the
beam. Determine the moment of the force about A.
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Determine the resultant moment produce by the forces
𝐹𝑐 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐹𝐵 about point O.
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Moment of a Couple
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A couple is defined as two parallel forces that have the
same magnitude, but opposite directions, and are
separated by a perpendicular distance d.
Moment of a Couple
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• The resultant of the two forces is zero in every direction.
• The only effect is to produce a tendency of rotation.
• A practical application of a couple is turning of a steering
wheel of a car.
34 Scaler formulation of couple moment
• Couple moment 𝑴 = 𝐹 𝑎 + 𝑑 − 𝐹𝑎
• = 𝐹𝑎 + 𝐹𝑑 − 𝐹𝑎
• 𝑴 = 𝑭𝒅
Vector formulation of couple moment
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• Couple moment 𝑴 = 𝑟𝐴 × 𝐹 + 𝑟𝐵 × (−𝐹)
• = (𝑟𝐴 −𝑟𝐵 ) × 𝐹
• But from diagram
• 𝑟𝐴 − 𝑟𝐵 = 𝑟
• Therefore: 𝑴=𝒓×𝑭
Determine the resultant couple moment of the three
couples acting on the plate.
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37 Solution:
• Couple moment 𝑀 = 𝐹𝑑
• Resultant couple moment on plate
• ⟳ +𝑀𝑅 = 𝐹1 𝑑1 − 𝐹2 𝑑2 + 𝐹3 𝑑3
• = 200 × 4 + 450 × 3 − 300 × 5
• = 950 𝐼𝑏 − 𝑓𝑡
Determine the resultant couple moment acting on the
38 beam
Solution
39

• ⟳+𝑀𝑅 = 300 × 5 − 400 × 2 + (200 × 0.2)


• = 740 𝑁. 𝑚
The grid below is composed of 1 m squares. Determine the resultant
of the forces if the magnitude and its location if the four parallel
40 forces are 𝐹1 = 50 𝑁, 𝐹2 = 75 𝑁, 𝐹3 = 100 𝑁 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐹4 = 80 𝑁
𝑦

𝐹1
𝐹3
𝐹2
𝐹4
𝑂 𝑥

𝑧
Solution
• The vector sum of all forces 𝑦
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• 𝑅 = 𝐹1 + 𝐹2 + 𝐹3 + 𝐹4
𝑅
• 𝑅 = −50𝑗 + 75𝑗 + 100𝑗 − 80𝑗
• 𝑅 = 45𝑗
• The vector sum of the moments of the couples with
𝑥
𝑟𝑧
respect to O. 𝑧 𝑟𝑥

෍ 𝑀𝑜 = 𝑟1 × 𝐹1 + 𝑟2 × 𝐹2 + 𝑟3 × 𝐹3 + (𝑟4 × 𝐹4 )

෍ 𝑀𝑜 = 𝑖 × −50𝑗 + 𝑖 + 3𝑘 × 75𝑗 + 3𝑖 + 2𝑘 × 100𝑗 + 3𝑖 + 4𝑘 × (−80𝑗)

= −105𝑖 + 85𝑘 𝑁𝑚
The location of R
42 • The location of R can be determine using the vector
• 𝑟 = 𝑟𝑥 𝑖 + 𝑟𝑧 𝑘
• Therefore the single force R must be located so that its moment about O
• 𝑀𝑜 = 𝑟 × 𝑅
• −105𝑖 + 85𝑘 = (𝑟𝑥 𝑖 + 𝑟𝑧 𝑘) × 45𝑗
• −105𝑖 + 85𝑘 = (45𝑟𝑥 𝑘 + 45𝑟𝑧 𝑖)
• Solving the vector equation
• 45𝑟𝑥 = 85
• 𝒓𝒙 = 𝟏. 𝟖𝟗 𝒎
• −45𝑟𝑧 = −105
• 𝒓𝒛 = 𝟐. 𝟑𝟑 𝒎
The square foundation mat supports the four columns
shown. Determine the magnitude and point of
43 application of the resultant of the four loads.
Solution
44 • The vector sum of all forces
• 𝑅 = 𝐹1 + 𝐹2 + 𝐹3 + 𝐹4
• 𝑅 = −40𝑗 − 20𝑗 − 12𝑗 − 8𝑗
• 𝑅 = −80𝑗
• The vector sum of the moments of the couples with
respect to O.

෍ 𝑀𝑜 = 𝑟1 × 𝐹1 + 𝑟2 × 𝐹2 + 𝑟3 × 𝐹3 + (𝑟4 × 𝐹4 )

෍ 𝑀𝑜 = 0 × −40𝑗 + 4𝑖 + 10𝑘 × −20𝑗 + 10𝑖 × −12𝑗 + 10𝑖 + 5𝑘 × (−8𝑗)

= 240𝑖 − 280𝑘 𝑁𝑚
The location of R
• The location of R can be determine using the vector
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• 𝑟 = 𝑟𝑥 𝑖 + 𝑟𝑧 𝑘
• Therefore the single force R must be located so that its moment about O
• 𝑀𝑜 = 𝑟 × 𝑅
• 240𝑖 − 280𝑘 = 𝑟𝑥 𝑖 + 𝑟𝑧 𝑘 × −80𝑗
• 240𝑖 − 280𝑘 = (−80𝑟𝑥 𝑘 + 80𝑟𝑧 𝑖)
• Solving the vector equation
• 80𝑟𝑥 = 280
• 𝒓𝒙 = 𝟑. 𝟓𝟎 𝒇𝒕
• 80𝑟𝑧 = 240
• 𝒓𝒛 = 𝟑. 𝟎𝟎 𝒇𝒕
The three parallel bolting forces act on the circular plate. If the forces at
A, B and C have magnitudes 200 Ib, 163 Ib and 223 Ib respectively,
46 determine the magnitude and the point of application of the resultant
force.
If 𝐹𝐴 = 40 𝑘𝑁 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐹𝐵 = 35 𝑘𝑁 determine the magnitude of
47 the resultant force and specify the location of its point of
application on the slab.
48 Questions
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Assignment Two