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Understanding

Correlation
Analysis
Why do most students who are good
in Mathematics also perform well in
Physics? Why does blood pressure go with
age? Why do students with high IQ have
good academic performances? These
questions have something to do with
relationships between variables. In this
lesson, we shall learn how to describe the
relationship between two variables.
Before we proceed, do this activity to prepare you for
lesson.

Plot the following points on a rectangular coordinate


system.

A ( 2, 3 ) F ( 4, 2 )
B ( 4, 8 ) G ( 1, 6 )
C ( 6, 1 ) H ( 3, 5 )
D ( 7, 3 ) I ( 9, 4 )
E ( 5, 5 ) J ( 10, 5 )
So far we have analyzed data involving
only a single variable – for instance, the
grades of students, the weights of grocery
products, and the lengths of rods. These
data are called univariate data because
they involve a single variable only. In this
lesson we shall analyze data involving two
variables. Data that involve two variables are
called bivariate data.
The analysis of bivariate data involves describing
the relationship between two variables. The process or
procedure of describing the relationship between two
variables is called correlation analysis.

Describing Relationship Using a Scatter Plot

The relationship between two variables can be


described by constructing a scatter plot. A scatter plot
is a graphical representation of the relationship
between two variables.
Example

A company with six branches provides free


coffee to its employees. A manager is interested
to find out if there is a relationship between the
number of cups of coffee provided and the
number of employees in the offices. The table
below shows the data needed. Determine if there
is a relationship between the number of
employees and the number of cups of coffee.
Number of Number of
Employees ( X ) Cups of Coffee ( Y )
11 18
13 36
15 40
18 50
21 58
24 74
Notice that the
points on the scatter
plot do not lie on one
line. However, the
points closely follow a
straight line. This line
is called a trend line.
The relationship
between two variables
is described in terms of
strength and
direction.
Types of Correlation according to
Direction.

In terms of direction, the


relationship between two variables
may be positive, negative, or zero.
Positive Correlation
A positive correlation exist if
high values in one variable are
associated with high values in
another variable. Similarly, low
values in one variable are
associated with low values in the
other variable.
If a positive correlation
exists, then the points on the
scatter plot closely follow a
straight line slanting up to the
right.
Negative Correlation
A negative correlation exist if
high values in one variable are
associated with high values in
another variable. Similarly, low
values in one variable are
associated with low values in the
other variable.
If a negative correlation
exists, then the points on the
scatter plot closely follow a
straight line slanting up to the
left.
Zero Correlation
A zero correlation exists
when high values in one
variable are associated to
either high or low values in
the other variable.
If a zero correlation
exists, then the points on the
scatter plot are randomly
scattered. The points do not
follow closely a straight line.
Types of Correlation according to
Strength

A perfect correlation exists when all


the points on the scatter plot lie on a
straight line. When the points on the
scatter plot do not lie on a straight line,
the relationship may be very high, high,
moderately high, low, negligible, or zero.
Seatwork

The following data show the attitude scores and


Mathematics achievement of a group of students.

a. Construct a scatter plot for the given data.

b. Describe the relationship between attitude


and achievement in Mathematics in terms
of direction and strength based on the
scatter plot.
Attitude Score (X) Achievement in Mathematics (Y)

48 22
48 19
47 20
46 20
46 17
43 21
42 21
42 19
41 17