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BU Motors and Generators Training 2012

Mechanical structure

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 1
Standard motors

Fan cover Fan


Terminal box

End shield End shield

Outer bearing
Inner bearing cover
cover
Bearing

Inner bearing
cover

Outer bearing
Frame
cover
Bearing
Shaft

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 2
Carcasa

Ejemplo de cast iron stator frame: M3BP280 Ejemplo de cast iron stator frame: M3KP112
 Uno de los principales componentes del motor: La carcasa, el
material y la construcción define en algunos casos el tipo del
motor.
 Ejemplos de algunos materiales de carcasa y construcciones
 Cast iron (M3BP, M2BA, M3JP, M3KP, M2QA …)
 Die cast aluminum (M3AA, M2AA…)
 Steel (M2CA, M2FA, M3LP…)
 Función de la carcasa
 Principal soporte de otras piezas

 Principal componente el el proceso de enfriamiento (la


mayoría de las aletas de enfriamiento estan en la carcasa,
en water cooled motors lel sistema de circulación del agua
Ejemplo de steel stator frame: M2CA280 esta en la carcasa
 Junto con otras partes del motor proveen la protección a las
partes activas.
© ABB BU Motors and Generators
September 15, 2019 | Slide 3
Patas del motor

 Patas pueden ser fijas o removibles


 Patas removibles son usadas
principalmente en motores pequeños
 La forma constructivas de los motores con
patas removibles The mounting of a motors
with looser feet can easily be modified
Las patas son
diseñadas para  Las patas pueden ser equipadas ( bajo
soportar el consulta) con un set de tornillos para
peso del motor Ejemplo de patas fijas: M3BP280 facilitar el alineamiento.
y todas las
fuerzas
externas  Dimensiones de las patas de acuerdo a
transmitidas IEC60072-1 and IEC60072-2
por el motor
con un alto  Si la designación del tipo de motor es por
factor de
seguridad.
ejemplo “M3BP315SM 4 B3” las letras “S”
(Uno de los y “M” significan las dimensiones de
motivos mas instalación conforme el standard
comunes del IEC60072-1
quiebre de las
patas es que
grúas levantan
el motor
cuando el Ejemplo de patas removibles :
motor todavía
esta anclado. M3KP112
© ABB BU Motors and Generators
September 15, 2019 | Slide 4
Cancamos de izaje

Example of DIN580 lifting eye screw: Example of cast lifting lugs:


M3BP280 M3GP160

 Si el motor va a ser
levantado debe ser equipado
con cancamos de izaje.
 En algunos caos los
cancamos pueden ser
ubicados conforme las
Los cancamos necesidades de izaje.
de izaje están
diseñados pata Example of cast lifting lugs:
levantar sólo el M3KP112
motor y no el
motor mas la
aplicación.
© ABB BU Motors and Generators
September 15, 2019 | Slide 5
Endshields (Tapas)

 Material: Hierro fundido (Excepto en


algunos motores de aluminio, donde son
de aluminio y como opcional de hierro
fundido)
 Funciones del endshields:
 Dar soporte a los rodamientos
 Es el segundo lugar donde puede ser
Endshield of Ex d motor: M3KP112 localizado la superficie de enfriamiento
(Especialmente para enfriar los
rodamientos)
 Opcionales (su disponibilidad depende del
producto)
 Monitor de temperatura en los
rodamientos
 Sensores de vibración.
 Graseras
Endshield of cast iron motor: M3BP280
 Materiales mas robustos (por ejemplo
© ABB BU Motors and Generators
hierro fundido, acero, etc)
September 15, 2019 | Slide 6
Flange endshields

 Flange endshields disponible


para motores con montaje
B5 y V1 (o B14 y V18)
 Hasta frame 400 se puede
utilizar la forma constructiva
B5.
 El flange para carcasa 450
no está diseñado para
soportar el peso del motor en
posición horizontal ( se
hacen necesario soportes
adicionales)

Flange endshield (M3BP280)

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 7
Bearing covers (Contratapa)

Motor with separate outer Motor with integrated outer


bearing cover (M3BP355) bearing cover (M2QA)

 Tapa cubre rodamientos externa puede ser un componente


separado o “integrado al endshield”.
 Las contratapas externas son usadas cuando hay necesidad de
variación en el sistema de salida de la grasa o sellado de
rodamientos.
© ABB BU Motors and Generators
September 15, 2019 | Slide 8
Bearing covers (Contratapa)

Inner bearing
cover

Valve disc
(slinger ,
cortador de
grasa)

Grease retainer

Outer bearing
cover

Grease outlet

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 9
© ABB BU Motors and Generators
September 15, 2019 | Slide 10
© ABB BU Motors and Generators
September 15, 2019 | Slide 11
Sealing (sellos)

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September 15, 2019 | Slide 12
Earthing - Tierra

 La tierra es localizada en
la caja principal de
conexión, en la mayoria
de los motores hay un
punto adicional de tierra
en el frame.
 Hay dos tipos:
 Pernos de latón
 Pernos de acero +
Cleaned earthing
surfaces
 Como opcional, puntos de
Localización de los pernos de aterramiento pueden ser
agregados en otras partes
aterramiento de l motor, como por
ejemplo, el las patas del
motor.

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 13
Earthing
Ejemplos de lugares de aterramiento en un M3BP280

Conector a tierra para


elementos de monitoreo

Tierra en la caja de conexión.


Dos puntos de aterramiento
disponibles en lugares opuestos en la
caja de conexión.
Existe un simbolo de aterramiento en
la caja de conexión junto al punto de
aterramiento.

Aterramiento en la carcasa
Hay un perno de aterramiento
como estandard (con posibilidad
de más bajo consulta)
Marca de aterramiento con un
simbolo

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 14
Ventilador & Cubre ventilador en motores estandares

Ventiladores
 El material es fibra de vidrio reforzada con
polipropileno.
 Ventiladores de metal están disponibles como
opcional, son usados principalmente en lugares
donde la t° ambiente es suerior a los 50°C
 Efficient air flow and low noise
 Los ventiladores stadard son bidireccionales
(Excepto M3BP400 and M3BP450 2-pole motors)

Cubre ventilador
 Dos tipos de materiales dependiendo del modelo
del motor principalmente de metal y plástico
 Otros materiales como opcional (Por ejemplo
acero inoxidable)

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 15
Ejes

 Medidas de eje y chaveta acorde al estandard


 Cuando el motor es suministrado con rodamiento de
rodillos, las máximas fuerzas radiales permisibles
pueden estar definidas y limitadas por el material del eje.
 Ejemplo de opcionales relacionados al eje: Material,
Dimensiones de largo en el DE y/o NDEnd

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 16
Variant codes related to the shaft

+069 Two shaft extensions as per basic catalogue.


+070 One or two special shaft extensions, standard shaft material (dimensions
D, E, DA, EA has to be informed)
+131 Motor delivered with half key (Key not exceeding shaft diameter)
+133 Cylindrical shaft extension, D-end, with key-way.
+134 Stepped cylindrical shaft extension, D-end
+155 Cylindrical shaft extension, D-end, without key-way.
+156 Cylindrical shaft extension, N-end, without key-way.
+164 Shaft extension with closed key-way.
+165 Shaft extension with open key-way.
+166 One special shaft extension, standard shaft material, configured
according to eCommerce rules.
+167 Shaft extension with two key-ways.
+410 Stainless steel shaft (standard or non-standard design).
+427 Shaft extension complies with Australian Standards (AS).
+431 Special shaft material for low temperatures, -40°C

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 17
Placa de datos

 Acero inoxidable / aluminio / plástico / adhesivos


 Fijadas en el frame / cubre ventilador

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 18
Rating&instruction plates

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 19
Ejemplos de Placa de datos

Only one
VSD DOL
rating rating with
plate for power
use specified
specified by the
by the
customer
customer
(Variant (Variant
code code 002)
163)
Re-
greasing
plate
(Standard)
 Ejemplo de placas de datos en un M3BP355
 Motor prod. Code: 3GBP352220-ADG002/163/451/701
© ABB BU Motors and Generators
September 15, 2019 | Slide 20
Tratamiento en la superficie en standard motors

 La pintura de los motores está basicamente diseñada para uso


industrial cerrado. (Otras condiciones bajo opcioanels)
 Color standard: Munsell blue 8B 4.5/3.25 (Otros colores como
opcional)
 Para chequear los tratamientos de pintura de los distintos tamaños
de motor, revisar el resumen de las características de los motores
en los catálogos “Motors in brief, basic design”.

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 21
Colour Munsell versus RAL
Color Standard es ABB Blue, Munsell 8B 4.5/3.25

No hay un RAL equivalente!


RAL 5014 is tal vez el mas cercano, que claramente es muy diferente

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 22
Pintura

 ABB también puede atender especificaciones de pitura especiales bao


consulta.

 Algunos varian codes relacionados…(siempre se debe chequear la


disponibilidad)

+114 Special paint colour standard grade (system C3M)


+106 Paint thickness = 80 µm
+109 Paint thickness = 120 µm
+110 Paint thickness = 160 µm
+111 Offshore two-pack polyamide cured epoxy paint 160 µm
+115 Painting system C4M acc. to ISO 12944-5:2007
+168 Primer paint only (colour shade grey)
+179 Special paint specification
+751 Paint system 2, UV-light
+752 Paint system 4, offshore
+754 Painting system C5M - Coastal and offshore areas with high salinity
(240 µm is absolute max thickness that can be made)
+755 NORSOK M501 rev 5, system 2B (only ABB Blue)

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 23
Clasificación de los entornos atmosféricos

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September 15, 2019 | Slide 24
BU Motors and Generators Training

Mechanical structure
Terminal boxes and cabling

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 25
Terminal box en standard motors

 La caja de conexión esta localizada en la parte superior


 La caja de conexión puede ser rotada 2x180° ó 4x90° para
habilitar la entrada de cables en distintas direcciones.
 Requerimientos de diseños especiales, tamaños, clases de
protección (IP55 como standard) y/o ubicación pueden ser
atendidos conforme tabla de opcionales.
 Caja de conexión contiene una placa de conexión para los
cables de alimentación y una regleta para PTC y otros
auxiliares.
 Caja adicional para elementos auxiliaries como opcional.
 Caja principal de conexión tiene una placa de conexión de 6
terminales para un sistema de partida estrella – delta.

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 26
Terminal box in process performance motors
M3BP 160-250

Thermistor
terminals

Earthing

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September 15, 2019 | Slide 27
Diferentes acometidas de cables

Bridade conexión con


Entradas “pre-estampadas” entrada de cables roscadas

Bridade conexion y Con adaptadores,


prensaestopas extremos de juntas o cable
© ABB BU Motors and Generators
sealing y prensaestopas
September 15, 2019 | Slide 28
Terminal box en process performance motors
M3BP 280-315

Earthing

Thermistor
terminals

Earthing

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September 15, 2019 | Slide 29
Terminal box in process performance motors
M3BP 315-450

Earthing
screws

Terminal
block

Adaptor

Cable box

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September 15, 2019 | Slide 30
Example of cat. data terminal box and cable entry
M3BP 280-450

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September 15, 2019 | Slide 31
Flange sizes

Opening c e f g d
C (FL21) 62 193 62 193 M8/9,5 C= 210
D (FL33) 100 300 82 292 M8/9,5 D = 370
E 115 370 100 360 M12
E= 750 and 1200

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 32
Motores Media Tensión
Rodamientos
 Rodamientos Antifricción (Grasa):
 Bolas  Rodillos  Contacto Angular
(Ball Bearings) (Roller Bearings) (Angular Contact Ball Bearings)

Esfuerzos Axiales y Radiales

Fuente: imágenes SKF / vista en cortes ABB


Tipos Motores Media Tensión
Rodamientos Antifricción - Tipos
Bearings
Rodamientos aislados

 Rodamientos aislados son usados en los motores “large” para


prevenir la circulación la corrientes cuando son controlado por un
VDF

Variant code for insulated bearing in N-end: 701

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 35
© ABB BU Motors and Generators
September 15, 2019 | Slide 36
BU Motors and Generators Training

Mechanical structure
Bearings and lubrication

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September 15, 2019 | Slide 37
Bearings in standard motors

 Antifriction bearings are used in standard LV Motors


 Most common bearing types are:
 Deep groove ball bearing (This is the standard
bearing in most cases)
 Roller bearing
 Angular contact ball bearing
 Other bearing type which is used for example in bigger
HV Machines is sleeve bearing
 See the motor catalogue for exact type for each motor
 Bearing variants and transport locking options can also be
found from catalogues

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 38
Basics of rotor support in electric motors

Z X

Degrees of freedom

Function of bearing arrangements in the motor


 Limiting of movements of the rotor by
carrying loads caused by:
 Rotor weight
 Accelerations
 External loads

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 39
Bearings
Standard bearing is deep groove ball bearing

Deep groove ball bearing can carry forces to all directions, it also has best re-
lubrication properties. Deep groove ball bearing is preferred choice for electric
motors, if required forces aren’t too big.
© ABB BU Motors and Generators
September 15, 2019 | Slide 40
Bearings
Roller bearing

 Roller bearing at D-end are used when the motor should withstand
high radial forces eg. belt drives
 Note: Minimum load is required

Variant code for roller bearing in D-end: 037


© ABB BU Motors and Generators
September 15, 2019 | Slide 41
Roller bearings

In rolling bearings rolling elements roll along the raceways on


oil film
 All rolling bearings needs certain minimum load to operate
correctly.
 If the load is too small, rolling elements may “slide”
instead of “rolling” this causes excessive wear of
bearings and extra noise.
 In standard motors preloading springs takes care about
the required minimum load of bearings.
 Minimum load requirement can be problem for example
with roller bearings

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 42
Bearings
Angular contact ball bearing

Force

Angular contact
 Angular contact ball bearings are used when the motor should
bearing can
carry radial withstand high axial forces
force only if
there is also
enough axial Variant codes for angular contact bearings: 058, 059, 060, 061
force to right
direction at
Direction of force must be known, angular contact bearings can carry
same time. axial forces only to one direction
© ABB BU Motors and Generators
September 15, 2019 | Slide 43
Bearings
Insulated bearings

 Insulated bearings are used on larger motors to prevent circulating


currents in VSD duty

Variant code for insulated bearing in N-end: 701

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 44
Bearings in standard motors: axial locking

Reason for locking/fixing only one bearing is the heat expansion


of the rotor shaft allowing a play for stator/rotor tolerances. Non-locked
bearing is equipped with a spring washer to preload the bearings.
There are two possible designs for locking the motor shaft axially.
 Locked at D-end
 Minimum axial movement of shaft due to temperature changes

 Locked at N-end
 Some axial movement of shaft en due to temperature changes
With ABB used only when roller-bearing or angular contact bearing
at D-end

 All motors are preloaded with spring washer


 Frame size 56 has no axial locking

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September 15, 2019 | Slide 45
Axial bearing fixation and Sealing

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September 15, 2019 | Slide 46
Permissible radial force
Catalogue Information*

FR x
X
FR  FXO   ( FXO  FX max )
E

FXmax FX o

Length
of shaft Ball bearings
extension
Motor Poles E (mm) 20 000 hours 40 000 hours
size FXo (N) FXmax (N) FXo (N) FXmax (N)
250SM_ 2 140 6100 4910 4750 3830
4 140 7650 6170 5960 5450
6 140 8700 7010 6760 5450
8 140 9630 7760 7505 6050

* (Examples from Cast Iron Motors Catalogue)


© ABB BU Motors and Generators
September 15, 2019 | Slide 47
Permissible axial force
Catalogue Information*

 Values are based on normal condition at 50 Hz with


standard bearings
 At 60Hz the values are to be reduced by 10%

* (Examples from Cast Iron Motors Catalogue)


© ABB BU Motors and Generators
September 15, 2019 | Slide 48
Bearings greased for life in standard motors

Bearing cover
For axial locking
of the bearing

Axialspring
For pre-loading
the bearings

Bearing greased for


life (2Z), ensures
clean grease which V –ring
means: on all sizes
increasedlifetime (160 – 180)
 The spring
washer pushes
the bearing
and loadability
away from the
N-end shield Maintenance free

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 50
Greasing of bearings in standard motors

 Regreasable
 Ensures long lifetime of bearings
if correct type of grease is used
and given regreasing intervals are
followed
 Motor should be relubricated when
running
 Easy to mount automatic
relubrication system
 Greased-through bearings
 The regreasing intervals must be
followed

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 51
Bearing Lifetime

ABB motors calculate nominal bearing lifetime based on L10

 L10 is the number of operating hours achieved (or


exceeded) by 90% of identical bearings
 50% of the bearings achieve at last 5 times this figure
L10is the
number of
operating  Bearing lifetime is calculated from forces on the shaft
hours and bearing temperature
achieved (or
exceeded)  Permanently greased bearings
by 90% of
identical
bearings  Higher lifetime due to purity
L1is the
number of
 Max lifetime 40 000 hours due to grease lifetime
operating
hours
achieved (or
exceeded)
by 99% of
identical
bearings  Bearing life is defined according to ISO 281
© ABB BU Motors and Generators
September 15, 2019 | Slide 52
Lifetime - regreasing intervals

Our main target is reliability, achieved by:


 Using the L1-principle
If we select definition L10 (90%) we can double the interval time
 Bearing operating temperature not exceeding: 80ºC (ambient temperature 25°C)
 Halved for 15°C increase in bearing temperature
 Doubled for 15°C decrease in bearing temperature
 Grease: good quality lithium based complex soap and with mineral- or PAO-oil
L1-principle
 Alternatively polyurea based
means that
99% of the
bearings are  NOTE: Do NOT mix grease with different base!
sure to make
the interval  Consult the factory if doubt about:
times given in
the  Bearing temperature
catalogues.
 Grease
See the motor  Regreasing interval
manual
© ABB BU Motors and Generators
September 15, 2019 | Slide 53
Lifetime – Permanently greased bearings

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September 15, 2019 | Slide 54
Lifetime - regreasing intervals according to L1

The formula to
change the L1
values roughly
to L10 values:
L10 = 2.7 x L1

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 55
Re-greasing plate

 New re-greasing plate from size 280


(process performance - cast iron
motors)
 Different re-greasing intervals according
to bearing type, mounting position,
ambient temperature and running speed

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 56
Transport locking in M3BP 160-450, M2CA 280-400

Transport locking
can be used with
any kind of
bearings to reduce
harmful effect of
vibrations and
“oscillating”
movement of
rolling elements
during the
transport which
can cause
damages to rolling
surfaces.
Example of transport locking of a
(Transport locking flange mounted motor
can be good
choice even for
normal deep
groove ball
bearings in case of *) Used on demand (variant code 036), and with certain
long railway, ship
transport or bad
bearing combinations (i.e. Roller bearing (code 037) and
roads) angular contact ball bearing (codes 057-060)).
Exact type of locking depends on motor and bearing types.

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 57
Transport locking in M3AA 112-200

Used on demand (plus code), and with certain bearing


combinations (i.e. Roller bearing and angular contact ball bearing).
Also recommended for spare motors where high vibration levels
are present.

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 58
Storage of motors

 All machines should be stored


indoors, in dry, vibration free and dust
free conditions.

 Unprotected machined surfaces


(shaft-ends and flanges) should
be given anti-corrosion coatings.

 It is recommended that shafts are


rotated periodically by hand to
prevent grease migration.

 For more information, see the motor


manual section 2.2.1

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 59
Storage of motors

 Anti-condensation heaters,
if fitted,
should preferably be
energized.

 The characteristics of
electrolytic
capacitors, if fitted to single-
phase
motors, will require
“reforming” following
periods of storage
exceeding 1 - 2 years.

 Contact factories for details.

© ABB BU Motors and Generators


September 15, 2019 | Slide 60
© ABB BU Motors and Generators
September 15, 2019 | Slide 61