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Spanish Coloni

al Period
( 1521- 1898)
What makes more as you take them?
I'm not alive,
but i have 5 fingers.
What am I?
A truck drove to a village
and met 4 cars. How many vehicles
were going to the village?
One Truck
We kill, and we give life.
We are either poison
or fruit- you choose.
What are we?
It starts out tall, but the lon
it stands the shorter it grows
What is it?
Spanish Coloni
al Period
( 1521- 1898)
 While the South remained resistant to spanish colonizations, the colonizers
gained inroads to central part of the Islands refer us “ Low land Christians”. Spanish
Colonial periods needs a church and a colonial state. Religious order were
dispatched natives to convert to Catholicism. The natives forcibly resettled in towns
by means of organizing and gaining control of the population. The church establish
their important in people lives.
During this period the shape of the latin cross we’re build designed of hispanic
churches, the Baroque style was predominantly employed. They we’re characterize by
grandeur, drama and elaborate details purposely appeal to the emotion. The church
structure is made of adobe limestone and brick to make it more resistant to
earthquake. Images of saint and interpretations of biblical narratives are considered
essential to worship. It is made of ivory or wood.
The Baroque Style
During the 17th century, Chinese artisans under the Spanish supervision make an icon of
saints or santos, in wooden ivory they build churches,
houses as well as making furnitures. A painting of Nuestra Senora del
Rosation in Bohol was said to be inspired from Kuanyin, the deity of
mercy in East Asian Buddhism. The Greek and Roman influence can be
seen the proportion employed as well as the formality of expression while the trace of the
Baroque is evident in the expressive and the emotional
characteristics of the santo. In colonial churches, santos are played in a
decorative alatar niche, called retablo. Towns patron and saint the retablo integrates
achitecture and sculpture. The Via Crusis is an important
inclusion in colonial chrurches which are represented either as a series of 14 paintings of
relief sculptures depicting Christ cruxifiction and
resurection. The coming of Spaniards brough Western Musical Instruments like pipe,
organ, violin, guitar, and piano. Philippine musical forms took on a very European flavor---
with new rhythms, melodies and musical form.
Paintting of Nuestra Senora del Mercy
in East Asian Buddhism
Christian communities of Pampanga, Ilocos, Bicol and Iloilo secular music forms
grow such as awit and the corrido. The Kundiman and the Balitao.
Balitao centimental love song and lullabies also evolved. Kundiman music
became a vehicle for resistance, the purpose of each lyric were unrequited
love, except that the love object was the Philippine who would be conceal as a
beautiful woman.

This is demonstrated in such as songs as Kundiman in Abdon (Abdon’s Love

song) a kundiman which became a feature of protest actions against Martial Law
during the 70’s, and still the popular Bayan Ko (My
Country) a kundiman which experienced renewed popularity during the
EDSA people power revolution of 1986.
• Spanish conolization bought with it printing technology.Printed literature came in the form
of catechism and prayer books in Spanish that were used not only to teach the local
inhabitants to read and write but more so to evangele.

• Local theater forms would develop earlier than literary fiction. During the 19th century a
popular musical theatre was imported in Spain. The zarzuela or sarsuela was an operetta which
features singing and dancing interpersed with prose dialogue which allowed the atory to be
carried out in song. The first Zarzuela that were staged in the Philippines were entirelyin
Spanish and featured a European cast.

• Local playwright later wrote libettos in the local language hence the term sarsuela. Severino
Reyes and Hermogenes Ilagan, who wrote sarsuela in Tagalog were the most distinguished
playwright of their day with Honorata Atang Dela Rama (National artist for theater and music,
a warded 1987) as their most celebrating leading actress.
• The first senakulo or passion play was written in 1704 by Gaspar Aquino de Belen. It's
narrative was culled entirely from the biblical account of Christ's passion and death on the cro
ss, adapted into verse form and translated into the local language. It is performed
during Lent and in some cases may last for three days, In some areas, the senakulo was
tweaked to convey Christ's suffering as a methapor for the suffering of Filipinos under
Spanish colonial rule.
• The komedya is another local theater from that emerged during this period. The komedyad
epicts the conflict between the Muslims and Christians. There are two main types of the
komedya. One type was the komedya de Santo or religious komedya. It centers on the life
of Christ or of any saint. It usually seen during church celebrations. The actors more in
stylized way, have extravagant costumes and elaborately choreographed war scenes.
• Another type is the secular komedya. The moro - moro is a type
of secular komedya. The
word 'moro' is derived from the Spanish word for moor or the Nort
h African Arabs who ruled parts of Spain from eight to the 15th cen
tury. A typical moro - moro story would usually involve a love story
between a Christian hero and an Islamic heroine or vice versa.
- Earth and Hell (1850), a mural by Jose Dans in Paete Church, Laguna. A mapof the
universe features a terrifying depiction of hell. The painting seems to warm that a
sinful life on earth , would be to torment and eternal damination.
Image making during th period generally conformed to the preferences of the
patrons and just safety the interest and preference of the artist. During the american peri
od, which will be discuss in the next section, western ballet would also find its way to the
philippines. In the visual arts, painting served an introductive function through visual inte
rpretation of biblical text to catholic devotion.
- During the american period, which will be discuss in the next section, western
ballet would also find its way to the philippines. In the visual arts, painting served
introductive function through visual interpretation of biblical text to catholic
Earth and Hell (1850), a mural by Jose Dans in Paete Church, Laguna. A mapof the univer
se features a terrifying depiction of hell. The painting seems to warm that a sinful life on e
arth , would be to torment and eternal damination.
Image making during th period generally conformed to the preferences of the patrons an
d just safety the interest and preference of the artist.

The reprographic art of printmaking was introduce in the Philippines as early as the 16th
century. Applying the technique of xylography or woodcut printing, Doctrina Christiana
( The Teaching of Christianity ) was printed in 1593 in Spanish and in Tagalog by Dominica
priest. Doctrina is the first printed book in the Philippines compiling song lyrics,
commandments, sacraments, and others. Prayer booklets also called estampas and its
smaller counterpart estampitas, printmaking particularly engraving was developed to
produce secular or non-religious works. Spanish crown commissioned scientist and artist
to produce maps and other sources of classification.
Although religious art predominated during the Spanish colonial period, some best form
of art that flourished were non-religious. In 1734, the Jesuit priest Fr. Pedro Murilio Velarde
collaborated with homegrown talents, artists Francisco Suarez and Nicolas de la Cruz
Bagay to produce Carta Hydrographica y Chorographica de las Yslas Filipinas, the first
scientific map of the Philippines. Surrounding the map are vignettes of every day life
The development of lithography facilitated the reproduction of color plates a
s well as painting of newspapers and periodicals. The Augustinian botanist
Fr. Manuel Blanco produce a compilation of Philippine plants
in Flora de Filipinas in 1878. It consist of lithographic reproduction of
remarkable watercolor illustrations by Filipino artists.
* The opening of Manila to international trade in 1834, and the Suez Canal in
1869 gained economic benefits for native elites. From this
class rose the ilustrado or the "enlighten" ones. With the emergence of
the native elites as new art patrons, secular themes in art were explode and
develop. In church, the development of music was largely attributed to the
efforts of Pakil-born Marcelo Adonay that recognize for his
compositions based on Western tradition of Gregorian chants.
• The rise of this new elite would also manifest in town organization. Among those that
occupied the plaza complex where the Bahay na Bato which housed rich and prominent
families. Filling up the spacious interiors with portrait paintings that signify the wealth and
refinement of the sitter or he one who is posingf or the portrait. Simon Flores painting
portrait of the Quiazon Family, 1800 that document the family's affluence and their
belongings and wealth. Other renowned miniature painters include Antonio Malantic, Isidro
Arceo, Dionisio de Castro and Justiniano Asuncion who also rendered portraits of
individuals. Attention to painting can also be observed in Letras y Figuras, combining name
s of individual and vignettes of everyday life.
This painting style became popular when Filipino natives acquired Spanish names in
compliance with a decree implemented in 1889. Jose Honorato Lazano was a pratitioner
of this art. Where the Tipos del Pais are rendered within the graphic outline of letters
spelling out the name of a person or family in watercolor on paper.
Simon Flores, Quiazon Family Portrait.
Letras y Figuras
Aside from miniature painters, academic painters gained ground as they
received their art studies in local schools, or abroad as in the cases of
Juan Luna and Felix Hidalgo . In 1821, Damian Domingo established the
first art school in the country right at his studio in Binondo, Manila. The
academia de Dibujo closed down in 1834 after Domingo's death, the
school was reopened in the 1950's, the professors were predominantly
Spanish Peninsulares, refer a Spanish-born residents of the Philippines.
They championes European academic styles in painting. Some of the
latter's features would include the use of large panels, the adoption of
mythological themes and historical scenes and the application of
chiaruscuro or the play of light and dark and the contrast between them to
heighten the composition's sense of drama. on the other hand, landscape,
still life and genre remained popular choices . The academia trained Lorenzo
Guerrero painted the water carrier, which exemplifies the use of chiaroscuro
in genre of the late 19th century.
Simon Flores, Primeras Letras
The Pampanga-born Simon Flores also produced genre scenes . examples is Primetas
Letras, 1890.
In 1884, Juan Luna and Felix Resunnecion Hidalgo won medals in the madrid
Luna won gold for Spoliarum while Hidalgo won silver for virgenes Christianas
expuestas al populacho.
We recall Jose rizal's brindis or toast before the group of illustrados lauding the
efforts of the two artists, articulating one of his famous sayings, “genius knows no
country ". Large in scale and grandiose in effect, the significance of both paintings lies
not only in the prestige these gained but also in the relay of meanings these continue to
generate. Luna's alignment with the ilustrados propaganda movement is
evident in the painting España y Filipinas , 1886.