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Sewing thread are special kinds of yarns.
They are engineered and designed to
pass through a sewing machine rapidly, to
form a stitch efficiently, and to function
while in a sewn product without breaking
or becoming distorted for at least the
useful life of the product.
Thread Classification

Natural Manmade

Vegetable Animal Mineral

Cotton Wool Asbestos

Regenerated Synthetic


Organic Inorganic


Polypropylene Polyvinyl Polyamide Polyester

3 main fibers for manufacturing sewing

• Cotton
• Nylon
• Polyester
Thread Structure
• Spun

• Filament
Textured filament


• Corespun
• Air entangled
Thread Construction
Twist binds fibers together and gives spun yarns
or threads strength. Twist is the number of turns
per centimeter of thread.

Types of Twists:
• Z Twist
• S Twist
Thread Sizing
Yarn count system
Fixed weight (Show the no. of unit lengths that
give a fixed weight)
• Ne(Cotton Count)- Number of hanks of 840 yds
per lb. of thread
• Nm( Metric Count)- Number of 1000 mtr hanks
per kilogram of thread.
• Ticket No.- ????
i.e. - higher the number, finer the yarn

Tkt Number in metric system=

Single yarn Nm*3/No. of ply
Thread Sizing
Fixed length (Show the weight of a given
• Denier- Wt. in gms of 9,000 mtrs of thread
• Tex- Wt. in gms of 1,000 mtrs of thread
• Decitex- Wt. in gms of 10,000 mtrs of

i.e. - higher the number, coarser the yarn

Count Conversion Methodology
• Count to Denier=5315/cotton count
• Cotton to metric count= Count*1.69
• Denier to metric=9000/denier
• Cotton to Tex=590.5/cotton count
• Tex to Metric=1000/Tex Count
• Tex to Denier =Tex Count*9
Sewability factors/
Characteristics of good thread
Thread strength
- adequate strength for end use
- by using good quality raw material.
Twist balance
-optimum twist levels
-Twist too high – live thread
- starts snarling – forms knots –breaks needles or thread breaks
-Twist too low – no adequate strength
- Looper may not pick up all plies- no stitch formation
Fault level
-should be minimal
Two types
sewable – results in bad quality garment
non-sewble- stoppage of work
Sewability factors/
Characteristics of good thread
-critical for high speed sewing.
Protects thread from abrasion.
cools the needle while sewing
reduces wear and tear of the machine
-should be low and controlled.
-If too high – thread starts coming back i.e. puckering
-If too low – seam failure
Skipped stitches
- Strength to fineness ratio.
- Tenacity = average strength in grams/ count in tex
- Higher tenacity – better quality thread.
Seam durability

• Linen & rayon ---------------------- 1

• Cotton -------------------------------- 3
• Staple spun polyester -------------12
• C.F. polyester ------------------------30
• Poly/poly corespun ---------------- 30
Estimation of seam strength

Seam strength = SPI * STS * 1.5 (lockstitch)

= SPI * STS * 1.7 (chain stitch)

STS – single thread strength

e.g.- for a seam having a density of 16 spi and using a thread with a
breaking strength of 1100 gms

Seam strength for lock stitch = 16 * 1100 * 1.5

= 26400 gms
= 26.4 kgs
Seam strength for chainstitch = 16 * 1100 * 1.7
= 29920 gms
= 29.92 kgs
Thread consumption ratio
Lockstitch----------------------- 1: 2.5
1T – chainstitch ---------------- 1: 4.0
2T – chainstitch ---------------- 1: 5.5
3T – overlock ------------------- 1: 14.0
4T – mockstitch ---------------- 1: 18.0
5T – safetystitch ---------------- 1: 20.0
5T – coverstitch ----------------- 1:28.0
For every unit of lockstitch, 2.5 inches of thread is used

Thread consumption ratio depends upon-

• Density of fabric
• Bight
Fabric type Thread used
1. denim/ bleach wash cotton /poly core spun

2. micro fibre fabric/ super fine poly poly core spun

silks /georgettes/lycra blended

3. medium weight wovens/twills/gabardines poly poly core spun

4. intimate apparel/sleepwear/lingerie poly poly core spunfor

needle ,ultra soft
textured filament- for

5. garment over- dying cotton mercerized

Thread costs
• purchase costs
• usage costs
• additional sewing cost
• cost of needle replacements
• cost of thread breakage
• cost of restitching
• cost of post wash alterations
• poor garment quality