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Individual Behavior,

Personality, and
Values
MARS Model of Individual Behavior

Situational
factors
Values Motivation

Personality
Perceptions Individual
Ability behavior and
Emotions results
Attitudes
Stress Role
perceptions

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Employee Motivation

 Internal forces that affect a person’s


voluntary choice ofbehavior
• direction
• intensity
• persistence

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M
A BAR

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Employee Ability

 Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities


required to successfully complete a task
 Competencies  personal characteristics that
lead to superior performance
 Person  job matching
• selecting
• developing S
M
• redesigning
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Role Perceptions

 Beliefs about what behavior is required to


achieve the desired results:
• understanding what tasks to perform
• understanding relative importance of tasks
• understanding preferred
behaviors to accomplish tasks

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A BAR

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Situational Factors

 Environmental conditions beyond the


individual’s short-term control that constrain
or facilitate behavior
• time
• people
• budget
• work facilities S
M

A BAR

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Defining Personality

 Relatively enduring pattern of thoughts,


emotions, and behaviors that characterize a
person, along with the psychological
processes behind those characteristics
• External traits – observable behaviors
• Internal states – thoughts, values, etc inferred from
behaviors
• Some variability, adjust to suit the situation

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Nature vs. Nurture of Personality
 Influenced by Nature
• Heredity explains about 50 percent of behavioural
tendencies and 30 percent of temperament
• Minnesota studies – twins had similar behaviour
patterns
 Influenced by Nurture
• Socialization, life experiences, learning also affect
personality
• Personality isn’t stable at birth
• Stabilizes throughout adolescence
• Executive function steers using our self-concept as
a guide

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Five-Factor Personality Model
(CANOE)

Conscientiousness Careful, dependable

Agreeableness Courteous, caring

Neuroticism Anxious, hostile

Openness to Experience Sensitive, flexible

Extroversion Outgoing, talkative

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Five-Factor Personality and
Organizational Behavior
 Conscientiousness and emotional stability
• Motivational components of personality
• Strongest personality predictors of performance
 Extroversion
• Linked to sales and mgt performance
• Related to social interaction and persuasion
 Agreeableness
• Effective in jobs requiring cooperation and helpfulness
 Openness to experience
• Linked to higher creativity and adaptability to change

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