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Computer Performance

& Storage Devices


Computer Technology

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Computer Performance
What is inside a computer?

View Video

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Boot Process

 Sequence of events that occurs between the time


you turn on a computer and the time that it
becomes ready to accept commands.

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Hertz*
 Measures the
speed of a CPU

 Hertz = number of cycles


per second

 Gigahertz* – 1 billion cycles


per second
 *
RAM* -Random Access Memory
 The temporary storage area that is volatile.
 When power is lost, what was not saved is then
lost.

Think of a large amount of RAM as having a large work table where you can spread
out books, papers, pencils, calculator, etc. to do your work.

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Volatile* - temporary, risky

 Memory that loses its content when the power is


turned off. The primary example is RAM.
ROM* (Read Only Memory)

Nonvolatile, permanent storage that cannot be updated,


changed, nor tampered with.

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Binary Number System
 A method for
representing letters or
numbers using only
two digits, 0 and 1.
 Also referred to as
Base 2 Binary Code.
Bit*
 Each 0 or 1

Byte*
• 8 bits

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Kilo = 1,000

Kilobyte*
 Approximately 1,000
bytes
 Exactly 1,024 bytes
Mega* = million

Megabyte
 Approximately 1 million bytes
 Exactly 1,048,576 bytes

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Giga* = Billion

Gigabyte
 Approximately 1 billion bytes

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Tera* = Trillion

Terabyte
 Approximately 1 trillion bytes

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Peta*=Quadrillion
 Quadrillion (10 to the 15th power)

How to remember smallest to largest:


Billy’s
BYU
Kitten
Met
Gibby’s
Team
Pet

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Bytes Abbrev How many 10 to the
Power of
Kilo (K) Thousand 3
Mega (M) Million 6
Giga (G) Billion 9
Tera (T) Trillion 12
Peta (P) Quadrillion 15
Exa (E) Quintillion 18
Zetta (Z) Sextillion 21
Yotta (Y) Septillion 24

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Hardware that
enables a
computer user to
Input Devices enter data and
programs into a
computer.
Keyboard

Optical Reader

Mouse

Touch Pad

Microphone

Stylus
The main parts of a
computer system
that process Processing
information.
The main parts of a
computer system
that process Processing
information.

The CPU is often


CPU called the “brains” of
Central Processing Unit the computer.
 Hertz measures the speed of a CPU
 Hertz = number of cycles per second

 Megahertz
 Gigahertz
 Terahertz
The main parts of a
computer system
that process Processing
information.

The CPU is often


CPU called the “brains” of
Central Processing Unit the computer.

ROM is permanent
ROM
internal memory that
cannot be changed. Read Only Memory
The main parts of a
computer system
that process Processing
information.

The CPU is often


CPU called the “brains” of
Central Processing Unit the computer.

ROM is permanent
internal memory that ROM
cannot be changed. Read Only Memory

RAM is temporary
RAM
memory that can be
Random Access Memory changed.
Hardware that
represents data as
either hard copy or soft
copy after is has been Output Devices
processed by the
computer.
Hardware that
represents data as
either hard copy or soft
copy after is has been Output Devices
processed by the
computer.

Represents data as “soft


copy.” Some common
Monitor monitors are CRT or flat-
panel.
Hardware that
represents data as
either hard copy or soft
copy after is has been Output Devices
processed by the
computer.

Represents data as “soft


copy.” Some common
Monitor monitors are CRT or flat-
panel.

Represents data as “hard


copy.” Some common Printer
printers are laser or inkjet.
Hardware that
represents data as
either hard copy or soft
copy after is has been Output Devices
processed by the
computer.

Represents data as “soft


copy.” Some common
Monitor monitors are CRT or flat-
panel.

Represents data as “hard


copy.” Some common Printer
printers are laser or inkjet.

Speakers
Needed for permanently
storing important
Storage Devices information such as
computer programs, files,
and data.
Needed for permanently
storing important
Storage Devices information such as
computer programs, files,
and data.

Plastic or metal
Magnetic Storage
platters that are
Hard Disk
coated with oxide
Floppy Disk
and store data
Videotape
magnetically.

Optical Storage A storage medium on


CDs which data is recorded
DVDs and read by two lasers
A small storage
device that can
be plugged into USB Storage
a USB port.
Software

A set of instructions or programs that


tell a computer what to do.
Master Controller -This
type of software manages
RAM, controls peripheral
devices, manages file
operations (saving, Operating System
opening, deleting,
renaming, etc.), monitors
system performance, and
provides a user interface Windows is a GUI OS
environment that works
DOS is a command-line with DOS. It uses icons
interface OS. It is not very DOS, Windows, Vista and menus to make
user-friendly! computers easy to use.
You can multitask with
Windows.
Macintosh computers
have their own Macintosh
operating system.

Other Operating Systems:


Linux, UNIX, OS/2
Programs that
allow users to
Application Software (Apps)
perform specific
tasks.

Letters, reports, text Word Processing

Spreadsheets Numbers, formulas

Slide Shows Electronic Presentations

Browser Access the Internet

Large collections of data Database

Recycle Bin Stores garbage until


emptied
So How do you download and run a
program?
 video

What if I no longer want a program.


How do I uninstall it?
 video

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Shortcut* – Create a fast way to access
a file or folder from your desktop

How do I make a shortcut of a


program to my desktop?
 video

How do you identify a shortcut?

If you delete the shortcut, is the program gone?

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Virus
A small computer program or piece of code
that is put on a computer (usually without
the user knowing about it) that is
destructive to the computer.
File
 A document, picture, etc.
 When saved, it has an extension such as:
 Word documents (.docx)
 Images (.gif and .jpg)
 Multimedia (.wma and more)

Directory/Folder*
A container for programs and files. It can hold both files and more
folders.

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Hierarchy

 A structure of files and folders that are in order from


high to low.

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Extension

 The three or four letters after the dot that identifies


what kind of format a file was saved in.
 Examples
 .docx – WORD
 .pptx – PowerPoint
 .bmp – paint
 .jpg – graphic
 .pdf - adobe

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Explorer Window

Content Pane

Navigation Pane

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File Management Assignment

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