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TYPES OF DC POWER SOURCES

TYPES OF DC POWER SOURCES

• SECONDARY CELL (Battery).


• DC GENERATORS.
(a) PERMANENT MAGNET GENERATORS
(b) SEPERATELY EXCITED GENERATORS. (electromagnets used for
creation of flux)
(c) SELF EXCITED GENERATORS.
(i) SHUNT WOUND GENERATOR (Normally used in ac)
(ii) SERIES WOUND GENERATOR

(iii) COMPOUND WOUND GENERATOR


ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM

GENERATORS

• Induced voltage
• Simple generator.
• Conversion of ac to dc.
TYPES OF GENERATORS
ACCORDING TO FILED EXCITATION
1. SEPARATELY EXCITED.
2. SELF EXCITED.
(a) SHUNT WOUND.
(i) Higher resistance winding, many turns of thin wire.
(ii) Full voltage across the field .
(b) SERIES WOUND.
(i) Few turns of thick wire.
(ii) rarely used except as boosters.
(c) COMPOUND WOUND.
(i) Long shunt. (ii) Short shunt
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

1. EXTERNAL CHARACTERISTICS. Relation between


thermal voltage and load current.

2. INTERNAL CHARACTERISTICS. Relation between actual


emf generated and load current.
DC GENERATOR CHARACTERISTICS

1. NO LOAD SATURATION CHARACTERISTICS. ( Eo/If )


(Magnetic characteristics or open circuit characteristics)
(a) Relation between no load emf in armature (eo) and field
excitation current (if) at a fixed speed.
(b) same for separately or self excited generators
2.
INTERNAL OR TOTAL CHARACTERISTICS. ( E/Ia )
Relation between actual emf (using demagnetising effect) and
armature current
Eo

If
3. EXTERNAL CHARACTERISTICS. ( V/I )
(Performance characteristics or voltage – regulating curve)
(a) relation between terminal voltage v and
Load current “i”

BREAKDOWN
POINT
EXTERNAL CHARACTERSXTICS
LOSSES IN A GENERATOR

1. IRON LOSS. (20% to 30% of FL Losses)


(a) HYSTERESIS LOSS (Due to Reversal of Magnetisation)
(b) EDDY CURRENT LOSS (Due to Induction in the body of
armature core)
2. COPPER LOSS. (20% to 30% of FL Losses)
(a) ARMATURE COPPER LOSS
(b) SHUNT COPPER LOSS
(c) SERIES COPPER LOSS
3. MECHANICAL LOSS. (10% to 20% of FL Losses)
(a) FRICTION LOSS AT BEARINGS & COMMUTATOR
(b) AIR FRICTION/WINDING LOSS OF ROTATING ARMATURE
PROBLEMS IN DC GENERATOR
1. ARMATURE REACTION.
(a) DEMAGNETISING EFFECT. Extra number of turns in
each pole to reduce this.
(b) CROSS MAGNETISING EFFECT.
(i) compensating winding to nutralise.
(ii) interpoles
2. COMMUTATION. The process by which current in the short
circuited coil is reversed while it cross the mna is called
commutation.
(a) resistance commutation
(b) emf commutation
(c) interpoles
COMMUTATION
COMMUTATION
USES OF DC GENERATOR
1. SHUNT GENERATORS. (With regulators)
(a) usually used in aircraft systems.
(b) for lighting and power supply.
(c) charging battery as terminal voltage can be kept constant.
2. SERIES WOUND GENERATOR.
(a) not used for power supply due to its rising characteristics.
(b) suitable for using as boosters mainly in railways.
3. COMPOUND WOUND GENERATORS.
(a) commutative compound generators for electric traction.
(b) differential compound generator (behavior similar to shunt
generator). For arc welding where larger voltage drop is
desirable with increase in current
DC POWER SUPPLY
SYSTEMS
EMF
GENERATION
EMF collection with
commutator
DC GENERATORS CLASSIFICATION

(a) PERMANENT MAGNET GENERATORS


(b) SEPERATELY EXCITED GENERATORS.
(electromagnets used for creation of flux)
(c) SELF EXCITED GENERATORS.
(i) SHUNT WOUND GENERATOR
(ii) SERIES WOUND GENERATOR
(iii) COMPOUND WOUND GENERATOR
TYPES OF GENERATORS

ACCORDING TO FIELD EXCITATION


1. SEPARATELY EXCITED.

2. SELF EXCITED.
(a) SHUNT WOUND.
(i) HIGHER RESISTANCE
WINDING, MANY TURNS OF
THIN WIRE.
(ii) FULL VOLTAGE
ACROSS THE FIELD .
(b) SERIES WOUND
(i) FEW TURNS OF THICK WIRE
(ii) RARELY USED EXCEPT AS
BOOSTERS.

(c) COMPOUND WOUND


(i) LONG SHUNT
(ii) SHORT SHUNT
USES OF DC GENERATOR
1. SHUNT GENERATORS. (With regulators)
(a) usually used in aircraft systems.
(b) for lighting and power supply.
(c) charging battery as terminal voltage can be kept constant.
2. SERIES WOUND GENERATOR.
(a) not used for power supply due to its rising characteristics.
(b) suitable for using as boosters mainly in railways.
3. COMPOUND WOUND GENERATORS.
(a) commutative compound generators for electric traction.
(b) differential compound generator (behavior similar to shunt
generator). For arc welding where larger voltage drop is
desirable with increase in current
FIXED WINDING ARRANGEMENT
DC GENERATOR CHARACTERISTICS

1. NO LOAD SATURATION CHARACTERISTICS. ( Eo/If )


(Magnetic characteristics or open circuit characteristics)
(a) Relation between no load emf in armature (eo) and field
excitation current (if) at a fixed speed.
(b) same for separately or self excited generators

Eo

If
2. INTERNAL OR TOTAL CHARACTERISTICS. ( E/Ia )
Relation between actual emf (using demagnetising effect) and
armature current

Eo CHARACTERISTICS. ( V/I )
3. EXTERNAL
(Performance characteristics or voltage – regulating curve)
(a) relation between terminal voltage v and
Load current “i”

Ia
EXTERNAL CHARACTERSITICS
DC GENERATOR

MAIN PARTS
1. MAGNETIC FRAME OR YOKE.
2. POLE CORES AND POLE SHOES.
3. POLE COILS OR FIELD COILS.
4. ARMATURE CORE.
5. ARMATURE WINDINGS OR CONDUCTORS.
6. COMMUTATOR.
7. BRUSHES AND BEARINGS.
YOKE
1. PROVIDES MECHANICAL SUPPORT.
2. PROTECTIVE COVER.
3. CARRIES MAGNETIC FLUX PRODUCED BY
POLES.

POLE CORES AND POLE SHOES (FIELD MAGNET)


POLE SHOE
1. SPREAD OUT THE FLUX IN THE AIR GAP.
2. REDUCE THE RELUCTANCE IN THE MAGNETIC
PATH.
3. SUPPORT THE EXCITING COIL.
POLE CORES AND POLE SHOES ARE MADE OF THIN LAMINATIONS AND
ARE SECURED TO YOKE.
INTERPOLES & COMPENSATING WINDINGS
•DURING OPERATION ‘ON-LOAD’, CURRENT FLOWING
THRU ARMATURE CRTEATES MAGNETIC FIELD, WHICH
IS SUPERIMPOSED ON THE MAIN FIELD
•THIS FIELD DISTORTS THE MAIN FIELD BY AN AMOUNT
PROPOTIONAL TO THE LOAD
•SUCH DISTORTING EFFECT IS KNOWN AS “ARMATURE
REACTION”
•“ARMATURE REACTION” PRODUCES UNDESIREABLE
EFFECTS
•SHIFT OF MAGNETIC NEUTRAL AXIS; SETTING UP
REACTIVE SPARKING AT THE COMMUTATORS
•WEAKENS MAIN FIELD CAUSING REDUCTION IN
GENERATED EMF. THIS CAN BE COUNTERED BY
• ALTERING THE POSITION OF BRUSHES MINIMISES
THESE EFFECTS UNDER VARYING LOAD CONDITIONS
•MORE EFFECTIVE METHOD IS TO PROIVIDE ADDL
WINDINGS KNOWN AS ‘INTERPOLE’ AND
COMPENSATING WDGS
•INTERPOLE WDGS ARE WOUND ON NARROW FACED
AUX POLE PIECES MID WAY BETWEEN POLES &
CONNECTED IN SERIES TO ARMATURE
•INTERPOLE HAS SAME POLARITY AS THE NEXT POLE
IN DIRECTION OF ROTATION
•AS THE FLUXES ARE OPP IN DIRECTION TO THE
ARMATURE FLUX, THEY CAN BE EQUALIZED AT ALL
LOADS BY HAVING REQUISITE NO. OF TURNS
AUXILIARY INTERPOLES
•EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERPOLES IN MINIMISING
REACTANCE SPARKING IS LTD BY ARMATURE SPEED
•HENCE THEIR APPLICATION RESTRICTED TO NARROW
SPEED VARIATION GENERATORS
•FOR WIDE SPEED VARIATIONS, REACTANCE SPARKING
WILL INCREASE WITH SPEEDS REDUCING FROM MAX
TO MIN
•TO COUNTERACT THIS THE MMF OF INTERPOLES IS
REDUCED
•BY WDG AUX COILS OVER INTERPOLE COILS &
CONNECTING THEM IN SERIES TO SHUNT FLD WDG
•THIS PRODUCES MMF OF OPP POLARITY TO THAT
PRODUCED BY THE INTERPOLE COIL ON THE SAME
POLE SHOE
•AN EXACT BALANCE BETWEEN REACTANCE EMF &
COMMUTATION EMF IS MAINTAINED OVER THE FULL
WORKING RANGE OF GENERATOR SPEED TO ASSIST IN
PRODUCING SPARK-LESS COMMUTATION
ARMATURE CORE
1. HOUSES THE ROTATING CONDUCTORS.
2. OFFERS VERY LOW RESISTANCE TO MAGNETIC
FLUX.
3. MADE OF VERY THIN LAMINATIONS OF 0.5 MM
THICKNESS.
4. LAMINATIONS ARE PERFORATED FOR AIR DUCTS.
ARMATURE WINDING
1. PRE WOUND COILS INSULATED FROM EACH OTHER.
2. PLACED IN SLOTS AND SECURED BY HARD WOODEN
OR FIBER WEDGE OR STEEL WIRE / STRIPS WOUND
COMMUTATOR
1. TO FACILITATE COLLECTION OF CURRENT IN
UNIDIRECTION.
2. CYLINDRICAL STRUCTURE MADE OF WEDGE
SHAPED SEGMENTS OF HIGH CONDUCTIVITY
(COPPER).
3. NO. OF SEGMENTS = NO. OF COILS
BRUSHES
1. TO COLLECT CURRENT FROM
COMMUTATOR.
2. MADE OF CARBON.
3. AIRCRAFT GENERATORS OF ELECTRO-
GRAPHITE TYPE MADE OF ARTIFICIAL
GRAPHITE
• ROBUSTNESS OF CARBON
•LUBRICATING PROPERTIES OF GRAPHITE
•RESISTANT TO BURNING BY SPARKING
•LITTLE COMMUTATOR WEAR
•HIGH HEAT CONDUCTIVITY (OVER LOADS)
• BRUSH WEAR
– AS CARBON IS POROUS, IT ABSORBS
MOISTURE WHICH INTURN PROVIDES
LUBRICATION
– AT HI ALTITUDES, DUE TO ABSENCE OF
MOISTURE, FRICTION INCREASES
– CONTACT RESIS BECOMES NEGLIGIBLE
GIVING RISE TO HEAVY SPARKING &
ACCELERATE BRUSH EROSION
– STATIC ELECTRICAL CHARGES DEV DUE TO
FRICTION PRODUCING MOLECULAR
BREAKDOWN
– CHEM ADDITIVES) ARE USED FOR REDUCING
WEAR AT HI ALTITUDES
• BARIUM FLUORIDE : FORMS CONST RESIS SEMI-
LUB FILM
• MOLYBDENUM DISULPHIDE : FORMS SELF-LUB
FILM BUT HAVE SHORTER LIFE
• SPARK SUPPRESSION
– SPARKING AT BRUSHES RESULTS IN
INTERFERENCE WITH RADIO SIGNALS
– ELIMINATED BY
• SCREENING : ENCLOSURE OF GENR IN
METAL CASING & SHEATHING OF
OUTPUT CABLES IN METALLIC TUBING
• SUPRESSION : OUTPUT CABLES
TERMINATED IN FILTER / SUPPRESSOR
UNITS, CONSISTING OF CHOKES/
CAPACITORS. LOCATED AS CLOSE AS
GENR AS POSSIBLE. INTERNAL
SUPPRESSION SYSTEM EMPLOY
CAPACITORS CONNECTED BETWEEN
GENR CASING (EARTH) & TERMINALS
• TERMINAL BLOCKS
– LEADS FROM BRUSH-GEAR ASSY & FLD WDGS
ARE CONNECTED TO TERMINAL POSTS
– ENCLOSED IN BOX LIKE COVER
– OUTPUT SUPPLY CABLES CONNECTED TRMNL
POSTS
– MOVEABLE LINK FITTED BETWEEN TWO OF
THE TRMNLS FOR GENERATOR TO BE DRIVEN
IN REVERSE DIRECTION
• COOLING OF GENR
– MAX OUTPUT OF GENR IS LARGELY
DETERMINED BY EASE WITH WHICH HEAT
ARISING FROM HYSTERESIS, THERMAL
EFFECT OF CURRENT IN WDG, ETC CAN BE
DISSIPATED
– SMALLER HI-OUTPUT GENR USED ON
AIRCRAFT REQUIRE FORCED COOLING
– COMMON WAY IS UTILIZATION OF RAM /
BLAST AIR FROM PROPELLER / AIRCRAFT
MOVEMENT
– RAM AIR LED THRU DUCTS TO COMMUTATOR
END
– SOME GENR HAVE FAN FITTED AT DRIVE END
TO ASSIST RAM AIR COOLING & COOLING ON
GROUND
• RECTIFIED PWR SUPPLY
– IN SMALLER TYPES OF AC, PRI DC PWR
OBTAINED BY RECTIFYING OUTPUT OF THE
FREQ-WILD AC GENR
– FREQ VARIATION : 100 TO 1200 HZ
– SIX SI-DIODES ARE CARRIED IN THE END
FRAME CONNECTED AS BRIDGE RECTIFIER TO
PROVIDE DC FOR AIRCRAFT
– UNLIKE CONVENTIONAL DC GENR
ALTERNATOR HAS NO RESIDUAL
MAGNETISM-- SO ITS FIELD HAS TO BE
SUPPLIED FROM AIRCRAFT BATT OR EXT
SUPPLY
– WHEN ALTERNATOR IS SUPPLYING BB SAME
IS FED TO OWN FLD EXCITATION current to the
regulated output. LEVEL OF VOLTAGE IS REG BY
SOLID-STATE voltage regulator
VOLTAGE REGULATION
• TO MAINT CONST VOLTAGE AT
DISTRIBUTION BB AT ALL SPEEDS &
LOADS
• MOST CONVENIENT FACTOR WHICH CAN
BE CONTROLLED IS FIELD CCT CURR
WHICH INTURN CONTROLS FLUX DENSITY
• THIS CONTROL AFFECTED BY
INTRODUCING VARIABLE RESISTOR IN
SERIES WITH FLD CCT
• THREE VR METHODS BASED ON THIS
PRINCIPLE
– VIBRATING CONTACT METHOD
– CARBON PILE METHOD
– SOLID-STATE CCT PRINCIPLES
VIBRATING CONTACT
REGULATOR
• USED ON SEVERAL TYPE OF SMALL AC
EMPLOYING COMPARITIVELY LOW
OUTPUT DC GENRS
• ALTHOUGH COIL WDGS OF EACH REG
INTERCONNECTED, BUT EITHER VOLTG
REG OR CURR REG IS USED AT A TIME
• REVERSE CURR CUT-OUT RELAY FOR CCT
PROTECTION
LOAD SHARING